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Cornell University 

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Biographical Sketches 


The Leading Men and Women of the County Who Have 

Been Identified iVith Its Growth and 

Development From the Early 

Days to the Present 







Unrivaled Climate and Situation — Origin of Name — Earl}' Inhabitants — Story of the Early 
Da}'s — Founding of the Missions — Father Junipero Serra — Father Pena — Founding of San 
Jose — Father iMaguire de Catala Plants Trees on Alameda — Mission of Santa Clara — Secu- 
larization of Missions — Life on the Early Ranches — The Rodeo — The Matanza — Early 
Go\ernment — Some Grotesque Religious Ceremonies — Bull and Bear Fights — First Ameri- 
can Settlers — The Donner Party. 

Santa Clara County During the Alexican Rule — The Adventures of Captain Fremont — Don 
^lariano Guadalupe Vallejo — Raising the Bear Flag — Proclamation of General Jose Castro. 
War with Mexico Declared — Proclamation of Commodore Sloat — Capt. Charles M. Weber. 
Juzgado Transformed into Barracks — liattle of Santa Clara — Captain Thomas Fallon 
Raises First American Flag — Gold is Discovered — Reminiscences of the Days of '49 — Kill- 
ing of Young Pyle — Local Government — Early Merchants and Buildings of San Jose — 
Grandma Bascom's Story. 

^Military Rule — Constitutional C(;)nvention — v^an Jose as Capital of the State — First Legisla- 
ture Convenes — Removal of Capital — First Jul}- 4th Celeljration — Boundaries of Santa 
Clara County — County Government — Court of Sessions — Land Grants and Suertes — San 
Jose Land Company — Settlers' Leagues Defend Titles — A Trumped-Up Robbery of Pub- 
lic Treasur}' — List ui Spanish and Mexican Land Grants. 


Courts of First Instance — The Early Bar of San Jose — Alcalde Burton's Common Sense — Mule 
.Vppears as Witness — District, County and Justice Courts Supjersede Courts of Alcalde and 
First Instance — Judge Watson's Informal Handling of Cases — Eccentricities of Judge 
Redman — The Lord of Hardscrabble — The First Court Flouse — Judge Almond's Demi- 
john — Strange Career of Rufus A. Lock\\'(_iod — Freeman McKinney — The Irrepressible 
J. Alexander Yoell — Judge Buckner's (Juaint \A'ays of Dispensing Justice — High Stand- 
ing of Judge Hester — A\'. Frank Stewart — Change in Court Sj'stem — Tribute to Judge 


Topograph)- and Geolog}- — The New Almaden ^Mines — Crime m the Early Days — Outlaws 
Terrorize the County — Exciting Career of Francisco Sott) — Augustin C. Hall Mur- 
dered — Santiago Berryessa Kills Pedro Aravena — Francisco Berryessa Stabbed — Mur- 
der of Joseph Pellegrini — Juan Jose Rodriguez Killed — Mary Hallock Foote's Mining- 
Camp Stories — Guadalupe Quicksilver Mine — Enrequita Mine — Mineral Springs of the 
County — The (Jil Development. 

Societv Events in the Fifties, Sixties and Seventies — Reminiscences of Pioneer AVomen — Mrs. 
Marv A. Carroll's Interesting Record — Mrs. Frances .\. Sunol-Angus Writes of Early 

Societ\- Joseph H. Scull Tells of Festi\-ities — Entertaining Account of San Jose Society 

by Mrs. S. O. Houghton — Recollections of Dr. Chamldin — Charles G. Ames Bests Judge 
William T. AA'allace in Oratorical Combat — Opening of Hotel Vendome — Distinguished 


Passinf^ of Old Landmarks of San Jose— Fair Grounds — Live (Jak Park and Prevost's Gar- 
dens Old Court House — Duel Between Thomas Shore and S. J. Crosby — Killing of Jailer 

Martin Roohan — John Marr Escapes From Jail After Killing Peter Veuve — Jailer Hen- 
dricks Killed When Indians Break Jail — Killing of William Cooper — Harry Lo\-e 
i^lgjn Old Residential Landmark.s — Naglee, Hensley and Josiah Belden Homes. 


Newspapers in the Early Days — San Jose Weekly Visitor — Daily Mercury — J. J. Owen a 
Striking Figure — His Encounter With Montgomery Maze — Charles M. Shortridge — The 
Daily Times— The Tribune— The Herald— E. A. and J. O. Hayes— W. Frank Stewart 
and the Daily Reporter — Mark Twain — The Courier — W. A. January and the Santa 
Clara Argus — Histor}' of Henry C. Hansbrough — Chester H. Hull — Daily Garden City 
Times Started by Edwin Markham, S. H. Herring, Ferryman Page and E. T. 
Sawyer — A. P. Murgotten and The Pioneer — Daily Morning Times — H. A. De Lacy 
Establishes City Item, Now the E\ ening Times — Charles W. Williams — The Santa Clara 
\'alle}' Started In' r^Iajor Foote — His Exciting Experience with a Delegation of Cornish- 
men — John T. Wallace and E. T. Sawyer Start the Scooper — W. W. Elliott, Editor of the 
Santa Clara Index — His Experience as a Court Reporter — Allen P. Kelly, Editor of the 
San Jose Herald, Captures Grizzl)- Bear — Other Newspapers. 


Early Days of Drama in San Jose — James Stark Establishes First Theater — Samuel W. Piercy 
Makes His First Appearance There — Name Changed to San Jose Theater — Gustav Bro- 
haska Converts Armor}^ Hall Into San Jose Opera House — Eleanor Calhoun, Now Princess 
Lazarovich, Makes First Appearance on vStage in E. T. Saw3fer's Loyal Hearts with John 
T. Malone and H. A. De Lac) — California Theater Had Many Notable Stars — Audito- 
rium, Later the Garden Cit)- Theater — Victory Theater — The Hippodrome — T. & D. The- 
ater — Lyric Theater — Jose Theater — Liberty Theater — First Amateur Dramatic Com- 
pany — John W. Dunne — Frank Bacon — John T. Malone — Charles W. Williams — John T. 
Raymond, California's Star Comedian — Some of the Old-Time Minstrels — Charley 


Distinguished Visitors to San Jose and the Santa Clara Valle>'' — Political Orators — George 
Francis Train — Henry George Unmasks a M3'Sterious Spook — Bret Hart — Mark Twain — 
President Harrison's Visit — General Grant Receives Ovation — Lecturers from the East 
and from Over the Sea — General Fremont Is Guest of Santa Clara County Pioneers — Ned 
Buntline's Adventurous Career. 

Santa Clara Count_y During the Civil War — San Jose Volunteers — Many Companies 
Formed — Band of Confederate Sympathizers Rob Stages to Obtain Money for 
Cause — Ingraham Gang — Methodist Church Burned — Dick Baker Gang — Excitement 
Over Death of Lincoln. 

The Fruit Industry of County — Largest Prune Producing Section in State — History of the 
Development — Introduction of French Prune — Early Orchardists — The First Can- 
nery — Lyman Burrell Has First Mountain Orchard — Dr. J. M. Dawson Pioneer Fruit 
Canner and Packer — Other Packing Companies — Strawberry Section — Annual Orchard 
Production — Vineyards and Olive Orchards — Seed Growing Carried on Extensively — 
Citrus Fruits — Farm Loan Association — Vegetable, Poultry Raising and Dairying, Impor- 
tant Industries — Artesian Wells vSupply Water for Irrigation — Growers' Organiza- 
tions — Santa Clara County Statistics. 

County Government and Good Roads — Transportation of Passengers in Early Days — Water 
Transportation — History of Various Important Road and Railway Enterprises — First 
Railroad Completed — Western Pacific — Narrow Gauge Railroad. 

Public Buildings of the County — Man)' Locations of the County Court House — Changes Made 
by the Legislature — Present Court House a Splendid Building — Futile Attempt to Regain 
•State Capital — New County Jail — Hall of Records — Hall of Justice — County Hos- 
pital — County Poor Farm. 


The Resources and Attractions of San Jose, the Garden City of California— Soil. Climate, 
Production and ( )]iportunity— What a Man from the luast Learned fr.nn an Old ]<esident. 

Sati Jose Incorporated as City— ( )r,L;-anizati..n of Political Parties— Eirst Gas Li,t,dits— Water 
Pipes Eaid — Tlnrse Railway on Alameda — Se\ere l{arth(|nake in 1868 ^ Disastrous 
Moods — Story of Tihurcio \'asquez. Noted I'.andit — Street I'iailroad— John C. Arnold 
Figures in Remarkable Case of Mistaken ] dentity— Dick Fellows, Lone Plighwayman, 
Escapes from Constable- Brutal Murder at f.os Gatos— W^ P. Renowden Tortured and 
Killed— Lloyd L. Majors Huno- for Ilis Murder— Bond Issue of 1886— New City Charter 
Defeated— The Dixon-Allen Trial— Electric Tower ICrectefl- Chinatown Destroyed by 
Fire — Mexican Hanged by Mob — Charles Goslaw Meets Death on Scaffold — Disastrous 
Fire of 1892— Henry Planz Murdered— Sextujde Murder- New Charter Adopted— Earth- 
quake of 1S^06 — Commission Form of Government Adopted — Ma}-i"irs of San Jose. 


San Jose and Santa Clara Activities During the AVorl'd War— Lilicrty Loan, Red Cross, Y. M. 

C. A., Belgian Relief and Other Drives — The Men and Women Who Did the Work. 

History of the Lick (Jbservator}- on the Summit of Alount Hamilton — The Eccentricities of 
James Lick, the Philanthropist — Erection of the Lick Mill — The Liek Hotel at San Fran- 
cisco — What He Did for San Jose. 

The Story of Alum Rock Park. San Jose's Beautiful Reservation of One Thciusand 
Acres — Judge Richards' Description of Its Iicauties and Attractions — The Claim of J. O. 

The -Attractions of the Big Basin, or California Redwood Park — How It Was Preser\'ed by 
the Efforts of a San Josean — The Sem])ervirens Clul) — The Annual Forest Play in a 
Natural Setting. 


The Public and Pri^•ate Schools of San Jose — The Growth of the High School Constructed 

on LTniversity Plan — The State Teachers' Ctdlege — College of Notre Dame — College of 
the Pacific — Other Institutions. 

The Public LTilities of San Jose — The Early Ser\'ice of the Gas and Electric Companies — The 
San Jose Waaler Company and Its Sure and Stead)-- Pro.gress — The Street Railways in and 
out of the City — The Post Office and Postmasters. 

San Jose Woman's Club — Count}- Alliance — New-man Llall and Club — Sainte Claire Club — 
Columbia Circle, C. L. S. C. — Lecticonian Society — The Countr}- Club — The Pioneers' 
Society — American Legion — Law Library and Bar Association — Housewives' League — 
Daughters of the American Re\-olution — Musical Clubs and Record — Y. W. C. -\. — Club 
La France — Boy Scouts — Loyal Italo-American Club. 

San Jose Board of Trade — San Jose Chamber of Commerce — Merchants Association — Rotar}- 
and Lions Clubs — Civic W'elfare Club — The 100 Per Cent Chili — Labor Organiza- 
tions — Commercial Club — Pen Women Branch — The Plot^vrights — The W^estern Aero 


Associated Chanties — Good Clieer Club — Home of Benevolence — The Odd Fellows Home — 
The Pratt Home — Notre Dame Institiite — The Salvation Army and Volunteers of Amer- 
ica — The Story of Old Bob Bennett — Juvenile Court and Probation Office — The CoiTee 
Club — The Woman's Exchange — Humane Societies — Y. M. C. A, — Boys' Outing 
Earm — Red Cross Societ}' — W. C. T. U. — Community Shop — Eraternal Orders. 

The Sanitariums and Plospitals of San Jose — The Splendid Appointments of the O'Connor 
Buildings — Columbia Hospital — Santa Clara Medical Society — Dr. Ben Cory. 

The History of San Jose Eire Department — Primiti\"e Appurtenances of the Early Days — Vol- 
unteer E)epartment for Twentv-Six Years — 'idie Police Department's Growth and Work. 

The Early Churches of San Jose and Their Vicissitudes — History of the San Jose Library — Its 
Growth from Small Beginnings — The Countv Eree Library — The Carnegie Library. 

The Santa Clara Histrirical Society and Its Oliiects — Spanish Names for Natural Objects — The 
Interesting Career of Judge Augustus (J. Rhodes, a Nonogenarian, 

The Banks and Industries of San Jose — Bank rif Itah" — A Daring Roliberv — Garden City Bank 
and Trust Company — v^ecurity State and Savings Bank — Eirst National Bank — Growers 
Bank — San Jose Eoundry — Bean Spray Company' — Anderson-Barngrover Company — 
Smith Manufacturing Company — Sperry Flour Company — Globe Mills — American Can 
Company — Security AVarehouse and Cold Storage Company — Garden City Manufactory — 
Tile Company — Spray Manufacturing Compan}' — Artificial Leather Company — Wholesale 
Grocers — The Oliver Compan)' — National Axle Corporation — I^low Factories — Farmers 
Union — Granite and Marble Works. 

The Romantic Histor}- of the Town of v^anta Clara — Home of One of the Early Missions — The 
Story of Santa Clara University — Planting of the ^Mission Cross — Marcello, the Last of 
the Mission Indians. 

Palo Alto and Leland Stanford, Jr., Uni^•ersity — The Rapid Growth of One of the Progressive 
To^^ms of Santa Clara County — The Location and Uses of a Great Educational Institution. 

Los Gatos, the Gem Cit}- of the Foothills and Its En\-irons — The Gate^vay of the Valley — Gil- 
rov, the Thriving Little City at the Southern End of the County. 

C)ther Growing Towns of Santa Clara Count)- — Sunn}'vale — Change from Grain Field to 
Thriving Community — Campbell — Cupertino — Alviso — Milpitas — x-\gnew — Saratoga — Los 
Altos — Evergreen — Mountain View — Mayfield — Morgan Hill — Tragic Encounter with a 
California Lion — Berryessa — Alma — Wrights Station — Ambrose Bierce's Life — Patchen — 
Mountain Charley's Adventures — Small Towns and Villages. 

Miscellaneous Items of Interest — Observations of a Weather Expert — Judge Belden and Mayor 
Pfister — An Auto Cam]) — Result of Presidential Elections in the County. 

Federation of American Farmers — Last Relic of Santa Clara Mission — Census Figures — Dec- 
orations Received by Santa Clara Boys in World War. 

Abel, Oour.i^c F, 1102 . 

Abel, Otto 1396 

Abernathy. Frank 1080 

Abernath}', Win. Walson 928 

Abreo, Joseph A 1650 

Adams, John Hicks 1055 

Adams, William H 1056 

Albertson, L. H 595 

Alderton, Henry A., M.D. 765 

Alison, Ralston 1061 

Allegrini, Igino 1296 

Allemao, Manuel J 1264 

Allen, Charles S. .". 1649 

Allen, John H 1250 

Allen, W. A 1493 

Allen, William Benjamin. 1348 

Alexander, George W . . . 582 

Alexander, AVilliam G. . . 316 

Alvernaz, Frank P 1444 

Alves, Antone 1469 

Anderson, A 1577 

Anderson, Hon. Alden. . . 796 

Anderson, A. Ray 546 

Anderson, George C 664 

i^nderson, George H 1150 

Anderson, John 1510 

Anderson, John Zuinglius 783 

Anderson, Steve 1159 

Anderson, Theodore O. . . 866 

Anderson, Tom D 1113 

Anderson, William W. . . 1183 

Andrada, Manuel 1317 

Anello, Frank 1384 

Angelo, Jose C 1114 

Anzini, Ben 1204 

Arana, Melvin Joseph... 1303 

Arguello, Julio 1599 

Armanasco, James 1432 

Arnberg, Fred J 1610 

Arnerich, Frank N 1311 

Arnerich, Paul J 608 

Arnold, Arthur E 972 

Artana, Henry C 1649 

Athenour, A., & Bros 1225 

Atkinson, Richard 940 

Austin, William E 1114 

Averill, Arthur Earl 1261 

Averill, Volney 861 

Ayer, Henry M 918 

Ayer, Samuel Freeman.. 867 

Azevedo, Andre 1586 

Azevedo, Joseph C 1391 


'Vzevedo, J. E 1456 

Azevedo, Manuel T 1578 

Azzarello, Vincent 1337 

Babb, James T 603 

Bachrodt, Walter E 519 

Baeigalupi, Arthur P. . . . 1209 

l!acon, Albert Sylvester. 1072 

Bailey, Elton R.' 892 

Baiocchi, Adolph J., M.D. 1257 

Baiocchi, ^Mmanda 1664 

Baker, Herbert C 1209 

J5aker, James T 1209 

];'>aker, Lewis E 1211 

Baker, Mrs. Margaret E. 680 

Baker, Orlando E 457 

Baker, Simeon 823 

Baker, T. E 680 

Balcomb, Jean B 1554 

Balistreri, Frank Oliver. 1621 

Ball, Harry Ulysses 1595 

Ball, Martin Charles 1371 

Ballon, John O. A 772 

Balsbaugh, Ephriam .... 1002 

Barbaccia Bros 1660 

Barber, Lawrence E.... 883 

Bariteau, Eli 1549 

Barkalow, Benjamin F. . . 1528 

Barker, Frank P 1413 

Barker, Samuel A 1413 

ILirnard, E. E 1553 

Barnes, Harry 1083 

Barnes, MaryV 1340 

Barnett, Thomas Clemens 1651 

Barns, Charles Edward.. 1111 

Barnum, John S 1532 

Baron, August William. . 1553 

Barr, C. Marian, A. M. . . 939 

Barry, Mrs. Catherine E. 446 

Barry, Mrs. Mayme E. . . 786 

Bates, Francis C 1012 

Bates, Luther A 1651 

Bartlett, AVilliam C 1494 

Battee, John M 530 

Banman, John 1361 

Baumgartner Bros 1243 

Bazata, Rev. Benjamin V 1290 

Beall, Lucian M 1591 

Bean, James E 788 

Bean, John -. 1460 

Beane, Georgia M 346 

Beans, Thomas Ellard. . . 1362 

Beans, William Knox. . . 762 

lieattie, J. Irving, M.D. . 495 

Bcatty, Charles L 1629 

Beatty, John F 1392 

Beck, Thomas B 1316 

Bcedle, Charles 1354 

Bellew, Joseph M 718 

Bemis, Vernon L 1425 

Benjamin M. A 1285 

Benner, Stillman H 1093 

Bennett, Ralph R 907 

Benoit, Eugene 1 1631 

Benoit, Louis P 582 

Benson, Oscar 1603 

Bentley, Robert I., Jr. .. . 901 

Bernal, Bruno 508 

Bernal, Pedro A 376 

Bernal, Ygnacio 408 

Bernthal,\Valter G 1572 

Berry, C. E 1192 

Berry, Charles 1351 

Berryessa, Alex 1379 

Berryessa, Jose J 1094 

Berryman. Fred 1680 

Bjertelli, Angelo 1591 

Bertelsen, Bertel 1592 

Beverson, Charles D.... 630 

Biaggi, Alfred F 1628 

Biaggi, Fred 1628, William R 1666 

BiU'willer, Ernest O 1526 

Bisceglia, Pasquale 1568 

Blabon, Joseph W. D... 596 

Blabon, Otis 1110 

Blabon, W'm. Caspar. . . . 338 
Black, John Newton.... 1514 

Blackford, LilHe 424 

Bladh, Carl 1673 

Blanch, John W 730 

Blanch, Robert 446 

Blanchard, Hiram A 1202 

Blanchard, Thos. L., M.D. 1088 
Bland, Henry M., Ph.D. . 479 

Bland, Wallace E 1518 

Blaner, William J 1340 

Blaurock, James Edwin. 1133 

Blois, J. Byron 986 

Bl5unt, Alvin M 508 

Bodley, Thomas 458 

Bogart, Arthur W 1266 

Bogart, Sewall B 1317 

Bohnett, Floyd O 1403 

Bohnett, Joseph 848 


Bohnett, Lewis Dan. . . . 1670 Ikirket, Mrs. Julia E. . . . 1249 Casley, James 663 

Boisseranc, August 1270 Burkett, A. Kieffer 1134 Cassady, Sydney 1612 

Bolfing, C. T 1652 Burkett, George P 825 Cassin, Charles M 1229 

Bonar, Edgar P 1329 Burnett, David M 342 Castello, Tohn 1437 

Bone, Joseph H 995 Burns, T. S 1626 Castilleja'Sehool 762 

Bonetti, Henry 1278 Burrell, Frederick C. . . . 472 Castillou, James 1459 

Bonnet, Adrien 1188 Burright, Charles L 1630 Castle, Arthur F 661 

Bonnet, Gaston 1691 Burrows, Thomas T 1195 Castle, Mrs. California . . 479 

Bonnet, Louis Joseph... 1550 Burton, Henrv Heber... 1033 Castle, I. N 479 

Booker, George E 1269 Butcher, Rolla 944 Castro, Crisanto 1380 

Booth, Miss Etta E 1289 Butcher, Rolla, Sr 943 CasAvell, Frank V 1202 

Bordenave, Nicholas 1469 Button, Dr. W. H 1491 Catania, Flenry 1391 

Bordi, Baptiste 1470 Byrne, Garrett J 490 Cauhape, Victor 1315 

Boulware, Milton A 341 Calanchini, Ermcnegildo. 1670 Cavala, Paul L 1372 

Bourguignon, Frank E. . 1006 Calcagno, Simone 1550 Cavallaro, Clifton D 1527 

Boussy, Ferdinand 1688 Caldwell, Charles Henry. 1655 Cavallaro, John 851 

Bowen, Fred 888 Calel:), Miles :Monroe 665 Challen, Victor 1234 

Boyd, James, D. V. S 644 Calkins, Geo. W 1347 Chambers, J. W 1666 

BradfoVd, Alden E 1196 Call, George B 975 Chapin, Frank E 1039 

Bradford, Mrs. Allis Callahan, Thomas J 1626 Chargin, Joseph A 1595 

Kimball Ballon 972 Cambiano, Paul D". 1518 Chase, Elmer E 844 

Brandenburg, Harr}- E.. 1257 Cameron, Dr. David Paul 817 Chase, Foster Wooden.. 1118 

Brandt, Charles ..." 1066 Camp, John M 1459 Chase, Elmer E., Jr 1518 

Braslan, Charles P 607 Camp, Wilbur Lee 629 Chrisman, Walter L 463 

Brattan, Mrs. Catherine F 516 Campliell, Alexander D . . 678 Chrisman, William Henry 475 

Bray, Mrs. Clara C 880 Campbell, Andrew J 1113 Christian, Charles W. . .'. 603 

Brazil, Manuel S 1408 Campbell. Carl 1007 Churchill, C. C 1692 

Breitwieser, John T 1564 Campbell, David William 1137 Churnside, Thomas 1576 

Bressani, Richard V 1448 Cam])bell, George 1414 Chynoweth, Mrs. Mary H. 334 

Breton, J. Walter 1200 Campbell, James Henrv. 795 Cil'ker, William Hamilton 1466 

Bridgman, Roy W 550 Camps, Frank L . 1577 Clark, C. Fl 1492 

Brimson, Joseph Marion. 1604 Cantua, Joseph M 560 Clark, Charles 507 

Brinkman, Fred H 1243 Cantua, Lenora 560 Clark, George Thomas. . 788 

Britschgi, Jack E 1651 Cappa, Joseph 1669 Clark, John A„ M. D. . . . 1431 

Britton. Arthur T 1052 Cardoza, John F 1431 Clark, "fonas, M. D 935 

Britton, Lewis H 1317 Cardoza, Tom 976 Clayton, James A 803 

Britton, Robert 1318 Careaga, Mrs. Maria A. . 484 Clayton, Willis S 807 

Broedel, Michael 624 Carlo, John R 873 Clearwaters, Reuben D. . 651 

Brokenshire, John R 1388 Carlson, C. A ':::T/ Clements, W'. T 1191 

Bronk, Manuel 1434 Carlson, Charles 1550 Clouser, Harry E 1378 

Bronner, Clarence F.... 1612 Carlyle, James S 1199 Coates, Washington B.. 1015 

Brooks, Joseph T 857 Carmelite Monastery.... 1429 Cochrane, Mrs. Aphelia F 756 

Brosius, A. F 1233 Carmichael, Daniel 831 Cody, L. R 658 

Broughton, Lem 1629 Carmichael, Neil 827 Coe,' Henry W 396 

Brown, Albert S 1337 Carmichael, Mrs. Wm. H. 1008 Coe, Henry Willard 395 

Brown, E. N 436 Carpenter, Dr. H. F 578 Coelho, Alexander Rose . 694 

Brown, Judge Frederick Carper, Samuel H 1281 Collins, Rev. Richard... 1527 

Benjamin 688 Carrev, Albert J 933 Colombet, Emily J 1108 

Brown, George M 333 Carroll, Thomas A 453 Colt, William F 1522 

Brown, James 1617 Carson, James S '^'KJ Compton, Al 1648 

Brown, Sewall S 1465 Casalegno, Thomas and Conant, Ernest AV 847 

Browne, Harry E 1627 Henriette Pellier 471 Conrotto, Anselmo 1627 

Brownell, Prof. Elmer E. 767 Casaletto, Laurence G. . . 1211 Cook, Marion Virgil ... . 1680 

Bryant, Col. D. FI 442 Casaucau, Michel 1429 Cooley, Charles P 964 

Buckley, George Stephen 1282 Casaurang, Peter and Jean 1157 Coombs, Frank W 737 

Burdick, Charles L 1025 Casey, Jeremiah D 472 Cooper, Astley D. M 676 

Burdick, George B 1517 Casey, Michael 416 Coopers, Edmond 852 



Coopers, Joseph P, 852 Davenport, Mervyn A .. . 1258 England, Beverly Allen . . 888 

Coopers, Louis P 852 Davison, Charles' W 878 Rngland, Cus A 1388 

Cordes, Paul H 943 Dean, Charles O 1 588 Eriekson, Andrew E 719 

Cornell, E. V. 486 De Carli, Eouis Charles. 684 Ernst Brothers 1383 

Corotto. John A 683 De Eorest, Albert T 1191 Esehenhurg, Rodney 383 

Corpstein, Joseph T 1244 De Daey, 1 tush i\ 713 Esrey, John 964 

Correa, P'rank vSilveira. . . 1447 Delniaestro, Edward 1165 Estrade, Mrs. Lizzie .... 1308 

Costa, Georo-e M 1665 Delmue, Ernest 1239 Estrade, Prosper 1308 

Costigan. John PI 705 Delyon, Eugene 1159 Evans, Erancis Marion. . 70S 

Costigan, Robert A 574 De Mattei, Miehael 1363 Fahey, John H 581 

Cottle, Ira 687 Denegri, 13ismo M 1353 P\ancher, Earle C 884 

Cottle, Royal, Sr 41 1 De v^ilva, J. P 1550 Faria, J. S 1361 

Cotton, George Douglas. 66*^ Desinmne, Joseph S 1334 Farmers' & Merehants' 

Couch, Thomas 538 Devenpeck, Glenn A.... 1622 National Bank of Moun- 

Coulter, MajorAVilliam A. 658 Devine, John James 526 tain View 843 

Coupland, Wm. l^iichard. 1334 Devine, Joseph M 526 I'arney, Edmund B 718 

Covert, A. C 1263 Dickinson, John W 1432 Farnsworth, Ralph 1485 

Cox. George W 673 Di Fiore, Angelo 901 Farrell, M 1395 

Cox, Tacol-. Milan 800 Di Fiore, Domenico 1567 Farrell, Mrs. Maria 1030 

Cox, John 838 Di Fiore, Frank ........ 1154 Earwell, Frankim M. . . . 1199 

Cox, Joseph Emory 955 Dmsmore, Dudlev F 1245 Earwell, J. D 936 

Cox, La Fayette 675 Dinsmore, John W., D.D„ 1108 Fate, Harold L 105 

Cox, William 787 Distel, Edward Erancis. . 902 Fatjo, Robert A 630 

Crabb, Alexander L 697 Dodds, H. G 1377 Fellom, James Matthew. 496 

Cramer, David Harold. . . 1052 Doerr, Charles 520 Fellom, John A., Sr 761 

Cramer, Joseph L 1233 Doerr, Henry C 1119 Fellows, Edmund L 792 

Crawford, Edward D 512 Doidge, Mrs. Elizabeth A. 1262 Fernald, Josephine M... 914 

Crawford, James N 1174 Dornberger, Victor 670 Ferreira, Joe J 1443 

Cribari, Fiore 1461 Dowling, Thomas M 1610 Ferrell, James 1079 

Cribari, Paul A 1536 Draper,' Wilbur H 1043 Fieger, George W 1505 

Crippen, Carlton Carlvle. 1352 Du IBrutz, Anthony G. . . 1239 Fiehmann, George J.... 1307 

Cross, William J. ...'.. . 1203 Dufour, Charles 1290 Filice, Gennaro 1609 

Crow, Max J 923 Duncan, John E 1333 Finley, Mrs. Louise M. . 1263 

Cunningham, E. M 652 Dunn, [ames T 1020 First National Bank of 

Cunningham, Joseph C. . 1249 Dunne," Mrs. Catherine . . 818 Los Altos 1188 

Cunningham, Luther . . . 598 Dunne, Peter J 804 Fisher, Fiacro Julian. ... 721 

Curry, Benjamin 404 Dutton Brothers 694 Fisher, Henry B 1084 

Curtis. George M 766 Eastman, Edward Ferry. 939 Fisher, Ida M 643 

Curtis. Manly M 1308 Eaton, Ernest C 677 Fitch, Harry H 1321 

Curtner, Alan Eltzroth. . 932 Eaton, Louis 1465 Fitts, William L 633 

Curtner, Albert H 1058 Eaton, Ralph W 1400 Fitzgerald, John P 1222 

Curtner. Allen E 581 Eberhard Tanning Co. . . 533 Fitzgerald, Thomas 586 

Curtner, Henry 423 Ebinger, Lewis B 1184 Fitzgerald, Walter G. . . . 586 

Curtner, Lucy Latham.. 424 Economou, William N... 1582 Flindt, Homer Eon 1636 

Curtner, William M 1120 Edwards, Henry William 1158 Flint, Benjamin and 

Gushing, Frank Allen ... 982 Edwards, Leonard P 1179 William R 504 

Cuthbertson, Sidney M. . 1141 Ehrhorn, Adolph William 591 Foley, William Edward. 1105 

Cutler, Charles W 684 Ellet, Alfred AVashington 1093 Fontaine, Gaston R 1029 

Cutter', John J 1180 Ellet, Charles 755 Forbes, James Alexander 878 

Cutting Charles D 1621 Ellet, Edward Carpenter. 746 Forbes, Judge James A. . 1554 

Cutting,' Dr. Tames A . . . . 826 Ellis, Edward F 931 Ford, Clifford M 1348 

Da Cruz, Rev. M. A 14S9 Ellis, James H 792 Forward, James W 1095 

Daft Joseph 1650 Ellis, John Edward 1285 Forward, Jas. Wesley . . . 874 

Dahl'gren, Andrew P 947 EUis, Marion E 1257 Foss, Mrs. Sarah A 442 

Daly, Phillip 1160 Elmer, L. H 1117 Foster, Fred Lawrence. . 1486 

Darlino-, Salma 710 Elmer, Walter M 1212 Fourcade, Susanna W. . . 947 

Darsie, William 752 Emery, Dr. Grenville C. . 525 Fonts, David P 1076 


Francalanzo, Joseph 1407 Goodrick, Thomas A.... 1184 Harris, James William.. 729 

Francis, Octave J 1125 Goodwin, C. B 1531 Harrub, Irving E 1630 

Fredericks, Karl R 503 Goodwin, James A 1367 Hart, Alexander J 504 

Free, Hon. Arthur M. ... 880 Gordon, Harry V 1354 Hart, Leopold . .". 323 

Freelvn, Elias H 574 Gordon, Dr. William D.. 1543 Hart, Orville Benjamin. . 669 

Freeman, Edgar H 796 Gosbey, Hon. Perley F. . 529 Hartley, W. W 545 

Freeman, Lloyd E 836 Gould, James ' 948 Harton, Will Green 1058 

Freitas, John Andrews . . 1396 Graeb, AValter A 1549 Harvey, Harriet Newell. 592 

Freitas, John R 1524 Granander, K. J 1501 Flauk.'john 917 

French, Alden 1165 Gray, George A., M. D. . 1523 Haun, George J 718 

French, Ernest A 1169 Greco, Anthony 1149 Hayes, Everis Anson . . . 320 

French, John FI 1524 Greco, Gaspare 1603 Hayes, Mrs. Everis A. . . 530 

Frisbie, Mrs. Geraldine E. 568 Greco, Victor Y 1632 FIa3-es, Hon. Jay Orley. . 324 

Fry, H. Ray 879 Green, Ed. R 1150 Flayes, Mrs. jay Orley. . 905 

Fuchs, Emil V 1652 Grecniey, Joseph Spencer 1540 HaA'es-Chynoweth, Mrs. 

Fullington, RoUa F 953 Griffiths, William 838 Mary 334 

Fulmer, Jacob P 1029 Grhn, Ira H 1056 Headen, Dr. Benjamin F. 599 

Funkier, William 1154 Grimm, George 597 Hedegard, S. N 1558 

Gagliasso, Charles 1090 Griscz, Celestine J 1526 Heilmann, Stephen 768 

Gagliasso, Luigi 1329 Grisez, Rev. John C., S. J. 1489 FTeimgartner, William B. 1513 

Gallagher, Alfred D 1163 Growers Bank 1299 Helwig Lester H 670 

Gallagher, George F. . . . 1163 Gru^^'ell, Charles Lee. . . . 722 Flendy Iron AA'orks 818 

Gallagher, Richard 515 Gruwell, Lawrence C... 1481 Hendv, John Harris 784 

Gallagher, William L. . . . 1245 Gubser, August 1466 FIenkie,"R. E 1209 

Gamble, Edwin P 1330 Guglielmoni, S. E 1559 Henev, Richard 1560 

Gardner, Fred H 730 Guglieri, Dr. A. A 892 Henrv, William Fiske. . . 765 

Gardner, Walter J 569 Guglieri, Mrs. Adela R. . 892 Herm'le, Andrew 1505 

Gardner. William S 741 Guglieri, Gregorv 1501 Herring, S. H 1141 

Garrod, David 1106 Gwartney, Mrs. Betty. . . 1481 Herrmann. Charles F. AV. 500 

Garrod, Ralph Vince 1201 Gwinn, Marion Thomas. 1478 Flerrold, Charles David . . 1293 

Gatter, Jacob M. H., Jr. . 1540 Haag, AVilliam F 585 Hershey, Chester E 1630 

Gattuccio, Bart, M. D... 890 Haag, Mrs. Elise M 585 Hersman, Hugh Steel... 1184 

Geer, Mrs. Clara A 1563 Haase, Maxwell Benno. . 1202 Hersman, AVilliam M. . . . 1433 

Genardini, Charles 1300 Hagelin, John L 1327 Hess, Alexander AV., Sr. 1274 

Genovesi Bros., Zapelli & Hageman, Joe 771 Flettinger, Eby Athv. . . . 954 

Company 1501 Halght, Clark A¥ 1564 Heyde, John W. Edward 1560 

Geoffroy, August 638 Haley, Edward 1116 Fleymann, Adolph 1635 

George,' Mrs.^Amelia D. . 1061 Hall, AVilliam Flenry 1286 Hiatt, Frederick Lee 1114 

George, Alanuel F 1490 Haman, Carl AVesle'y 812 Hiatt, James 1494 

George, Mrs. Mary W.. 1166 Hanibly, Francis James. . 1115 Hichborn, Franklin 436 

Gerow, Forest B 1629 Hamilton, George, Sr. . . . 371 Hill, Andrew P 355 

Giacomazzi, Edward P.. . 1494 Hamlin, E. C. .'. 1204 Hill, Frank D 1543 

Giacomazzi, AVilliam F.. 1164 Flammond, Mrs. Martha 1120 Hill, Henrie Granville... 882 

Giardano, Frank 1677 Hancock, Joseph Edward 934 Flill, Henry Tanner 960 

Gibson, L. W 1456 Hanger, Curtis Elden. . . 1083 Hills, Alfred Farley 1121 

Gifford, JuHa A 1102 Hansen, Antone K 1525 Hinsdale, Willian, A. B.. 1636 

Gifford, Loren N 533 Hansen, James 1096 Flirsch, Mrs. Emma 898 

Gillespie, John 1201 Hansen, Knut H 1.344 Hinds, Carleton Jay 1677 

Gilroy Public Schools... 1138 Hansen, i\Irs. Mary E... 1102 Hobson, Benjamin F 483 

Giottonini, AVilliam .... 887 Hanson, Floyd A 1261 Hobson, Herman AV 1112 

Glans, Oscar E 634 Hanson, George Warren. 832 Hobson, AA'illiam B 404 

Glennon, Matthew J 1169 Hanson, Mildred P 1051 Hoesch, Judge John M.. 1149 

Gober, Robert P., M. D.. 1460 Hapgood, Frank A 1460 Hogan, Thomas C 890 

Gober, Rev. W. R 1460 Hares, AVilliam Lionel. . . 1659 Hogg, Henry C 1095 

Gohranson, Oscar F 1364 Harms, George AV 1472 Hogg, Robert L., M. D. . 665 

Goldmann, Edmund, Dr. 1234 Harms, Henry A 1539 Holmes, F. H 1107 

Goodrich, CHiTord Byron 1303 Har])er, Capt. Richard B. 732 Holthouse. Eberhardt H. 832 


Holthouse, j. Fred 836 Johnson, Nils 519 Lambert, Tom 1358 

Holthoiise, Mark II 835 [ohnson, Theodore 585 Lande, Rev. William J.. 1339 

Hooper, H 1340 [ohnston, William Allen 709 Landon, Peter D 683 

lioque, Francis M 734 [ones, C. FI 717 Fanfri, C 1187 

Hoque, William Francis. 734 Jordheim, Ole 1497 Langford, Arthur Burr 559 

Florn, i\Irs. Emily J 917 Joshua Flendy Iron Fangford, Robert Jackson 559 

Florstmann, Fred FI 1641 Works 818 Fanham, Oscar M 1544 

Houser, Harry A 1543 Juarez, Joseph F 1322 Fannin, Frank T 1212 

Howe, Miss Agnes E 654 Kammerer, Feroy H 1639 Fapachet, Henry 1680 

Howe, William B 897 Kammerer, Urban A 1250 Farson, Carl A 1554 

Howes, Charles E., Jr. . . 1116 Kasson, Frank 1362 Farson, Charles A 1632 

Howes, Charles Edward. 1115 Kearney, Thomas E 1337 Farson, Fred W 1544 

Flowes, Freeman F 1169 Keeble, Edward G 1603 Farson, Fewis 821 

Hoyt, Frank F 1513 Keeble, Richard P 359 Fatham, Allen R 1129 

Flubbard, Thos. 15... 1062, 1118 Keesling, Alva Curtis ... 1057 Fathrop, Charles Gardner 1021 

Hubbard, Albert Fester. . 1062 Keesling, George F 897 Faumeister, Gustav 1683 

Hubbard, Mrs. Sierra N.. 1118 Kelley, Alphonzo M 1040 Faura, Charles E 1647 

Hubbard, Frank 1404 Kelley, Dr. Thomas 1040 Fausten, Brousen P 1472 

Huff, Frank L 1019 Kelly, George Albert 1204 Fawrence, William H. . . 647 

Fluber, Charles FI 1679 Kemp, Freeman H 14U4 Fawrence, George C 1180 

Huff, James A 1065 Kendall, E. F 467 Feaman, James B 862 

Hughes, John 563 Kendall, Mrs. Fetitia Fearnard, Tracy 1328 

Hultberg, Nels 1240 Pearl Snyder 464 FeDeit, George li 1169 

Hunt, Charles A 1490 Kennedy, James C 612 FeDeit, Sylvain 1133 

Hunt, Harold G 1245 Kennedy, James K 1304 Fee, H. Irving 1665 

Hunter, Frank A 1122 Kennedy, Karl F 1486 Fee, Professor Robert A. 651 

Husted, Ralph Allen 1213 Kennedy, Mark E 1157 Feib, Frank A 726 

Hutton, Hiram Coye 1170 Kenyon, Frank 529 Feib, S. F 316 

Hutton, Warner 515 Kenyon, James Monroe . 1399 Feitch, Edwin H 657 

Huxtable, Frederick J. . . 1575 Kerr, Flenry M 853 Feiter, Jeremiah 714 

Ingels, Bruce 924 Kerwin, John B 597 Feland, Raymond Barrett 1380 

Ingleson, Mrs. Robert S. 706 Kerwin, Thomas 597 Fener, Mrs. Kaspar 1502 

Interurban Sanitarium . . 1563 Kesling, Earl E 1485 Fenfest, Fee R 1407 

Irwin, Samuel J 877 Ketchum, Otto F 1164 Fepesh, Andrew P 1334 

Isaacson, Herman 1214 Kidder, George S 1265 Fester, Amos 634 

Isasca, Vincent 1295 Kidwell, James Milton. . 902 Fester, Charles C ^ 865 

Jackson, Jonathan F. . . . 922 Kirk, Bert T 883 Fester, Fred E 1022 

'lackson, Roy 1 1548 Kn-k, Mrs. Louise G. . . . 648 Fester, Henry W 905 

Jacobs, Sol 1071 Kirk, Theophilus 379 Fester, Nathan F 568 

James, D. W 1462 Kissinger, Henry 1684 Fester, Mrs. Sarah E.. . . 431 

James, William Henry . . 1225 Klotz, Christian M 1493 Fester, William Walter. . 568 

January, Wm. A 1687 Knoeppel, Matthias .... 1039 Fe Suer, Frank A 1473 

Jemm, Otto F 1611 Knoles, Tully Cleon, D.D. 511 Fevin, George A 519 

Jennings, W. AV. and Mrs. Knowles, Frank W., M.D. 852 Fewis, George R 1587 

Ella Fords 485 Knowles, Homer 476 Fewis, Harry C 1261 

Jensen, Anton M 1277 Koch, Valentine 891 Liddicoat, George 1143 

Jepsen,' Andrew H 692 Koehle, I. J 1373 Fiddicoat, William 1143 

Jepsen, Mathias P 1339 Kohner, Ignatz 857 Fidley, Will George 1587 

Jessen, Conrad 1659 Kopp, Henry Fouis 1477 Fieber, Fouis 633 

Joaquin, Joe 1666 Krause, Herman B 1213 Fietz, Charles F 629 

Johanson, Carl A 1591 Krieg, Henrietta Rehor. . 854 Fightston, James Fouis. . 360 

Johnson, Emil A 1610 Kyle, S. Clyde 1469 Filjenstein, Gustaf M 1459 

Johnson, Frank A 955 Facerda, John P 1642 Findholm, Carl 1417 

Johnson, Frank W 1312 Facoste, G 1493 Finehan, Peter F 549 

Johnson, Harry 1160 Ladarre, Firmin 1273 Finquist, F. A 1647 

Johnson! Herschel 1482 Fafifey, James A 858 Fion, Ernest P 1065 

Johnson, Mrs. Myrtle W. 955 Fake, French W 1585 Fion, Gustave F 767 


Lion, Lazard 766 Martin, Rev. Thomas R., Miller, Frank T 1158 

Live Oak Union High S. J 1143 Miller, Mrs. Grace C. . . . 1101 

School .".... 1318 Mathews, A. H 1354 Miller, Hale Roy 1351 

Lobdell, Frank H 1364 Mathews, Henry D 873 Miller, Harley B 1221 

Locicero, Nicholas 1635 Mathewson, John A 1497 iMiller, Henry 351 

Locurto, John R 503 Matracia, Alexander .... 1547 Miller, Judge T. H 1026 

Logue, James 843 Mattcis, Mrs. Cattherina Millich, Frank 1684 

Loproto, Joseph 1618 Geraud 1 160 Mills, Arthur 1 505 

Lord. Major William A. 1558 Matteis, Joseph 1160 Mills, Ora P 1044 

Lords, John M 677 Matty, Antoine 887 Milne, Alexander 935 

Lords, Walden 485 Mayhew, Dr. Arthur B. . 764 Mineo, Henry A 1659 

Lorigan, Charles M 1048 Maynard, Edmund W. . . 807 Minter, Flenry C 1474 

Lorigan, Judge Wm. G.. . 1089 Mayock, Stonewall J 416 Miss Harker's School... 764 

Losse, Austin N 662 ]\laze, Edward Record. . . 989 Moe, Arthur 1432 

Losse, H. E 662 Maze, Spencer Morrow. . 438 Moenning, Milton G 1640 

Losse, Weir C 1604 McArthur, Robert A 554 Monahan, Thomas 1240 

Lovell, John A 624 McBain, John 567 Monier, L. A 1348 

Lowe, Sam B 733 McCarron, Andrew J. . . . 1425 Montezuma Mountain 

Loyst, Andrew 1 998 .McCarthy, John R.". 729 Scht.ol for Boys 1269 

Loyst, Maria Cox 611 McCarthv, Richard 600 Montgomery, Alexander. 554 

Lund, H. J 1125 McCarty^ John E. ...... . 1615 Montmayeur, Pierre 1015 

Lundin, Theodore C 1113 McCaule}-. James F 1076 Montova, Antonio 411 

Lundy, David FT 1383 McChesney," James Roger 1510 Montoya, Manuel 1218 

Lunsford, Lewis M 1426 McCline, George E 848 Moody, David Bacon 771 

Lu,scher, Ferdinand 1548 McComas, Henry W 1374 Rloore, Samuel T 918 

Luther, Don Walter 387 McCombs, W^ C 1670 Morell, George F 976 

Luther, Lacob 638 McCracken, Mrs. Eliza- Morgin, Ned B 1647 

Lutter, Clarence A 1311 beth 435 Alorrell, Albert E 1094 

Lyle, George W 858 McCurdv, V. T 1316 Morris, Theodore John. . 1214 

Lyndon, James H 403 McDaniel, Wilfred A 1217 Morrison & Wallace 1470 

Lyndon, John W 800 McDonald, Archie 400 Morton, Ada Scott, M. D. 1080 

Mabury, Howard Irvin. . 853 I\IcDonald, James A 495 Mossi, John 1084 

Macabee, Z. A 1289 McGinnis, fames Sumner 523 Muir, Chas. H 1600 

Macaulay, John W 891 McGrath, Daniel J 879 Muir, Ray 1159 

Macdonald, Hugh 731 McGrath, Eugene "0 725 Mulcahy, Matthew F 1444 

Machado, Frank A 1521 McGrurv, Warren J 1422 Mule, Charles 1363 

Alachado, Frank R 1492 McHenrv, Francis j 1173 Mullen, Edward H 1465 

Machado, Manuel A 1418 McKee, Edson 1437 Mullen, William Henry. 1294 

MacLeod, Mrs. Elizabeth 628 McKee, George Butter- Murgotten, Alexander P. ,345 

Madsen, H. Chris 1656 held 419 Murphy, Bernard D 997 

Magee, John Lafayette. . 734 McKee, Hubbard 577 Murphy, Martin 908 

Mao-ee Robert Bruce. 1422 ^IcKenzie, Michael 1616 Murphy, Patrick 1109 

Mao-o-ini Plin 537 -Mi-'Keown, Daniel Linden 1179 Murrin, James 637 

Maher, Thomas ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 861 McLachlan, Duncan P. . . 1 153 Musso, Fred G 1129 

,. ■ ^M IT icoc McMurtry, George S 998 Narvaez, Miguel H 1669 

;\iain, VV. hi iDoo , ,. , . -^ ' . -^ , -^^ ^t , t , t^ ■, ■, , 

,, . ,, , T 1 ir,7 Medenos. Justmo 1502 Nash, Lyle R 1134 

Maisonneuve, Alphonse . 1403 ., , , t "i r^ tt^ >vt 4..- t t -i^o 

,^ , r^' ' ,rr.r JMcnkcr, Johu C 376 Nattmger, Lyman L.... 468 

Malatesta, Giacomo .... 606 ^^^^^^^^^_ '\ly,\,^n O. F. . . 596 Navlet, Charles C 720 

Mancuso, Theodore M. . . 1656 Merrill, Richard J 1315 Neilsen, Neils Adler .... 1414 

Mangnm Bros 1368 Merrill, Walter 1., M.D.. 1622 Nelsen, Peter 1112 

Manotti, Luigi M 1609 ]\ierriman, Mrs. Isabelle. 956 Nelson, Alfred R 1480 

Martella, Giacomo 1322 Merritt, James C 725 Nelson, Gustave 468 

Marten, John S 1535 Meyer, Albert M 1493 Nelson, John W 1526 

Martin, Elizabeth H 346 Meyer, Emil 1111 Nelson, Nick 1426 

Martin, Julius 346 Meyer, Peter H 1473 Newell, Edward, M. D. . . 1448 

Martin, P. J 1581 Michel, John J 1396 Newman Hall 889 

Martin, Samuel 1 126 Millard, Byron 901 Nichols, Charles L 1357 


Nichols, John Henry 1539 Page, George W 997 Pitman, William Ward. . 1270 

Nichols, Thomas Benton 959 Palo Alto Public Library 909 Pisturino, Sam 1312 

Nichols, Valentine David 666 Pancera, John 698 Place, Elvert Ernest 1660 

Nichols, Walter Ham- Panighetti, Carlo 1088 Plank, Mrs. Melinda C. . 1043 

mond 967 Panighetti, Silvestro ... 1559 Polhemus, George Bissell 365 

Nicholson, George A 1527 Parker, Charles 1422 Polhemus, Edward R 1130 

Nicholson, George E 996 Parker, Major Lewis F. . 592 Poli, Luigi 1560 

Nielsen, Anton T 1338 Parkhurst, Mrs. Ella S.. 1025 Pomeroy, Irwin Edgar.. 564 

Nielsen, Niels Nicholas. 537 Parkinson, J. F 427 Pomeroy, Marshall 534 

Nightingill, Frank W. . . 960 Parkman, H. L 932 Pomeroy, Warren H 935 

Nippon Mura Inn 1214 Parks, William W 585 Pogue, John Fawcett 1448 

Nixon, John AVilliam. .. . 399 Parlier, Charles Allen... 1514 Portalupi, Evasio 1299 

Nommensen, E 1307 Parton, Floyd A 1509 Porter, Rev. A. W. Noel 664 

Norton, Evered H 1679 Pasetta, Mateo J 1418 Porter, William R 786 

North, Milo J 1612 Pashote, Joaquin J 1592 Post, Alfred Breed 991 

Notre Dame College.... 1643 Passantino, Francisco ... 1330 Post, William 1266 

Noyer, Joseph F 1663 Passelli, Steve 1391 Poston, Emory E 1622 

Nuttman, Aloysius W. . . 1636 Patchell, Robert K 991 Power, Edward C 643 

Oberg, Isaac 1066 Patterson, Steve 1641 Poulsen, Jacobi 1371 

O'Brien, Jeremiah J 1481 Paul, DePhonzo Gibson. 524 Pourroy, Eloi 1270 

O'Brien, Michael 1353 Pavlicevich, John 1656 Pourroy, Pierre C 1174 

O'Connell, Albert F 995 Payne, George C 1664 Priest, Milo Ray 1528 

O'Connell Bros, Inc 936 Payne, James Fred 913 Princevalle, James 931 

O'Connell, Charles T 992 Peacock, Walter R 701 Provenzano, Joseph C. . . 1596 

O'Connell, Elmer S 963 Peard, John James 1444 Prudhomme, Philippe ... 992 

O'Connell, Frank J 975 Pearson, Charles 1599 Prussia, Willard L 679 

O'Connell, G. Daniel 996 Pearson, Charles A 1599 Puccinelli, Romolo L 1628 

O'Connell, Thomas 710 Peckham, James B 1536 Purviance, Mrs. Elmyra. 1673 

O'Connor, Percy 968 Pedgrift, Sam 1547 Puterbaugh, George E. . . 1482 

O'Connor, Hon. M. P... 654 Peirano, Giacomo 1026 Radtke, William 1357 

O'Connor Sanitarium . . . 657 Pennington, John R 1246 Raggett, Martin 1497 

Ogier, James Lee 1451 Perkins, James Elwin... 1509 Raggio, George 1595 

O'Hara, Rev. Father Pat- Perone, Charles 1273 Rainey, Prof. Joseph W.. 874 

rick J 1002 Perrone, Osea 1567 Rainwater, Julius H 1438 

O'Keefe, Frank H 1170 Peter, Fred 1674 Rambo, Wliliam Taylor. 1372 

Oldham, Louis F 1137 Petersen, Peter J 1456 Ramsay, William 1517 

Olsen, Andrew 1576 Peterson, Fred L 1001 Randall, Laurence G 825 

Olsson-SeiTer, R. M 1461 Peterson, Peter J 1471 Ransom, Joel W 1377 

Oneal, Louis 1358 Peterson, Mrs. Lillian J. 1001 Rasmussen, Chris 1130 

O'Neil, Robert K 877 Pettit, E. T 489 Rathbun, F 1611 

Orr, Horatio W 545 Pfister, Henry A 366 Rawlings, George S 526 

Ortley, William B 837 Philhps, Clarence E 1575 Rawhngs, John A 879 

Osborne, A. E., M. D. . . 570 Phillips, Frank 1347 Raymond, Daniel 679 

Osmer, George 678 Phillips, Dr. La Forest E. 990 Redwine, Claude 538 

Ostenberg, Pontus 1040 Phillips, William C 1421 Reed, Charles C, Jr 1491 

Osterman, Fred W 91Z Picchetti, Attilio 1642 Reed, Charles Pennelland 

Otter, Hugo W 1211 Picchetti Bros 1596 Alice H I434 

Ousley, Samuel M 407 Pieper, Mrs. Adele E 412 Reeve, Earl 1603 

Overfelt, Charles F 511 Pieper, Ernest 1217 Regnart, Herbert William 1096 

Overfelt, Mrs. Mary 387 Pieper, John H 412 Regnart, Robert Edouard 1119 

Overfelt, William C 384 Pierce, Charles H 990 Reid, John G 1539 

Owsley, Edgar H 1571 Pierce, James H 341 Renaud, Mrs. Ehse 1321 

Pacific Manufacturing Pierce, James Pieronnet. 341 Rengstorfif, Henry 383 

Company 910 Pike, Jonathan 1674 Rengstorff, Henry A 824 

Pacific Press Publishing Pitman, Cornelius Y 520 Reseburg, William H 1408 

Association 714 Pitman, James M 799 Rexworthy, H. S 1384 

Page, Capt. Walter A. . . 1213 Pitman, Marion 963 Reynolds, James M 827 


Rhoades, William G 1452 Ryan, George W 1443 Sherman, F. A 731 

Rianda, Antonio 981 Sabatte, Peter 1304 Shore, L. H 1586 

Ribble, Charles C 1075 Saich, Anton 523 Short, James 1387 

Ricard, Father Jerome Sainsevain, Paul C 775 Sigle, M. E 1523 

Sextus, S. J 742 Saleeby, Elijah M 1044 Silliman, John C, M. D.. 719 

Rice, Burl E 1311 Sampson, Leslie E 1605 Silva, Domingos A 1490 

Rice, John A., D. D. S. . . . 954 Sanders, Forrest D 662 giiya, Manuel S 1433 

Rice, William A 1605 Sanders, Stephen Poole. . 586 Silveira, Joaquin J 627 

Richard, Louis M 889 San Jose Abstract & Title Silver Harry 1617 

Richards, Dr. Charles U. 898 Insurance Company... 1378 Simmons, John Joseph.. 1367 

Richards, John Evan. , . . 315 San Jose Mercury-Herald 982 SJ^ion Joseph V 1618 

Richardson, Owen Dale. . 1374 Sanor, William J 1616 Simpson William M D 496 

Richman, John W 1581 Saunders, Stephen M.... 1254 Sin"letarv Fmory C 940 

Richmond, Cedric Rae. . . 1217 Savage, Granville L 515 Sino-letarv Emory G 438 

Richmond, Edmund N. . . 553 Savstrom, Charles 1203 Sin^letarv' Georo-e C 441 

Richter, P. Hermann H. 617 Sawyer, Eugene T 372 ginnott, Patrick^B . . ! '. '. '. 956 

Ridley, LaFayette 1347 Scaglione, Louis A 16/8 c-„ -p „ i 141 ^ 

Riggs, William Ashley. . 1544 Scagliotti, Ed 1600 e! •^' ^ m " ^" n i<i c 

T)- t/ T? ■ ^T ■ 1111 c r .4.- T- -r i^n^ Skinner, Charles C 1615 

Righter, hrancis Marion. 1144 Scagliotti, Emilio 1606 ci ■ u t v (^7'' 

Riker, William E 1553 Scherrebeck, Mary E. . . . 1337 ^, ' „ ,,, . ._„ 

-n- J m, T 1 c^n o i -ii- t^ \ c*7o Slocum, George VV 1479 

Riordan, Thomas J 15o9 Schilling, F. A 578 „ ' . ^ 

Rispaud, Jules Emile.... 1087 Schilling, Herbert Emile 553 ' i 'au i -p in79 

Rispaud, Mrs. Renee. . . . 1300 Schirle, Anton & Sons. . . 676 ^'"!*'' ^^Z''*^^ ^ ' ' ^^ij. 

Roberts, George 701 Schlaudt, Edward and ^mith, Charles 1106 

Roberts, Herbert L 1462 Augusta 564 Smith, Charles R 1506 

Roberts, W. K 542 Schmidt, Emil 1414 Smith, Francis 612 

Robertson, Charles D.... 604 Schmidt, H. C 1154 Smith, Fred B 1150 

Robertson, Edward C. . . 1379 Schmitt, iMichael 1652 Smith, George F 618 

Robertson, Richard Felix 560 Schoenheit, Augustus A. 1087 Smith, Harry Ellsworth. 1226 

Robidoux, Wilfrid F 680 Schroeder, ]. H. C 1479 Smith, James 1277 

Robinson, Arthur J 1578 Schubert, Adolph V 1218 Smith, John 837 

Robinson, Flenry 1578 Schuh, William 1540 Smith, Olando J 549 

Robinson, Perry W 400 Schulz, John 1195 Smith, P. Milton 1109 

Robinson, Robert S 1199 Schutte, Anthony 1640 Smith, Rebecca Crites. . 612 

Rocliffe, Chas. Robert... 1115 Sciarrino, Samuel 1522 Smith, Stanley Bassett. . 1134 

Roche, M. J 1166 Scofield. F. Ned 1568 Smith, Thomas E 1218 

Rodeck, S. G 768 Scorsur, Benjamin 1644 Snell, Ralph L 608 

Rodoni, John 1563 Scorsur, John 1665 Snitjer, Fannie Bonney. . 868 

Roessler, John Robert. . . 1008 Scorsur, Nick 1478 Snow, Irving A¥alter.'. . . 1138 

Rogers, Josephine Rand. 388 Scorsur, Steve 1472 Snyder, Arthur J 824 

Rogers, R. Nella 913 Scott, Robert 733 Snyder, John 791 

Roll, John 866 Scale, Alfred 972 Scares,' Francisco P 1392 

Roller, Arthur 1460 Searl, Garner R 1367 Sobey Mrs. E T . . . 1563 

Roller & Hapgood 1460 Seely, George B 1210 Solar'i,' Victor A 1387 

Ronecker, Charles J 1431 Selby, Mrs. John S 483 Sonnichsen L H 1447 

Rose, Joseph F . 1514 Selby, William H 706 Sontheimer', Urban a'. '. '. '. 653 

Rose, Mrs. Ros.e G 1387 Sequeira, M. T 1434 Soper, Darwin J 826 

Rucker, Joseph E 776 gerpa, Wilham F 1133 Sourisseau, Felix 948 

?"', r;.-^Ti? ' 1^97 Sex, James Patrick 702 South, Charles D 541 

Rudo ph, Allen io-/ ^^^^^^^^^ j^j^^ Francis. . 883 Souza, M. M 599 

Russ°ell,' Andrew ■::■.::'.: 1016 Shaw, Elton Randall. . . . 1222 Spalding, Hon. C, C. . . . 380 

Russell Lawrence 500 Shaw, James G 693 Spargur, C. G 1438 

Russo, Joseph 1535 Sheehy, Phillip G 862 Speciale, Orvis H 1652 

Russo, Nicholas H 1617 Sheldon, Stephen White. 927 Spencer, James A 1021 

Rust, Charles W 1253 Shelley, Sivert H 674 Spooner, D. Rutledge. . . 1631 

Ryan, Fred S., M. D 1258 Shepherd, James W. . . . 1101 Spring, Thaddeus W. . . . 372 


Squire, Charles H 1373 Sutherland, J. C 611 Vandervoort, Irving P.. . . 989 

Squires, Leland J 1506 Sutherland, William ... 366 Van Lone, Walter Allen 1126 

Stag-o-, John C. F 637 Svilich, John 1438 Van Orden, Richard P... 1226 

Stanfield, James J 800 Sweatt, William E 823 Vargas Bros 546 

Stanfield, John Harold.. 947 Syer, Robert S 573 Vath, Charles J 1121 

Stanfield, John J 1061 Talbert, Edith Leach... 628 Vatuone, Romeo F 1621 

Stanford Bank 985 Talbott, Mrs. Alice Lee. . 906 Vaughan, Patrick Eugene 1222 

Stanford, Mrs. Jane L. . . 330 Talia, Peter 1492 Vedova, John D 1522 

Stanford, Leland 327 Tallmon, George W 1395 Volkers, Arthur W 1531 

Stanford University Tanner, A. E.. 1347 Volkers, Mrs. Delia 1047 

Library 779 Tarleton, George Eber. . 1612 Von Dorsten, Frank A.. . 1079 

Stanquist, Victor 1196 Tatham, Jefferson 1221 Wade, Sylvanus Raynor. 1296 

Stanley, Harold J 1126 Taylor, John 1616 Wagner, Anton 884 

Stapp, Jerome V 881 Taylor, William Dennis. 1107 Wagner Brothers 1640 

Stau, Henry C 1188 Teed, John E 1137 Wagner, John Jacob. ... 1117 

Staub, J. Samuel, M. D. . 604 Teixeira, A. 1 1663 Wakefield, Leland Henry 1525 

Stebbins, C. L 1547 Templeman, Arthur W. . . 1328 Walker, George E 1610 

Stevens, Burt 597 Templeton, William S... 618 Walker, Hon. George S.. 688 

Stevens, Charles 1617 Teresi, Antonio 1625 Walker, William S 688 

Stevens, Marcus H 1343 Teresi, Joseph A 1480 Walker, J. M. Church... 1477 

Stevens, Orvis 597 Thaver," James W., M.D. 971 Walker, Leland H 1225 

Stewart. Frank W 591 Thiel, Charles 1606 W^alker, Robert 981 

Stewart, Ronald G 1115 Thorn, James A 1273 Wallace, John Lindsley. . 1030 

Stewart, Rufus E 1399 Thomas, C. H 1153 Walsh, Walter 963 

Stewart, William D 811 Thomas, Clayton R 761 Walter, Henry C 812 

St. John, Mrs. Lucy A.. 847 Thomas, Jerome B., M. D. 1451 Waltz, Bloward S 1084 

St. Joseph's High School 1142 Thomas, Massey 432 Waterman, Clarence H.. 1641 

Stillens, Marion A 1480 Thomas, Marshal E 1577 Watson, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Stillwell, Joseph Charles 1230 Thomas, Wendell C 1647 Lowe 928 

Stillwell, Joseph M 485 Thompson, Joseph A.. . . 1239 Ward, Alvin Ryland 921 

Stock, Frank 854 Thompson, Mrs. Mary W. 763 AVard. 1. Parmelee 1200 

Stock, Peter 862 Thompson, William '].... 1249 Ward, Mr. & Mrs. Will- 

Stocklmeier, Mathias . . . 1452 Thorp, John C 721 iam B 458 

Stockton, Herbert 1559 Tomkin, Alfred Forbes.. 1557 Washburn, Arthur H.... 1192 

Stolte, Captain F 1684 Tomkin, Dr. Alfred Royce 986 Weaver, A. M 164S 

Stone, Edward Bruce... 722 Tomlinson, Warren G. . . 1179 Weaver, Edward M 675 

Stone, Vincent B 1587 Tompkins, Samuel G 973 AVebster, Eugene D 1056 

Stoppelworth, Edward J. 1230 Tonini, Pasquale 1678 Webster, Thornton Delos 1071 

Stough, John William. . . 697 Tonkin, John 1343 Weeks, Charles 1005 

Stout, Daniel W 890 Topham, Mrs. Hattie E.. 808 Wehner. Fred W 844 

Strandberg, John W 817 Trimble, William Edward 1343 Welch, Hon. James R... 1057 

Stralla, Madeline 1588 Tripp, Herbert R 623 Weller, Hon. Joseph R. . 1011 

Strickland, Charles E. . . 828 Truck & Tractor Service Weltz, George C 1592 

Strickland, Erve C 867 Company 1612 Wemple, Emerson H 1229 

Studer, Fred F 1230 Turner, James 889 Western Industries Co. . . 148Q 

Stull, Robert J 1371 Turner, George Webster. 1105 Weston, Mrs. Abbie RL. 989 

Stura, G. C 1173 Tuttle, Carl F 881 Weston. Benjamin Frank 989 

Sturla, Angelo 1578 Tuttle, Hiram D 1233 Wheeler, Almon 924 

Sturla,' John, Sr 1479 Umbarger, Austin F 811 Whisler, Rev. George H. 763 

Suess,' R. C 1278 Ucovich, Mitchell, Nick, White, George C 1477 

Sullivan, John W 472 and Peter 1361 White, John E 927 

Summers, Robert 1180 University of Santa Clara 1571 White, Mrs. Margaret. . . 375 

Sund, Herman 1090 Valpey, Horatio B 450 White, Mrs. Mary A 342 

Sutherland, Mrs. Eliza A. 360 Van Dalsem, H. C 449 White, Thomas F 943 

Sutherland, James 360 Van Dalsem, Louis J.... 449 Whitehurst, Logan L. . . . 934 


Whitehurst, William A.. . 1455 Williams, Thomas M. Wood, Uriah 822 

Whitman, Chauncey H. . . 741 M. D 1474 Wood, Walter H 907 

Whitney, Hamilton C. . . . 738 Willson, Carlon R 835 Woodrow, William L.. . . 457 

AVip-ht David 1048 Willson, Frank Chapman 921 Woodworth, Thomas J.. 1192 

AVio-htman PR S07 Willson, Frederick C. . . 1528 AA/'orrall, George H., M. D. 1330 

„,.?, T.' \ ^„c AVillson, George A 1688 AVorthen, George AV 453 

w- "' ^T r"'"u • ■ ■ ; Wilson, Doxev R., M.D. 1130 AVright, Dr. Henry [. B.. 415 

W.lcox, Elbert Joseph. . . 415 ^^jj^^,^^ ^^-^^ j,^-^^ g _ _ ^ 933 ^^.^j^j^^^ j^^^^ Richard. . 923 

Wilcox, Frank A 779 Wilson, Ernest 1244 AA^■att, Roscoe D 1531 

Wilcox, Frank C 564 Wilson, Horace 1262 Yerkes, Ostrum H 595 

AVilcox, Hon. Isaiah A.. . 775 Wilson, James 1034 Yocco, Edward Clement. 1498 

Wilcox, Irwin Miles 489 AVilson, Robert 1625 Young, Col. Carl J 1282 

AVildhagen, F. G 1625 AA^ilson, AA''illiam A 1421 Young, AValter 1 1281 

Wilkes Mrs Ollie M 975 Wilson, William R 1295 Zakis, Peter John 1498 

AYiUiams, Albert Edward 573 Winkless, E. W., Jr 1648 Zarevich, Antone 1649 

-,„■„• . , r->i • r-'y, AA^itten, Charles L 882 Zarevich, Nickolas 1650 

Wi hams, Augustus Clair 573 ^^,^^ ^400 ^^^^^_ g^^pl^^^^ ^ j^^^ 

Williams, Amos Otis.... 1536 ^^j^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 1327 Zeiro, Captain Eg.dio G. 653 

Williams, Edson H. and AVolfe, Levi W 1333 Zastrow, Minnie B 1307 

Robert D 1618 Wolff, William A 1527 Zeller, John B 1655 

Williams, Edward Noble 1090 Wood, Dallas E 974 Zickendrath, Ernest C. . . 1455 

AA^Uiams, John S 1264 Wood, George A 1663 Zollars, John M 1605 

&^^,^^n^ /. q) C 



Unrivaled Climate and Situation — Story of the Early Days — The Founding 
and Growth of the Missions — Founding of San Jose — Secularization of 
the Missions — Life on the Early Ranchos — Early Government — The First 
Americans — The Ill-Fated Donner Party. 

THERE is no county in California so rich 
in material, romantic, progressive and 
adventurous, as the County of Santa 
Clara. It absorbs al)out the whole of the Santa 
Clara \'alley, rightly proclaimed the richest 
\ alley in the stale, and in respect of size, the 
richest in the world. It is located at the south- 
ern end of v^an Francisco ]-^>ay and the county, 
itself, emljraces 1355 square miles. 

The climate is famed for its e^•enness and 
salulirity. The Mt. Hamilton Range on the 
east and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the 
\vest [jrotect the ^■alley from the heat of the 
San loaquiu plains and direct coast influences. 
The Eay has a modifying effect, its cool 
Ijreezes wdiich sweep through the valley, mak- 
ing the summers cooler and the winters 
warmer. The mean summer temperature is 
se^'ent^'-fi^"e degrees; Avinter, about sixty de- 
grees. The average rainfall is sixteen inches 
for the A-alley and nearly tAvice that amount 
for the mountains. There is an alternation of 
stc>rm and sunshine lietween Octol^er and Alay. 
During this period there are from thirty to 
iortv (\a\s in which more or less rain falls; 
frcim sixty to seN'enty that are cloud}-; the rest 
are bright and pleasant. These estimates vary 
with particular seasons, but taking the aver- 
an-e of a series of years, it will be found that 
from (Ictober to May one-half the days are 
cloudless and fully three-fourths such that 
any outdoor vocation can be carried on with- 
out discomfort or inconvenience. 

Cyclones and terrific windstorms are un- 
known and thunder is heard only at rare in- 
tervals. AX'ith the month of March the rains 
are practically over though showers are ex- 
pected and hoped for in April. Summarizing, 
it may be said that in any part of the year, 
days too hot or too cold for the comfort of 
those engaged in ordinary occupations are 
rare. It may be added that the fears and fore- 
bodings with which the seasons are elsewhere 
greeted, are here unheard of. Coming with no 
rio-ors, they bring no terrors and are alike wel- 
co'med as a change. In these conditions health 
and comfort are largely subserved and also in 

them the great horticultural possibilities, and 
these, the elements of present and prospective 
prosperity, are as constant as the ocean cur- 
rents in which they have their origin, as 
permanent as the mountain ranges \vhich 
l)ound the field of their exhiljition. 

vSanta Clara County is the banner fruit sec- 
tion of the state. In 1")19 there were 98,152 
acres planted in fruit trees and 2,850 acres in 
\ines. The total acreage of cereals, vegetables 
and l^erries was 86,695 acres. The livestock 
numljered 62,248; value $1,288,175. It is the 
[irune center of America. More prunes are 
raised in the wallc}- than are raised in the 
ydiole United States outside. In 1919 the or- 
chardists of the county received $45,000,000 
from the product of their trees. This was ir- 
respective of the money received from the 
jjackers and canners. In the season ending in ■ 
the winter of 1919 the Southern Pacific Rail- 
\\-ay handled al)out 153,000,000 pounds of 
prunes in the territory Ijetween Hollister and 
San Francisco. The crop was by far the larg- 
est e\-er raised in the Santa Clara A'alle}'. In 
1921 the canneries of the Aalley paid out 
nearly $50,000,000 for orchard products. 

Though called the "garden spot of Califor- 
nia," this phrase should not be interpreted to 
make gardening more important than fruit 
raising, for fruit raising is the prime industry. 
Timber, cattle raising, dairying and sundry in- 
dustries have played and still play an import- 
ant part in the lousiness life of the population, 
though the days of wheat raising, grazing and 
timber culture are passing rapidly. Lands so 
fertile and so adaptal:)le to fruits and vege- 
tables cannot, in a section that is being rapidly 
populated, be given over to any industry other 
than one that is intensive. Within the limits 
of the county there is practically no waste 
land. It is interesting to bear in mind that 
much of the poorer and rougher land com- 
pares more than favorably with some of the 
best acreage in the Eastern states. 

A graphic and beautiful picture of the valley 
appeared in the April (1920) issue of the 



v^outhcrn Pacific Ihillctiii. It \vas from the 
jien of 1\. F. Wilson and is here repriMluced: 

"One (if Califi irnia's great oiit-of-cloors treats 
is a tri]) throut^'h an^' of the orchard regions 
around the Bay cif San Francisco during blos- 
som time — the end of March and the begin- 
ning (.)i /Vprd. The Adsitor to San Francisco 
or Oakland during this period should devote 
a day at least t(.) seeing one of these mountain- 
rimmed fruit N'alleys nestling among their 
rounded, oak-clad foothills. The beautiful val- 
le}- of Santa Clara — (Jueen of Blossom Festi- 
vals — lies dh-ecth' sijuth of San Francisco, its 
ncirthern gatewav l.ieing at I'alo Alto, twenty 
miles distant. It is hfty miles m length and 
from fue to t\vent\' miles in \vidth, its level 
floors inlaid vith a thousand tinted squares 
and rectangles of orchards, dotted ^\'ith coun- 
tr_\- homes and interlaced with hundreds of 
miles of auto roads, electric lines and railways. 
Jt is a \'eritable Eden, a gorgeous garden of 
fruit and flowers, walled in on the east by the 
Mt. Hamilton Range, on the south and west 
by the Coast Range and the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains. This garden wall is t\\'o to three thou- 
sand feet high and 'over the garden wall' is all 
Califi jrnia, a natural setting for this wonderful 
valley, one of the thousand wonders on the 
Southern Pacific lines. In earl}- spring you 
can here behold over 100 square miles of trees 
in snow-white blossoms — prune, plum, cherry, 
olive, almond and with a dash of pink and red 
for the peach and apricot. Over 8,000,000 
with billions of blossoms — Santa Clara 
Count}''s great AVhite !Milky Way, twinkling 
in the California sunlight like myriad heavenly 
constellations, ^vith h(jney bees buzzing in the 
perfumed air. Ha^e )ou e\er seen such a 
sight? You may hear the Song of Spring all 
o\"er the world but no\\diere on earth can you 
duplicate the v'^anta Clara Valley in blossom 
time. You cannot match this wealth of bril- 
liant blossom even in Japan, and Japan's 
chcrr}- blossom trees are barren wdiile Cali- 
fornia's trees Ijring fcirth luscious fruit. In 
late March and early April the Santa Clara 
Valle\' is a dazzling, billow}' sea of foaming 
^vhite cajKS ridling toward us from the far- 
away horizon. From June t(j November this 
ocean of blossom is formed into a tempting 
Ijasket of assorted fruits. The valley then 
puts on a regal mantle, purple with prunes and 
])lums, bright }'ellow "with the colorful peach 
anfl afudcot gi\ing it full right to the happy 
title, 'The Field of the Cloth^if Gold'." 

The origin of the name \\diich the county 
bears is thus described in a repC)rt made to 
the Senate under date of ,\pril 16, 1856, by 
Gen. Mariano Guadalupe V^allcjo, then senator 
frrim the district of Sonoma entitled, "Report 
of ^Ir. Vallejo on the Derivation and Defini- 

tion of Names of the Several Counties in Cali- 
fornia." In that report, he says of Santa 
Clara: "According to the Roman Book of 
Martyrs, or Mart\'roli.jg_y, as Hortalana, the 
pious mother of Santa Clara, was once kneeling 
lief(ire a crucifi.x, ])ra3-ing earnestly that being 
with child she might be liappil}' delivered, she 
heard a \dice ^vhispering: 'Fear not, woman, 
thou shalt safely bring forth"; wliereupon a 
brilliant light sudclenh^ illumed .he place and 
the mother, inspired by the mysterious predic- 
tion, baptized her child Clara, ^\diich is the 
feminine of clear or Iiright. Clara was after- 
\\-ard sanctified, on account of her man}' emi- 
nent virtues and accordingly venerated by the 
Cathidics in all Roman Catholic churches. The 
Mission of Santa Clara, from which the county 
deri\'es its name, ^\'as founded on the twelfth 
da\' of Januar}-, 1777." 

The peo]ile who inhaljited the Santa Clara 
Valley prior to its occupancy b}' the whites 
AN'ere a race cif mild-mannered, ignorant and 
generalh' inoffensive Indians. Tlie\' were 
sometimes called Diggers and sulisisted on the 
spontaneous fruits of the soil and the small 
game \vhich the}' killed or captured with their 
rude wea])ons. Like nearly all the nati\-es of 
the Pacific Coast they worshiped the sun. 
The}' believed in an evil spirit and their re- 
ligious rites and ceremonies ^vere de\'oted, 
princi|)all}'. to its lu'opitiation rather than to 
the adoration of a Supreme Being with power 
to protect them from the anger of their evil 
gild. The}' had no A'illages, but at certain sea- 
sons of the }'ear they wfiuld herd at certain 
fixed places which the Spaniards called ranch- 
erias. The}' had no prominent men or noted 
chiefs whose names survi\'e. Their existence 
in the count}' ser\'ed as a motive for the estab- 
lishing of the Mission of Santa Clara, which 
\\'as the beginning of ci^•ilization in the valley. 

Founding of the Missions 

In 1768 Franciscan friars, under the guid- 
ance of Father Junipero Serra, left Lower 
California for the conquest and conversion of 
Lpper or Alta California. The first mission 
was established in San Diego on July 16, 1769. 
In Septemlter 1776, the Viceroy of Mexico 
penned a communication to Don Fernando 
Rivera, the officer commanding at San Diego, 
informing him that he had received the intelli- 
gence that two missions had been founded in 
the vicinity of the Bay of San Francisco and 
as the Commandante had been provided with 
military guards for these he would be pleased 
to have his report. On the arrival of the mes- 
sage Don Fernando, without loss of time, made 
arrangements for visiting the places desig- 
nated and placing the guards in their proper 
idaces. After a journey, covering many days, 

lllSTuin- ol' SANTA CI.ARA Coi'K'l'V 35 

he. with his twelve si.hhers, arrived at Mon- j.raver, ihev assisted at tlie Jl,,lv Saeranient 

terey, where he learned that onlv the mission of the mass. Breakfast next l"o)l,,wed after 

at Sau hraneiseo had heen f.,nnded. Aeeom- whieh they proeee.led to thrir r.^siM-rti v,. nu 

l.anjed by bather omas de la l>ena. who with ployments. Tn^ard no,,n thev returned f., tl a" 

another pnest. had l-een a,,ponUe<l to perform Mission and .spent the tune ]V,,m il,en ,,n I 11 

the reho-ums dnlies ,,| the expedition, he 2 o'eloek between -hnner and repose af ■ 

started north. On then- journey they eame to whieh thev rej.aired to then- work ' and re 

the spot alterwans oeeupied bv the Satita mained euffa-ed until evening- an-.-elus about 

elara M,ss,ou and bein- eaptivate.l by its an hour before sundown \11 then' 'b f , 

many ehar,ns and a.lvanta-es resolved to lo- themsehes t,, the ehnreh inr evenin- de '-' 

^'^^'';' '' '"'■^^•"" tl^--'''^'- ti'-'"«. "•Iii'^-li eonsisted of the ordinary" family 

1 oward the last days of the year, 1776, the prayers and the rosary, e.xeejil cm speeial oc'- 

soldiers and their families, who were to take easions, when other dexotional e.xereises' were 

part in the establishin;;- oi the new- mission, adrled. After .s'upper, whieh imniediateh' fol- 

arri\-ed in San I'raneiseo, and on January 6. lo\\-ed, they amused themsehes in chA'-rs 

1//7. leather I'ena. the soldiers and their fami- sptirts. g-ames ai-id daneint,'- tmtil the hour rf 

lies, took up the niareh for the ehosen loea- i"eij( Their diet consisted of an abundance 

turn. Their hrst duty on reaching- their des- '-'f beef and i-nutton, with ^-eg■etables in sea 

tination was to erect a cmss. \\-hich, \\-ith all so"- \A'heaten cakes and pnddir-i<>-s i-)r n< r- 

stilemnity, \\-as blessed and adored. (Jn Jan- I'idges, called atole and jmuoIc, alsi"^ formed ' 

uary 12. 1777, an altar \\-as raised and the first portion of the repast. The dress was for tl 

n-iass e\-er celeliratecl in the \alley \\-as said males, linen shirts and pants and a blanket 

by Father Pena. In a few days Father Mur- he used as an overcoat, 'bhe woincn 'rece'^ivecl 

g-uia joined them, with the necessary para- each, annually, twd underg-arnients, a o-Qw-n 

phernalia for a settlement, and on January 18. and a blanket. In years of plent\' 'after tl 

1777. the fon-nal ceremony of founding; Santa .Missions became rich the Father.s' d'-t d t I 

Clara Mis,SKm took place. 'Jdnis was the first all the surplus money' among- them inVlot'hinp- 

white settlement m the count_y. hrom this and trinkets" oiem m ciotning 

time the vallev, which had hitherto been ,, 

kno^vn as San liernardino, became the Valley /"^ natn-es were teachable, willing to learn 

of Santa Clara. A general description of the ^."" reasonal)ly industrious. The land was fer- 

settlement is thus giyen l-)y Father Gleeson *^"'^ ''■'''d each 3-ear sa-\y a gratifying- increase in 

in his Avork entitled "The History of the Cath- the numbers of those who relinquished heath- 

olic Church in California": "The buildings ':"'-'^™ tor Christianity and habits of savacrery 

w-ere generally quadrilaterals, inclosing a court for the arts of civilization. Havino- a care' oy - 

ornamented w-ith flowers and trees, the wdiole the temporal as w-ell as the spirFtual 'If 

containing the church, the fathers' apartments, of their charges the Fathers soon saw f^ 

storehottses, barracks etc The entire man- Santa Clara Mission become a flourishing m'- 

agement of each establishment was in the stitution ^""'& '" 

hands of t\\-o religieux; the elder attended to 

the interior, the younger to the exterior ad- -^'^^"t seyen years after the foregoing events, 

ministration. One portion of the building Father Junipero Serra, president of the Mis- 

\\-hich v\-as called the 'monaster}-' v\-as inhab- sions of California, feeling that old ao-e was 

ited b}- the young Indian girls. There, under overtaking him, and, haxing some spare time 

the care of approved matrons, they were care- resolved to visit some of the missions and 

fully instructed and trained in those branches hold last confirmation. He had also been in 

necessary for their condition in life. They were vited to dedicate the Santa Clara Mission 

not permitted to leave till of an age to be About the first of May he visited the selected 

marned-this with a view of preserving their gp^t^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^,^^^ ^^ ^^ g^^^ Francisco He 

""?,'; I' 1 t .1 1 I.-1 -. 1 ''""'^ ''^™ "' ^'^^^ Pl^'^e b"t a few days when 

In the scTtools those who exhibited more he received the distressing news of the serious 

talent than their companions vvere taught vocal jjlness of Father Murguia (Jn May 11 1784 

and instrumental music, the latter consisting .. „ ,-n„.^^, . ■ , 'T r ,/ ,-/ , A 

r ,1 1 1-1-7 4-1 1-1 tire Illness terminated fata ly Father Serra 

of flute, horn and violm. In the mechanical , r ,, , i'tutu_\. i ainer v^erra 

departments the most apt were promoted to '"''''" ^°° enfeebled to attend the funeral. He 

the positions of foremen. The better to pre- "■]^^ ^'^'.'^' however, to go to the Mission ior 

serye the morals of all, none of the whites, *"e dedicator_v ceremonies, which took place 

except those absolutely necessary, were em- on May 16, 1784. Assemlded to witness the 

ploved at the Mission. The daily routine was imposing scene were the troops, many citizens 

as follows: At sunrise they arose and pro- and a large number of unchristianized Indians, 

ceeded to the church, where, after morning On the succeeding Sunday mass was chanted 



by the aged priest in a solemn and impressive 
manner. On that da_\- he held his confirmation. 

Founding of San Jose 

Don Felipe de Neve, the third Spanish gov- 
ernor of California, was in office from Decem- 
ber, 1774, to September, 1782. On June 3, 1777, 
he suggested to the central government in 
Mexico the establishment of three settlements, 
(me of them being on the banks of the Guada- 
lupe River, sevent}'-eight miles from Monte- 
rey, fortv-eight from the presidio at San Fran- 
cisco and tAVii and a quarter miles from the 
Missiim of Santa Clara. At tliat time. Lieu- 
tenant Don Jose de Mt)raga, commanding at 
San Francisco, ^\■as directed to detach nine 
soldiers of kno\\m agricultural skill, two set- 
tlers and three laborers to form a settlement 
on the margin of the Guadalupe, which they 
effected on Novendier 29, 1777, The name 
the}- ga\"e it was San Jose de Guadalu])e, the 
appro\'al from Sjiain being dated .March 6, 

( )n December 24, 17S2, Lieutenant ]\loraga 
was directed to partition oli the land to the 
settlers, a (lut\- he effected lictween the thir- 
teenth and nineteenth of I\fa}-, 1783, the reciiJ- 
ients of the land being Ignacio Archeluta, 
Manuel Gonzales, Jose Tiburcio Vasquez, 
Manuel Ames(|uita, Antonio Romero, Ber- 
nardo Ivosales, Francisco A\"ila, Sebastian Al- 
N'itre and Claudio AKdres. 

The tir>t location was made nearly a mile 
and a quarter from the center of the present 
citv of San T(.ise, aliout wdiere a bridge spanned 
a little stream on the road to AKiso. The 
ground was too low at this point and the first 
settlers were the \ictims of }-earl_\- recurring 
floods and thieving Indians; therefore, jiermis- 
sion was asked to remoxe to higher land and 
a more adxantageous site. It takes long', how- 
ever, tC) moNC the wheels of official machiner}'. 
In the \"ear 1785, the (piestion of the transfer 
was mooted, Imt it was not until 1797 that 
the remowal was acconqdished — the center of 
the new site being near the corner of Market 
and San Fernando streets. 

Captain Vancoux'cr, wdio visited Santa Clara 
Valley in 17S*2, thus descrilies it: 'AVe con- 
sidered our Course from v^an Francisco parallel 
to the sea coast, l:)etween wdiich and our path 
the ridge of mountains extended to the S(]Uth- 
eastward. As we ad\'anced, their sides and 
summits exhibited a high degree of fertility, 
interspersed with copses of various forms and 
magnitudinous and verdant open spaces en- 
circled with statel}' fruit trees of various de- 
scriptions. About noon w^e arrived at a very 
pleasant and enchanting lawn, situated amid 
a grove of trees at the foot of a small hill, 
by which flowed a very fine stream of excellent 

water. We had not proceeded far from this 
delightful spot when we entered a country I 
little expected to find in these regions. For 
almost twenty miles it could be compared to 
a park wdiich had originally been planted -with 
true old English oak. The underwood, which 
had probably attained its early growth, had 
the appearance of having been cleared away 
and had left the statel}' lords of the forest in 
complete possession of the soil, which was 
co\-ered with magnificent foliage and beau- 
tifull}' di\x*rsified with pleasing eminences and 
valleys, wdiich. with the lofty ranges of moun- 
tains, that bounded the ])rospect, required only 
to l)e adorned with neat habitations of an in- 
dustrious peo])le to produce a scene not in- 
ferior to the most studied effect of taste in 
the disposal of grounds." 

Frederic Hall, a pioneer lawyer of San 
Jose, sa}-s in his history that nearly all the 
Indians in the region descrilied by Captain 
A ancouN'er were in the habnt of visiting the 
hill on wdiich the New jVlmadcn mine was first 
opened and workerl to obtain the red paint 
to arlorn their faces and bodies. The cinna- 
bar is of a reddish hue, and easily produces a 
red pigment wdicn moistened and rufibed. 
\A bile the color ot the ]iig'ment was pleasing 
to the eyes of the Indians its effect on their 
s_\'stem was by no means agreealde. It sali- 
^ ated them — a result as mysterious and unex- 
plamalile to them as the setting of the sun. 
Althou.i^ii a little painful, they seemed to for- 
get their illness as they witnessed the lustre 
of their skins, for they W'cre as resfdute in 
then- pride of dress as the proud damsel groan- 
ini;- in tight corsets and tight sh(-)es. 

The Alameda, that renowned avenue that 
links v'^an Jose \\dth vSanta Clara, is known 
and admired the v\-orlfl ox'cr. Idle planting 
of the trees A\-as started in 1799 Iw- Father 
IMaguin de Catala, for the lienefit of the way- 
farer ]ournc'_\-ing between the two towns. 
d\\-o hundred Indians wxre employed to do 
the w^ork. The eastern limit of the groxe was 
at the Guadalupe River. Init in Time the 
march of progress necessitated the removal of 
many of the trees to make way for houses and 

The original ^lission of Santa Clara stood 
near wdiere now are seen the structures of the 
Southern Pacific Railway station. Its walks 
were cracked by an earthquake in 1812, but 
no portion of it fell at that time. In 1822, 
however, an(jther and more severe shock 
caused so much injury to the building that it 
became necessary to take it down rather than 
attempt to repair it. A site for a new Mission 
was chosen a short distance to the southwest, 
and in 1825-26 the new Mission Church was 
completed. In later years, so great was the 


ileca}- that it was fcmml adxisalile to encase no longer necessary for missionary [purposes, 
tile walls, remodel the facade and erect two and thus had reverted to tlie state as a quasi 
tci\\ers ; eacli ser\ed for the imrpose of a escheat, ^yhile the co-actors in Califr)rnia 
lookout. The face of the structure was paint- should api)ropriate the lotal wealth of the 
ed in a rude fashion with hihlical scenes in- Missions Ijy the ra])id and sme prcjcess of ad- 
tended to attract the eye of the ahoriginal, ministerin.o' their temporalities." And again: 
wdiile \\ithin ^yere tableaux and allegorical "These laws Avhose ostensible ])urposc was to 
]iictures. In 1884, as a sanitary measure, the convert the missionary establishments into 
old Mission was torn down under the super- Indian puel)los, their churches into parish 
A'ision c>f Father Robert E. Kenna, |)resident churches, and to ekwate the Christianized In- 
of Santa Clara College. One adobe wall was dians to the rank of citizens, \\'ere, after all, 
left standing to show the original construe- executed in such a manner that the so-called 
\\o\\ and a numlK'r of pictures and relics were secularization of the missions resulted only 
allowed to remain. in their plunder and comjjlete ruin, and in the 

Secularization of the Missions 

demoralization and dispersion of the Chris- 
tianized Indians.' 

In the }"ear 1767 the property possessed by Immediately upon the recei])t of the decree 

the Jesuits, then known as the Pious Fund, the then-acting Go\ernor 'of California, Don 

was taken charge of In- the (lovernment and lose Figueroa, commenced the carr\ing out of 

used for the benefit of the ^Missions. At that its provisions to which he added certain rules 

time the possession yielded an annual revenue and in accordance .therewith the alteration in 

of $50,000, $25,000 of which were expended in the missionary system was begun, to be imme- 

the stipends of the Franciscan and Dominican diately followed by the absolute ruin of both 

missionaries and the balance for the mainten- r^fissions and countr}-. Within a Acry fe^v 

ance of the missions generally. Father Glee- years the work of the Fathers \\-as entirely 

son says: "The first inroads made upon these destroyed; the lands which had hitbertcj teem- 

pious donations was about the }'ear 1806, ed \\\\\\ alnmdance \\'ere handed o\"er to the 

when to relie^•e the national wants caused by Indians to lie by them ne.glected and permit- 

the wars of 1801 and 1804 between Portugal ted to return to their primitive wildness, while 

on the one hand and Great Britain on the the thousands of cattle were di\'i(led among 

other. His MajestA^'s fiscal at Mexico scrupled the people and the administrators, 

not to confiscate and remit to the autjiorities jj^ ]g35 ^i^g number of Indians cared for in 

in Spain as much as $200,000 f)f the Pious ^\^^ missions amounted to over 30,000. They 

Fund." By this means the Missions were de- ^^.g^e peaceful, happy and contented, strang- 

prived of most substantial aid and the Fathers g^s to those cares, trouliles and anxieties com- 

left upon their own resources. Two years „^^,n tu higher and more civilized conditions of 

after ]\Iexico had been formed into a republic ufg. At the same time that their religious 

the government authorities began to interfere condition was one of thankfulness and grate- 

with the rights of the Fathers and the exist- f^i satisfaction to the Fathers, their Avorldly 

ing state of afifairs. In 1826 instructions were position was one of abundance and prosper- 

forwarded by the Federal Government to the ity. Divided among the dilTerent missions 

authorities in California for the liberation of from gan Lucas to San Francisco close upon 

the Indians. This was followed a few years one million head of livestock Ixdonged to the 

later liy another act ordering the whole of the people. The united annual return of the cer- 

missions to be secularized and the religieux gals, consisting of wheat, maize, beans and the 

to withdraw. The ostensible object assigned hke, was upwards of 120,000 bushels, wdiile 

by the authors of the measure was the execu- at the same time throughout the diflierent mis- 

tion of the original plan formed by the gov- sions the preparation and manufacture of 

eminent. The Missions, it was alleged, were soap, leather, wine, brandy, hides, wool, oil, 

never intended to be permanent establish- cotton, hemp, linen, tobacco, salt and soda was 

ments : they were to give way in the course extensively pursued. And to such perfection 

of some years to the regular ecclesiastical ^yere these articles brought that some of them 

system wdien the people would be formed ^^-gj-g eagerly sought for and purchased in the 

into parishes attended by a secular clergy. principal cities of Europe. * 

"Beneath these specious pretexts, 'says 
Dwinelle in his Colonial History, "w^as un- 
doubtedly a perfect understanding between 

Such was the happ}' and prosperous condi- 
tion of the country under missionary rule. 

the o-overnment at Mexico and the leading What resulted after the transfer of power to 

men "of California, and in such a condition of the secular authorities was disastrous. In 

things the Supreme Government might absorb 1834 at the time of the secularization of the 

the Pious Fund under the pretense that it was missions there were 1,800 Indians belonging 



to the Missiiin of Santa Clara. In 1842 the 
numhier had lieen reduced to four hundred. 

Life on the Early Ranchos 

Prior tri the .-Vmerican occupation of Cali- 
fornia the natives A\'ere a half-caste race, be- 
tween the half Castilian and the native Lidian, 
A'ery few of the tamilies retainino' the pure 
blood of old Castile. They were of all shades 
of coliir anil developed into a handsr)me and 
vigorous race. Their wants were few and 
easily supplied ; they were contented and 
happ}^: the Avrmien Avere \'irtuous and devoted 
to their church and religion, A\diile the men, 
in normal conditinn, were kind and hospit- 
alile, but \\dK-'n excited l)ecame rash, fearless, 
even cruel, witli no dread (->f knife or pistol. 
Their generositx^ was great, exerything they 
had being at the dis[)(isal of friend or strang- 
er. Socialh' theA" loxed jileasure, spending 
most of their time in music and dancing; in- 
deed such A\-as their jiassion' for the latter that 
their horses were trained to cur\-et in time t(j 
the tunes of the guitar. "When not sleeping, 
eating or dancing the men spent much time in 
the saddle and naturalh- became expert ec|ues- 
trians. Horse racing Avas with them almost a 
daily occurrence, not from the gain it might 
bring h)ut from the amusement to be derived 
therefrom. To throw a dollar upon the 
ground, ride l)y at a full gallop and pick it up 
was a feat that most of them could perform. 

Horses and cattle ga\e them their chief 
occupation. The}- could use the riata or lasso 
with the utmost de.xterit}- ; whenever thrown 
at a Lnillock, horseman or bear, it rarel_v miss- 
ed its mark. The riata in the hands of a 
Californian A\-as a more dangerous weapon 
than gun or pistol, ANdnile to catch a wild cow 
with it, thrrjAv and tie her, withc)Ut dismount- 
ing, was most common, and to gcj through 
the same perfr)rmance with a liear was not 
considered extraordinary. Their onlv articles 
of export were hides and tallow, the value of 
the former being a dollar and a half in cash 
and two dollars in g(K)ds anrl the latter three 
cents per pound in barter. Young heifers, two 
years old, for breeding purposes were wortn 
three dollars : a fat steer delivered in the 
Pueblo San Jose lironght fifty cents more, 
while it was neither trespass nor larcen}' to 
kill a beeve, use the flesh and hang the hide 
with tallow tin a tree, secure from coyotes, 
where it could 1«; found by the owner. 

Lands outside of the town were valuable 
only for grazing purposes. J!^or this use every 
citizen of good character having cattle, could, 
for the asking, and by paying a fee to the offi- 
cials and a tax upon the written paper, get a 
grant upon a grazing tract of from one to 
eleven square leagues of land. These domains 

were called ranchos, the only improA-ements 
on them being a hcmse and a corral. They 
AA'ere never inclosed, they Avere never survey- 
ed, but extended from one Avell defined land- 
mark to an(.ither, and Avhether they contained 
two or three leagues more or less, Avas re- 
garded as a matter of no consec|uence, for the 
land itself Avas of no value to the government. 
It Avas not necessary for a man to keep cat- 
tle on his oAvn land. They were ear-marked 
and these marks established the ownership. 
The stock roamed at Avill, the rancher some- 
times finding his animals fifty or sixty miles 
aAvaA- from his grounds. Aljout the middle of 
March the rodeo seasrin opened, the time Avas 
fixed in adAance by the ranchero Avho Avould 
send notice to his neighbors for leagues 
around. All these ranchers with their va- 
queros, Avould attend and participate. It 
Avas the gathering in one locality of all the 
cattle on the rancho. When this task Avas 
accomplished, the next operaticin A\as for each 
ranchero present to ]")art out fnnn the general 
herd all animals haA'ing his brand and ear- 
mark and driAe them oft' to his own rancho. 
In doing this the}' Avere alloAved to take all 
cah'es that followed their mothers. What 
Avas left in the rodeo belonged to the owner 
of the rancho, Avho then marked them as his 
property. On some of the ranchos the num- 
ber of cah'es branded and marked each year 
Avas enormous, Joarpiin Ijernal, aa'Iio owned 
the vSanta Teresa Rancho, eight miles south 
of San Jose, having been in the habit of brand- 
ing not less than 5,000 head yearly. In this 
AA'ork a great many horses Avere etnployed. 
Lift}' head Avas a small numlier for a ranchero 
to OAvn, 

By the time the rodeo season AA'as over — 
about the middle of May — the matanza or 
killing season commenced. The numl^er of 
cattle killed each year Avas commensurate 
Avith the number of calves marked and the 
amount cif herbage for the year, for it Avas the 
rule that no more should l>e kept alive than 
the pasture on the rancho could support. 
After the butchering the hides Avere taken 
oft' and driefl, the fattest portions of the flesh 
Avere made into soap, while some of the best 
portions of the meat Avere cut, pulled into thin 
shreds and dried in the sun. The residue Avas 
throAvn aAvay to be eaten by the buzzards and 
the dogs. Young dogs Avere never destroyed 
and it Avas no infrequent occurrence to see a 
ranchero ride into town Avith a string of dogs 
at his horse's heels. 

The habitations of these people Avere mark- 
ed by simplicity. The Avails Avere fashioned of 
sun dried bricks, made of that black loam 
knoAvn to settlers as adobe soil. The adobe 




was mixed with straw, each lirick, about 
eighteen inches siinare, three inches thick, be- 
ins cemented with mud and whitewashed 
when finished. The rafters and joists were of 
rou^-h timber, with the bark simply peeled off, 
and placed in the required |)nsition. The 
thatch was uf rushes or chapparal fastened 
do\\-u with thoui^-s of bullocks' hide. When 
completed these dwellings were capable of 
standin>;- the JM-unt and wear and tear of 
many decades, as can lie evidenced by the 
number now standing- in the Valley. The 
furniture consisted of a few cooking utensils, 
a rude bench or two, sometimes a table and 
the never-failing camphor-wood trunk. This 
trunk, or chest, contained the extra clothes 
of the women — the men w'(->re theirs on their 
backs — and if a visit abroad of more than a 
few days' duration was made the box was 
taken along. The women were cleanly in 
their persons and clothing, the common dress 
being- a calico gown of plain colors, blue 
grounds with small figures being those most 
fancied. The fashionable ball dress of the 
young lady was a scarlet flannel petticoat 
covered ^\-lth a white la\vn skirt. Ijonnets 
there were none, the head-dress consisting of 
a long, narrow shawl or scarf. 

The dress of the men was a cotton shirt, 
cotton drawers, calzonazos, sash, serape and 
hat. The calzonazos took the place of panta- 
loons, but differed from these by being open 
down the side, or rather the seams on the 
sides were not sewed up as in pantaloons but 
\vere laced together from the waist band to 
the hips b}- means of a ribbon run through 
eyelets and fastened with large silver bell-but- 
tons. In wearing them they were left open 
from the knee down. The best of these gar- 
ments were made of broadcloth, the inside 
and (jutside seams being faced with cotton 
velvet. The serape was a blanket with a hole 
through its center, through which the head 
was inserted. These cloaks were invariably 
of brilliant colors and varied in price from 
four to one hundred and fifty dollars. The 
calzonazos were held in place by a pink sash 
worn around the waist; vdiile the serape 
served as a coat by day and a ccjvering by 

The courtship of these people was peculiar. 
No flirting or love-making was permitted. 
A\'hen a young man of marriageable age saw a 
girl that suited his eye, he had first to make 
his wnshes known to his own father, in wdiose 
house the eligibility of the selected one was 
gravely discussed. If the son's wish was re- 
o-arded' with favor, the father addressed a 
letter to the father of the girl asking for his 
daughter in marriage for his son. The matter 

was then freely discussed between the parents 
of the girl and if an adverse decision was ar- 
rived at, the father of the young man was by 
letter so informed and the matter was at an 
end. lint if the decision of the jiarents was 
fav(jral:)le to the young man then the girl's in- 
clinations were consulted and her decisi(jn, if 
favorable, was communicated in the same 
manner and the affair of the engagement be- 
came a matter of public notoriety. The girl 
might then visit the 3'oung man to be re- 
ceived as a member of the family, and when 
the time for the marriage came there ensued 
feasting and dancing, the celeljratiini continu- 
ing for three or four days. When there was 
a refusal of marriage the girl was said to have 
given her lover the pumpkin — se dio la cabala. 

The principal articles of food were beef 
and beans, in the cooking and preparing of 
\\-hich they were unsurpassed, though they 
cultivated to a certain extent maize, melons 
and pumpkins. The bread used was the 
tortilla, a wafer in the shape of Jewish un- 
leavened bread, made generally with wdieat, 
but sometimes with corn. AVhen prepared 
it was first boiled in a weak lye made of wood 
ashes and then by hand ground betw^een two 
stones into a paste. This process completed, 
a small portion of the dough was taken out 
and by dexterous throwing from the back of 
one hand to the back of the other the shape 
was formed. Then it was placed upon a flat 
iri-)n and fiaked over the fire. 

The mill in which the grain was ground 
\\'as made of two stones as nearly round as 
possible, of about thirty inches in diameter, 
each being dressed on one side to a smooth 
surface. One was set upon a frame about two 
feet high with the smooth face upward ; the 
other was placed on this with the even facet 
downward while through an inch hole in the 
center the wdieat was fed by hand. Tw^o holes 
drilled partly through each stone admitted an 
iron bolt, to which a long pole was attached. 
To its end was harnessed a horse, mule or 
donkey and the animal being driven around in 
a circle caused the stone to revolve. These 
mills were capable of grinding a bushel of 
wheat in about twelve hours. 

The vehicles and agricultural implements 
were quite as primitive, the cart in common 
use being formed in the following manner ; 
the two wd-ieels were sections of a log with a 
hole drilled or bored in the center, the axle a 
jxile sharpened at each end for spindles, with 
a pin to prevent the wheels from slipping off. 
Another pole fastened to the middle of the 
axle served as a tongue. Upon this frame- 
work was fastened a kind of wdeker-work 
framed of sticks bound together with strips of 


hide. The Ijeasts of burden were oxen. They the complaint. This lirought about a wordy 
^vere yol<ed with a stick across the forehead. altercation between the two parties during 
The stick ^vas notched and crooked so as to wdiich the alcalde was able to arrive at the 
fit the head closely and the whole was tied facts. Sometimes judgment was immediately 
with rawhide. The plow was a still more rendered, the trial not ocupying more than 
quaint affair. It consisted of a k)ng piece of two hours. In important cases three "good 
timber \vhich ser\"ed the purpose of a 1)eam. men" would be called in to act as co-justices. 
To the end ^^'as fastened a handle. A mortise A learned .'\merican judge has said that the 
was next chiseled in order to admit the plow native Californians were, in the presence of 
which ^\■as a short stick with a natural crook, courts, eminently truthful. They were all 
with a small piece of iron fastened to the end Roman Catholics, and their priests were of 
of it. With this crude implement was the soil the Franciscan order. The)' -were great 
upturned, \\diilc the branch of a tree ser\-ed as church-goers, }-et vSunday ^\'as not the rmh" 
a harr<]\v. There ^^'ere no fences to protect day set apart for their devotions. Nearh' 
the crojis. To take their place ditches were e\er3' da\' in the calendar was devoted to the 
dug, the top of the soil Ijeing covered with memor}- of some saint. Those dedicated to 
branches of trees to keep away the numerrjus the principal ones were oliserved as holidavs. 
bands of cattle and horses. When the crops The front door of their churches was always 
were ripe they were cut with a sickle or any o])en and every person passing, whether on 
other convenient utensil. Next came the foot or on horseback, doffed his hat. Not tf) 
threshing. The floor of the corral in which have done this was regarded as almost a 
the cattle and horses were ]-)enned had Ijccome crime, louring the holding of services with- 
hardened. Into this enclosure the grain in the church it \\-as customary to station a 
would be pileil and uiion it the mares would 1)e number of men without, who at appointed in- 
turned loose to tramp out the seed. The tervals interrupted the services bv the ringing 
wildest of these animals, many of them colts of Ixdls and firing (jf pistols, creating a noise 
that had neyef been liranded', n-riuld tackle resembling the irregular fire of a company of 
the grain. The>" were urged to the work In- infantr\'. 

the^ yelling of vaqueros and the cracking of j„ ^,;.^.,,. ^,,,„,^,,^ ,,^.,,^ ^ ^ ^ number of pic- 
whips untd nothmg was left but the gram and ^„,,, ,,f ^j,^, .^^j^^, _,^,,,i ^ triumphal arch pro- 
the chart. The difficult part was the separat f^,,^,i,- decorate<l with artificial flowers, while 
'.■^S' °^ t^^^ ^"'"- '-'"''"■- \" *c length of the „„ a'holidav devoted lo some particular saint, 
dry season there was no haste to ettect this. .,ft,., ^he performance of the mass, a picture 
^^'^^e\"r<^^y^^<^nthe-.v,m\v.-a^h^i^h,n,,ui^hUie ,,f ^h,, s.anit deposited in the arch would be 
tramp ed mass would be tossed int,, the a,r ,.,,r„.d out of the church on the shoulders of 
with large wooden forks. T he wind would f.,ur men, followed bv the whole congregation 
carrv away the chaff the heaNier gram „, ,i,„,,,,^. ^j^. ^^.j^i^ ^- j^..^^.^^ .^^ ^|^^ j^^^^,- ,,_,,.^,. 
on the groun.l.^ AVith a favorable breeze sev- j„ ,,,,„,, 'p,^^, procession wouul march all 
eral bushels ot \N-heat could be winnowed m around town and at every few rods the par- 
a day. Strange as it may aripear it is claimed ticipants would kneel on the groun.l while 
that gram so sifted was much cleaner than ,s the priest rea.l a i^raver or pcrfr.rmed s,)me 
the wheat ot to.lay. religious ceremony. After the circuit of the 
Early Government town ha<I been made, the procession returned 
The government of the native Calif<,rnian ^" *'^^' '^]''"-\ ^^''^.h the termination of these 
was as 'primitive as the ].cop]e. There were ^-^■'-ei'T'iTc's the natives gave themselves over 
neither law l.o.,ks nor lawA-ers, wliile laws ^o pleasure, engaging m horse racing, cock- 
were mo^tlv to be f(.und in 'the traditions ,;f ^^^^''^^- rt^'icing and other forms ot merry- 
the people.' The head offfcer in each village '':^\'"'^- -'^ lavonte amusement ot these fes- 
or toxvn Avas the alcalde, m whom was vested !''"'''/^ "''''^ ^",\ th""ty or torty men on horse- 
the judical function. r)n the enactment ..f a ^''"~~^'] .?^'"erally two and sometimes three on 
new law a manuscript co].^-, called the l)ando, ''"^ '^"''"^V Y''*'' ^''^"' --"'^ars, to i.arade the 
was sent around bv a person beating a snare *"'''"■ ^''"""' '^'"'"f. ^;^Pering and kee]nng time 
<lrum. This was tlie signal for the assembling ^" the music which was accompanied with 
of the people at the alcalde's office where the ■■'"^•"■^- J^'-'si'lences an<l places of business were 
act was read and forthwith had the force of ^'sited and it wos considered no breach of 
law. When a native had cause for acticju 'lecorum for the mounted men to ride into 
against another he went to the alcalde, stated stores and dwellings. 

his case and asked that the delendant be sum- Sr)me rif the religious ceremonies \\'ere ,gro- 

moned. ' )n making his ajipearance the de- tesque and amusing, the personification of 

fendant was asked Avhat he had to say about "The Wise Men of the East" being of this 



character. At tlic date ajjrced upon for tlie an- 
niversary of the visit of the \Visc Men to Beth- 
lehem, se\en or eij;ht men ^vollkl be found 
dressed in most fantastic st\les and on their 
way to find the infant Savior. They went 
from house to house and were always accom- 
panied by one representing the devil and 
garbed like a Franciscan friar. He carried a 
rosary of beads and a cross and a long rawhide 
whip and woe to the man who came within 
reach of that whip — it was far from fun for 
him but \ery amusing tt) the rest of the 
com])an)-. The chief of these ceremonies was 
the punishment of Judas for the betrayal of 
his blaster. On the reputed anniversary of 
this e\ent, after the people had retired to rest 
a companv would go out and prepare for the 
ceremonies. ..V cart was procured and placed 
in the puldic square in front of the church. 
Against the cart ^\•as placed an efligy of Jiidas 
made b\' stufling an lAd suit of clothes ^\'ith 
straw. The houses were then visited and a 
collection of pots, pans, kettles, dishes and 
farming implem'ents was assembled and piled 
around the effig}' to represent Judas' worldly 
effects. Then the last will and testament of 
Judas had to he prepared, the work being 
gi\-en to the l)est scril)e and the greatest wit 
in the community. FA'ery article of property 
had to be disposed of and sometjiing like an 
equal distribution made, each request being 
accompanied by some very pointed and witty 
reason for the donation. Among a more sen- 
siti\-e ])eople some of these reasons would be 
regarded as libelous. The will, ^^■hen com- 
pleted and properl}- attested, was posted on 
a bulletin board near the effigy and the night's 
\\-ork was over. As soon as it was sufliciently 
light the entire population, men, women and 
children, congregated to see Judas and 'his 
^vealth and to hear, read and discuss the 
merits of the will and the appropriateness of 
its pro\-isions. Nothing else was talked of, 
nothing else was thought of until the church 
bell summoned them to mass, after which a 
wild, un1)roken mare was procured, on the 
back of which Judas was firmly strapped. A 
string of firecrackers was then tied to her 
tail, they were lighted, the animal \vas turned 
loose and the ultimate fate of the figurative 
Judas was not unlike that of his perfidious 

The native Californians were a temperate 
people, intr)xication lieing almost unknown, 
Init there was one vice common to all, namely 
the passion of gaml:)ling. Their favorite game 
was monte, probably the first of all banking 
games. So passionately were they addicted to 
this that on a Sunday about the church, while 
the women were inside and the priest at the 

altar, crowds of men woidd have their blan- 
kets spread upon the ground witli their cards 
and mone\', ])laying monte. They seemed to 
ha\e no idea that gambling \\as a sin. This 
predilection was earl\' disco\ercd liy tlie 
Americans, who s(jon established Ijanks and 
carried on games. The passion soon became 
so de\'elo|>e<l that the natixes wouhl bet and 
lose their horses and cattle, wdiile to ])rocure 
monev to gratifx' this urge the}' \\-oulil bor- 
row from the Americans, paying tweUe and 
one half per cent interest per day; and they 
Avould mortgage and sell land and stock, 
sometimes their wi\'es' chithing, to ol)tain the 
wdierewithal to play. 

Before lea\ing these jieople mention should 
be made of their bull and bear fights. Sunday 
or some prominent holiday A\'as generally 
chosen for the holding of these e-xhi]jiti(jns, 
to prepare for wdiich a large corral was erect- 
ed in the plaza in frfmt of the church. In the 
afternoon after divine service, twri or three 
good bulls (if a bull fight was in order) 
would be caught and drixen into the enclos- 
lu'e. If there is anything that will make a 1)ull 
furious it is the sight of a red blanket. Sur- 
rounded hv the entire po]")ulation, the fighters 
\\-ould enter the arena, each with a red blan- 
ket in one hand and a knife in the other. They 
would flaunt the blankets before the infuriat- 
ed beasts, with knives ready for defense or as- 
sault. A bull would dash at its eneni}-, wdio 
\\'ith a dexterous side spring would eva<le the 
onslaught, allowing the animal to strike the 
Idanket and permit a quick slasli with the 
knife. Whoexer by his quickness could stick 
a knife into a Ijull's neck, severing the spinal 
cord, receix-ed the plaudits of the admiring 
throng. The interest taken in these exhibi- 
tions was intense. The killing or wounding 
rif a bull-fighter only added zest to the sport. 

AMien a grizzly bear could be procured the 
fight Avas then between bull and l3ear. Both 
were taken into the corral, each being made 
fast to the opposite end of a rope of sufficient 
length to ]")ermit free action and then left 
alone. The first move xvas usuall}' made by 
the bull in an attempt to part company with 
the bear, A\dio, as a result, received the first 
"knock down." On finding that he cr.uld not 
get clear of bruin, the bull then charged, but 
was met half-waA'. The fight was intensely 
interesting to the spectators, and was keot 
U]1 until one or the other was killed, or both 
refused to continue the combat. As a rule 
the bull was victorious. This custom of bull 
and bear fighting was continued until 1854 
when the Legislature interposed by an "Act 
to prevent noisy and barbarous amusements 
(tn the Sabbath." 



The late Judge R. F. Peckham, one of the 
pioneer lawyers of Santa Clara County, often 
narrated the following incident m regard to 
this Legislative act. Shortly after it 1:)ecame 
a law great preparations were made for having 
a bull-fight, on the Sabbath as usual, at the old 
Mission of v^an Juan Bautista at the southern 
end of the Santa Clara Vallev. The ])romot- 
ers were notified by the officers of the exis- 
tence of the new law and told that they must 
desist from the undertaking. Dr. Wiggins, a 
mission pioneer i.A 1842, was then residing at 
San Juan. He spoke Spanish fluently and 
was looked upon by the native Californians as 
a good friend. Pie never smiled nor appeared 
to jest, yet he Avas one of the greatest of the 
tale-tellers, jokers and punsters on the Pacific 
slojie. In their perplexity over the new law, 
the Californians took counsel with the Doctor. 
He examined the title of the act with great 
serir)usness and wisdom. "Go on with your 
fight," v\as the Doctor's advice, "they can do 
nothing with you. This is an Act to prevent 
noisy and barbarous amusements on the Sab- 
bath. If they arrest 3'ou there will be a trial 
by jury of Americans. To convict, the ])ro- 
secution must find three things, first that a 
bull fight is noisy. This they will find against 
3'uu. Second, that it is barbarous. This also 
they will find against you, but an American 
jury will never find that it is an amusement 
of Christ's time. Go on with your bull 
fights." They did go on and were arrested 
to find that the Doctor had been jesting. 
They were sentenced, each to pay a fine, and 
this was the last of the bull-fights in Cali- 

First American Settlers 

The first enumeration of the inhabitants of 
the pueblo of San Jose was taken in 1831 and 
showed 166 men, 145 women, 103 boys and 
110 girls, making a total of 524. Overland 
travel to California did not commence until 
the forties. The first foreigner to locate in 
this valley was John Gilroy, who was a sailor 
on board a vessel belonging to the Hudson 
Bay Company that touched at Monterey in 
1814. He was a Scotchman and the causes for 
his abandoning his ship are differently stated. 
One report \^•as that he had a quarrel with 
one of the officers and deserted, while it is just 
as positively stated that he had a severe attack 
of scurvy and was left on shore to be cured. 
However that nright ha\'e been it is well 
authenticated that in the same year, he toimd 
his way into the Santa Clara Valley, locating 
at San Ysidro, afterward named Gilroy. He 
was hospitably entertained and finally married 
into the wealthv familv of the (?)rtegas. He 

was a man of great force of character and 
accumulated a large propert}^ in lands and 
cattle but died poor in 1869. 

In 1818 there came to San Jose a man 
whose name is historic in this community, 
Don Antonio Sunol. He was a native of Bar- 
celona, Spain, but had served in the French 
navv under the First Empire. He was an 
officer of distinction and was present when 
Najioleon surrendered after Waterloo. He 
then sought the New World and settled in 
Santa Clara Valley where Ire achieved dis- 
tinction, wealth and respect. He died in San 
Jose in 1865. 

The first citizen of the United States to set- 
tle in Santa Clara Valley was Philip Doak. 
He was a block and tackle maker employed on 
a Avhaling vessel. Leaving salt water at 
Monterev in 1822 he journeyed northward to 
settle near Gilroy. Flis home was on the 
ranch of Mariano Castro, one of whose 
daughters he afterward married. Matthew 
Fclldin came to the valley the same year and 
located near San Ysidro, or old Gilroy as it 
\\-as afterward called. Fellom was a Dane and 
like Doak was a whaler. He left his vessel at 
one of the northern ports and made his way 
()\-erland tri the Santa Clara Vallev. He died 
in 1873. 

These are the only foreigners, of wdiich 
there is record, who were living in the valley 
up to 1830, if William AVillis, an Englishman, 
is excepted. Lie was known to be in the 
pueblo in 1828, but his subsequent history is 
not known. It has been estimated that in 
1830 there were not more than 100 foreigners 
in the Avdiole of California. John Burton came 
to San Jose in 1830. Lie was afterward al- 
calde (if the pueblo. Harry Bee, who died in 
San^Jose in 1897 as the oldest pioneer in the 
county, came to the Valley in 1833. He had 
been in the state seven years, having landed 
at Monterey as an English sailor in 1827. He 
was 1)orn in 1808 and during the Mexican 
War acted as scout and courier for Commo- 
dore Sloat. In the same year came William 
Gulnac, James Alexander Forbes, James 
Weekes, Nicolas Dodero, John Price, William 
vSmith, George Ferguson, Thomas Pepper, a 
man called "Blind Tom," William Welsh, 
Charles Brown and "Moche Dan." Thomas 
Ilrown and V'illiam Daily came in I834. Of 
these several were prominent either in the 
early days or in the later history of California, 
(rulnac was for many years major domo at the 
Mission of vSan Jose in yVlameda County. He 
married a daughter of the Cesenas. Forbes 
was vice-consul for Great Britain. Weekes 
served as Alcalde in 1847. In 1838 Henry 
Woods and Lawrence Carinichael arrived. 



These people all eaiiie by vessel and chance 
ileeidecl tlieir location. The)' affiliated with the 
Spanish population, in inan\- cases marrying 
inti_i their laniilies, and adopting, to a great ex- 
tent, the Spanish customs and modes of living. 
0\-erland tra\el commenced about 1841. Even 
before this time settlements had been made in 
Oregon, and that country was much better 
known than California. I'or this reason, and 
because California was a foreign countr)-, all 
the overland trains were pointed to Oregon. 
Some of these trams having reached the Sier- 
ras and hearing something of California, came 
here instead. In 1S41 Josiah Belden, Charles 
}i[. AA'eber and Grove C. Cook came overland, 
as did Henry Pitts, Peter Springer, William 
AA'iggins and James Rock. In 1843 Major S. J. 
Hensley, Julius Martin, Thr)mas J. Shadden 
and A\'inston llennett made the trip across the 
jilains. The advent of this party was an im- 
portant incident, as with it came three women, 
wives of Martin, Shadden and Bennett, the 
tirst foreign women to settle in this district. 
In 1844 came the Murph}^ party and Captain 
Stephens. The ^Murphy party consisted of 
}>Iartin Murph}-, Sr., his wife, five sons and 
two daughters ; James Miller, afterwards an 
honored resident of IMarin County ; Dr. John 
Townsend and wife, Moses Schallenberger, 
father of Margaret Schallenberger McNaught, 
now State Commissioner of Education ; Jo- 
seph Foster, Mr. Hitchcock and family ; 
Thomas Hudson, Clemente Columbet and 
Alartin Corcoran. Dr. Townsend and his wife 
died of cholera in 1850; and Martin Murphy, 
Sr., passed a\^-ay in 1865. In 1845 Erank 
Lightston, J. "W'ashburn, William O'Connor, 
W. C. Wilson, John Daubenbiss and James 
Stokes came to the county. In 1846 the ar- 
rivals were Isaac Branham, Jacob D. Hoppe, 
Charles White, Joseph Aram, Zachariah Jones, 
James E. Reed, George Donner and his two 
sisters : Arthur Caldwell, William Daniels, 
Samuel Young, A. A. Hecox, William Haun, 
William Eisher, Edward Pyle and their fam- 
ilies; Wesley Hoover and John W. Whisman 
and wives ; William and Thomas Campbell 
and their families; Peter Quincy and family; 
Thomas Kell, Thomas West and four sons; 
John Snyder, S. R. Moultrie, William J. Parr, 
Joseph A. Lard, Mrs. W. H. Lowe, Mrs. E. 
Markham, L. C. Young, R. J. Young, M. D. 
Young, S. C. Young, Samuel O. Broughton, 
R. E. Peckham, Z. Rochon, Joseph Stillwell, 
George Cross, Ramon S. Cesena, M. Hollo- 
way, Edward Johnson, Mrs. Martha J. Lewis 
and James Enright. Of course there were 
many more arrivals but their names cannot be 
obtained from the records and the personal 
recollections of the pioneers who are living 
at the present time. 

The Donner Party 

Nearh' all the surviving nieudiers rjf the 
ill-fated Donner jiart}- located in San Jrise and 
vicinity. The terril)le experiences of that 
])arty are given in Tuthill's histor)' of Califor- 
nia, from \\'hich we quote: "< )f the os'erland 
emigration to California in 1846 about eighty 
\\'agons t(")ok a new route, from Eort Bridger 
around the south end of Great v^alt Lake. The 
pioneers of the party arrived in goorl season 
over the mountains, but Mr. Reed's and Mr. 
Donner's companies opened a new route 
through the desert, lost a month's time by 
their explorations and reached the foot of the 
Truckee Pass, in the Sierras, on October 31, 
instead of the first as intended. The snow be- 
gan to fall two or three weeks earlier than 
usual that year and was already so piled up 
in the pass that they could not prriceed. They 
attempted it repeatedly but were as often 
forced to return. One party built their cab- 
ins near Truckee, afterward Donner Lake, 
killed their cattle and went into winter C[uar- 
ters. The other (Donner's party), still be- 
lieved they could thread the pass anrl so failed 
to build their cabins before more snow came 
and buried their cattle alive. Of course they 
\'\-ere soon destitute of food, for they could not 
tell where the cattle were buried and there 
was no hope of game on a desert so piled with 
snow that nothing without wings could move. 
The number of those who were thus storm- 
stayed at the very threshold of a land whose 
winters are one long spring, was eighty, of 
whom thirty were women and children. The 
Mr. Donner who had charge of one company 
was a native of Illinois, sixty 3-ears of age and 
a man of high respectability and abundant 
means. His wife was a woman of education 
and refinement and much younger than he. 

"During November it snowed thirteen days ; 
during December and January, eight days 
each. Much of the time the tops of the cab- 
ins were below the snow level. It was six 
weeks after the halt was made that a party of 
fifteen, including five women and two Indians, 
who acted as guides, set out on snow shoes to 
cross the mountains and give notice to the 
people of California settlements of the condi- 
tion of their friends. At first the snow was so 
light and feathery that even with snow shoes 
they sank nearly a foot at every step. On the 
second day they crossed the 'divide,' finding 
the snow at the summit twelve feet deep. 
Pushing forward with the courage of despair 
they made from four to eight miles a day. 

"Within a week they were entirely out of 
provisions, and three of them, succumbing to 
cold, weariness and starvation, had died. Then 
a heavy snow storm came on which com- 



pelled them to lie still, iDuried Iseneath their 
blankets under the snow for thirty-six hours. 
Ry evening of the tenth day three more had 
(lied and the living had been four days with- 
out food. The horrid alternative was accept- 
ed — they took flesh from the bones of their 
dead, remained in camp two days to dry it and 
then pushed on. 

"On New Year's, the sixteenth day since 
leaving Truckee Lake, they ^vere toiling up a 
steep mountain. Their feet were frozen. 
Every step was marked with blood. C)n the 
second of January their food again gave out. 
On the third day they had nothing to eat but 
the strings of their snow shoes. On the fourth 
the Indians deserted, suspicious that they 
might lie sacrificed for food. On the fifth one 
of the party shot a deer and that day there ^vas 
another death. Soon after three others died 
and ever}' death served to ])rolong the exist- 
ence ("if the survivors. (Jn the scN'enth all but 
one gave out, concluding that their wander- 
ings were useless. This one, guided ]>y tAvo 
friendl}- Indians dragged himself on until he 
reached a settlement on Bear River, By mid- 
night the settlers had found and were treating 
with all Christian kindness wdiat remained of 
the little companv that after a month C)f most 
terrible sufferings, had halted to die. 

"The storv that tliere were emigrants per-^ 
ishing on the other side oi the snowy barrier 
ran s\\'iftlv down the Sacramento Valley to 
New Heh'etia, and Captain Sutter, at his own 
expense, fitted out an ex])editir)n of men and 
of mules laden AA'ith pro\-isions. to cross the 
mountains and rclie\'e them. The storA* ran 
to San Francisco and the pco|)le, rallying in 
public meeting, raised $1500 and A\-ith it 
fitted out another expedition. The na\-ai 
commandant of the i)ort fitted out others. 

"The first of the relief parties reached 
Truckee I^ake on the nineteenth of February. 
Ten of the people in the nearest camp Avere 
dead. For four da}'s those still ali\'e had fed 
on bullocks' hides. ,\t Donner's camp juit one 
hide remained. The visitors left a small sup- 
ply of ]jrovisions with the t\vent}'-nine \\'hom 
thev could not take Avith them and started 
back A\ith the remainder. Four of the chil- 
dren they carried on their liacks. 

"Another of the relief parties reached the 
lake about the first of IMarch. They at once 
started back A\"ith seventeen of the sufferers, 
Ijut a hea\ }- snow storm o\"ertaking them, they 
left all, except three of the children, on the 
road. Another part}' went after those left on 
the wav, found three of them dead and the rest 
sustaining life by eating the flesh of the dead. 

"The last relief jiarty reached Donner's 
camp late in April when the snows had melted 

so much that the earth appeared in spots. The 
main calkin was empty, but some miles distant 
thcA' found the last survivor of all lying on the 
cabin floor smoking a pipe. He was ferocious 
in aspect, savage and repulsive in manner. His 
camp kettle was over the fire and in it his meal 
of human flesh preparing. The stripped bones 
of his fellow suft'erers lay around him. He re- 
fused to return with the party and only con- 
sented A\'hen he saw there was no escape. Mrs. 
Jacob F)onner was the last to die. Her hus- 
Ijand's body \A'as found at his tent. Circum- 
stances led to the suspicion that the survivor 
had killed ?ilrs. Donner for the flesh and 
money, and A\dien he was threatened with 
hanging he produced $500, Ax-hich he had prob- 
ably appropriated from her store." 

ManA' books have lieen Avritten on the sub- 
ject, no two giving the same facts. (3ne of the 
most interestuTg accounts is that of James F. 
Reed, who for years Avas one of the prominent 
and ref)Utable citizens of San Jose. He left 
S]">ringfield, 111., in the middle of 18-1-6 and Avas 
accompanied b}' Cjcorge and Jacofi Donner and 
their families. Ceorge Dcmner Avas elected 
captain. .Vt Fort Bridger, AA'illiam ]\IcCutch- 
en, Avife and family joined the party. I^eaA'ing 
the fort they unfortunately took a ncA\' 
route, and had many A'icissitudes, not the least 
lieing the loss of cattle. ( )ther A\-ould-be set- 
tlers joined them lieforc they reached Cali- 
fornia. The narrati\"e noAv continues in !Mr. 
Reed's OA\-n Avords : 

"After crossing the desert it became known 
that Some families had not entiugh proA'isions 
to carr_A' them through. As a memlier of the 
coni])a!iA' I adA'ised them to make an estimate 
of the ],iroA'isions on hand and Avhat amount 
each tamily AA'ould need. After receiAung the 
estimate I then suggested that if two gentle- 
men of the company Avould A'oluntecr to go in 
adA'ance to vSutter's Fort, near Sacramento, I 
Ax'ould Avrite a letter to the ca|)tain for the 
Avhole amount of provisions Avanted, also stat- 
ing that I Ax'ould Ijccome personally responsi- 
lile to him for the amount. I thought that 
from the generous character of Captain Sutter 
the provisions Avould he sent. ]\Ir. McCutch- 
en came forward and said that if thev Avonld 
take c'are ijf his familA' he Avould go. This the 
compauA' agreed to. Mr, Stanton, a single 
man, A'olunteered to go AA'ith McCutchen if 
they Avould furnish him Avith a horse. Mc- 
Cutchen, having a horse and mule, generous- 
ly gave the mule. Taking blankets and pro- 
A isions, the two men started for California. 
After their leaving us Ave traveled for Aveeks, 
none of us knowing how far Ave Avcre from 
California and soon all ftecame anxious to 
know Avhat had become of McCutchen and 



Stanton. It was now snggcsted that I go in 
advance to California and hurrv np the sup- 
plies. This \\-as agreed to and 1 started, tak- 
ings -with me three days' provisious, expecting 
to kill game on the way. The Messrs. Don- 
ner were two da)s in aih'ance of the party 
when I oN-ertook them. With George Donner 
there \\'as a young man named Walter Her- 
ren, who joined me. With all the economy I 
could use our provisions gave out in a few 
da)'s, so I supplied our ^^■ants by shooting wild 
geese and other game. The day after I was 
joined by Herren I proposed, as I had the only 
horse, that he would ride half the time. The 
proposition was joj'fully accepted. Soon no 
game was to be seen, hunger l)egan to be felt 
and for days W'e traveled without hope or help. 
A\'e reached the Sierra Nevada Mountains. I 
lielieved I could have made a stop here, hunted 
and found game. But as this would have de- 
laved our progress and success might not have 
rewarded my hunting efforts, I kept on. The 
second dav before we found relief Harren 
wanted to kill the horse. I persuaded him 
from the deed, promising if relief did not come 
soon I A\-oul(l kill the horse myself. Soon 
afterward he became delirious. That afternoon 
I found a 1)ean and gave it to him and then 
never was road examined more closel}^ than 
this one. We found in all five beans. Her- 
ren's share was three of them. We camped 
that night in a patch of grass a short distance 
off the road. Next morning after traveling a 
few miles we saw some deserted wagons. 

"We soon reached and ransacked the wag- 
ons, hoping to find something to eat, but found 
nothing. Taking the tar bucket that was 
hanging under one of the wagons I scraped 
the tar'oft' and found a streak of rancid tallow 
at the bottom. I remember well that when i 
announced Avhat I had found, Herren, who 
was sitting on a rock near by, got up halloo- 
ing with all the strength he had and came to 
me. I handed the tar paddle to him. It had 
on it some of the tallow about the size of a 
walnut. This he swallowed without giving it 
a smell. I then took a piece myself but it 
w-as very respulsive. Herren craved more and 
I gave him another piece. Still wanting more, 
I positively refused, stating that it would kill 
him. After leaving the w^agons, probably fifty 
yards, I became deadly sick and blind. In 
resting myself against a rock I leaned my 
head on the muzzle of my gun. Herren, 
seeing my condition came to me and said, 'My 
God, Mr. Reed, are you dying?' After resting 
a few minutes I recovered, much to his joy. 

"The wagons were within a short distance 
of the steep hill going down into Bear Valley. 
After descending the first steep pitch I dis- 

covered wagons in the valley below us. Tler- 
ren,' said 1, 'there are wagons in the valley.' 
When he saw them he gave vent to his joy, 
hallooing at the top of his voice, but on ac- 
count of \s'eakness he could not have been 
heard ten rods off. On reaching the wagons 
we found several families of emigrants wdio 
supplied us with ])read. I here met Mr. Stan- 
ton, with two Indians, on his return to the 
company with provisions supplied by Captain 
Sutter. Next morning Stanton started for the 
company and I went on to Sutter's Fort." 

At the Fort Reed found McCutchen, who 
had been prevented by illness from accom- 
pan3ang Stanton. Captain vSutter furnished 
horses and saddles with ^\duch to bring the 
women and children out of the mountains. 
The expedition failed on account of the snow 
which at some points was eighteen feet deep. 
The part}^ returned for more help, l)ut, unfor- 
tunatel)s the Mexican war was on and every 
able-bodied man was away. At Captain Sut- 
ter's suggestion Mr. Reed went to San Fran- 
cisco to see if he could not procure help there. 
He was compelled to make the journey by 
land and reached San Jose when it Avas in a 
state of siege. Arrived at San Francisco, a 
public meeting AA'as held and relief parties fit- 
ted out. Mr. Reed and Mr. McCutchen ac- 
companied the first of these, which went by 
the river. On the route he met his Avife and 
children rescued by a relief part)^ that had 
gone ahead of them. He only stopped a few 
minutes for greetings and then pushed on to 
the relief of the other sufferers whom they 
reached about the middle of the next day. 

The first camp was that of Mr. Breen. Mr. 
Reed says : "If we left anj^ provisions here it 
was a small amount, he and his family not be- 
ing in want. We then proceeded to the camp 
of Mrs. Murph}', Avhere Kessburg and some 
children were. Here we left provisions and 
one of our compan}' to cook for and attend to 
them. From here we visited the camp of Mrs. 
Graves, some distance further east. A num- 
ber of the relief party remained here, while 
Messrs. Miller, McCutchen, another and my- 
self proceeded to the Donner camp. AVe 
found Mrs. Jacob Donner in a feeble condi- 
tion. She died after we left. Her husband 
had died early in the winter. We removed 
the tent and placed it in a more comfortable 
position. I then visited the tent of George 
Donner close by and found him and his wife. 
He was helpless. Their children and two ot 
Jacob's had come out with the party that went 
ahead of us. I requested Mrs. Donner to come 
with us, stating that I would leave a man to 
take care of both George Donner and Mrs. 
Jacob Donner. She positively refused, de- 



daring that she Avoiild not leave her husliand 
in his enleel")le(l cundition. 

"We tciok the remaininq- three children of 
Jacob Donner, lea\-ino- a man to take care of 
the t\YO camps. Leaving all the pro\'isions we 
could spare and expecting a jjart}' from Sut- 
ter's Fcirt \vould he in in a few days, Ave re- 
turned tC) the camp lA I\L's. Graves. Notice 
was given in all the camps that A\'e would start 
on our return to Sutter's earh^ next day. About 
the middle of the day we started, taking with 
us all who Avere able to travel." 

The relief party that came after iVIr. Reed 
did not reach the sufferers as soon as expected 
and disasters occurred. The full details of the 
suft'ering of the unfortunate party would fill a 
Ijook. Each of the relief parties, especial!}- 
that conducted Ijy Mr. Reed endured suff'er- 
ings ecjual to those exj^erienced by the unfor- 
tunates in the A\-inter camp. Llistory has nri 
parallel to the heroism displayed by these peo- 
ple in their eftVirts to rescue suffering relatives 
and friends. 


Santa Clara County During the Mexican Rule — The Adventures of Captain 
Fremont — Don Mariano Guadalupe 'Vallejo— Raising the Bear Flag — 
■War "With Mexico Declared — The Capture of San Jose — Reminiscences 
of the Strenuous Days of 1849 — The Discovery of Gold — Killing of Young 
Pyle Local Government — Grandma Bascom's Story. 

In 1836 a revolution broke out in jMexico 
but it did not extend to California, though a 
few of the Spanish settlers in San Jose left the 
pueblo to take part in it. While the strife wa.s 
progressing Governor Alvarado was appomted 
to rule CaHfornia, an office which he held untd 
1842 after the differences IjetAveen the oppos- 
ing factions in Mexico had been satisfactorily 

The adjustment, however, created misun- 
derstandings between the two highest officials 
in the Department of California. The civil 
and the military authorities could not agree. 
Each one complained of the other to the Cen- 
tral Government and General Micheltorena 
was secretly dispatched north to settle the dif- 
ferences between Governor Alvarado and Gen- 
eral Vallejo by taking over the powers of 
both On seeing the turn the affair had taken, 
Alvarado and Vallejo laid aside their bicker- 
ings to make common cause against Michel- 
torena, whom they designated as an usurper. 
Aided by General Castro they sought to drive 
Micheltorena out of California. The trium- 
virate proclaimed California independent and 
declared war against the representative of 
jMexico. General Micheltorena, having had 
the gauge of battle thrown in his teeth, took 
the field hoping to speedily end the insurrec- 
tion. He advanced to within twelve miles of 
San Jose and then finding that this portion of 
the country was up in arms against him speed- 
ily beat a retreat to San Juan Bautista. In. 
spite of his defense, the insurgents captured 

the town in XoAcmber, 18-14. From this bloA\' 
Micheltorena never rallied and in February, 
1845, he paid $11,000 for a passage on board 
the bark Don Quixote, Captain Paty, his des- 
tination being San Bias. On the termination 
of the strife Don Pio Pico, brother of Don An- 
tonio Pico, of San Jose, was elected governor 
of California and Jose Castro was appointed 
general of the military f(-)rces. 

Captain Fremont Arrives 

In the month of March, 1845, Brevet-Capt. 
J<ihn Charles Fremont departed from W'ash- 
mgton for the purpose of (organizing a third 
expedition for the topfigrap'hical survey of 
Oregon and California. He left Bent's Fort 
in April, his force consisting of sixty-two men 
among them Kit Carson and six Delaware In- 
dians. Crossing the Sierra Nevadas in De- 
cember they arrived at Sutter's Fort on the 
10th of that month. After two days' stay 
the compan)' left to search for a missing part'y 
of explorers. Not l^eing able to find the men, 
and having either lost or consumed most of 
Ins horses and cattle Fremont determined to 
retrace his steps to Sutter's Fort which he 
reached January 15, 1846. On the seven- 
teenth he with his men left the fort on a 
launch for San Francisco. They arrived there 
on the twentieth ; the twenty-first saw him 
and Captain Hinckley sailing down the Bay 
of San Francisco to the embarcadero at Al- 
viso at the lower end of the Santa Clara Val- 
ley. ( )n the twenty-second they proceeded 



to San Jose ^vhere T'remont recei\e(l word 
that the missino- explorers were encamped on 
the San Joaquin. At once two companies un- 
der Kit Carson were dispatched to t^-uide the 
men into tlie Santa Clara Valley. Fremont 
and Hinckley, after ^■isitin,o- the New Almaden 
mines, returned to San Francisco. On the 
twenty-fotu'th Fremont was once more on the 
move. He started from San Francisco, then 
known as Yerlia I'uena, and on the morning- 
of January 27. 1846, reached Monterey. In 
compau)- with Thomas O. T^arkin, United 
States Consid, Fremont called on General 
Castro and stated the nljject of his iourne_v. 
Fie ^^'as out of provisicins and asked that his 
party be permitted to jiass unmolested througdi 
the countr}-. 44ie reciuest was granted, A-er- 
ballv, but wdien asked for the necessary' jier- 
mit in \A-riting, the General excused himself, 
said he was not Avell and that no further 
assurance than his word was needed. A call 
of the same nature was then made on Don 
jManuel Castro, the prefect of the district, 
the same statement made and the same verbal 
permit was granted. Fremont received funds 
and provisions from the consul and then made 
all haste to San Jose wdiere he was joined 
bv his band. Not finding here such stores as 
were still needed he resolved to return to 
Montere^'. A fortnight later he camped in 
the Santa Clara Valley on Capt. William Fish- 
er's ranch, the Laguna Seca. While here a 
Mexican made his appearance and laid claim 
to certain of Fremont's horses on the bold 
statement that they had been stolen. Short- 
ly after this, on February 20, Captain Fre- 
mont received a simimons to appear before 
the alcalde at San Jose to answer to a charge 
of horse-stealing. Fremont send back the 
folloAving reply : 

"Camp Near Road to Santa Cruz, 

February 21, 1846. 

"Sir : I received your communication of the 
20th, informing me that a complaint has been 
lodged against me in your office for refusing 
to deliver up certain animals of my band 
which are claimed as having been stolen from 
this vicinity about two months since, and that 
the plaintiff further complains of having been 
insulted in my camp. It can be proven on 
oath by thirty men here present that the ani- 
mals pointed out by the plaintiff have been 
brought in my band from the United States 
of North America. The insult of which he 
complains, and which was authorized by my- 
self, consisted in his being driven or ordered 
to immediately leave camp. After having 
been detected in endeavoring to obtain ani- 
mals under false pretenses he should have 
been well satisfied to escape without a se- 

vere horse-\\'hipping. There are four animals 
in mv band which were bartered from the 
Tulare Indians bv a du'isiim of my party 
which descended the San Joaquin Valley. I 
was not then ])resent, and if an}' more legal 
owners present themselves these sliall l)e im- 
mediatel}' gu'en or delivered ui)on proving 
propert}'. It may sa\'e 3^ou troul^le to inform 
3'ou, that "with this exception, all the animals 
in my band ha\'e been bought anrl paid for. 
You \vill readih- understand that my duties 
will not ]iermit me to appear before the mag- 
istrates in 3'our towns on the complaint of 
ever}' straggling A-agabond wdio mav chance 
to visit ni}' cam]). You inform me that un- 
less satisfaction be immediately made by the 
deliverv of the animals in question, the com- 
plaint will be forwarded t<"i the Go\'ernor. I 
beg you will at the same time indrirse to His 
Excellencv a copy of this note. 

"I am, ver}' respectfully, A'our obedient 

"J. C. Fremont, U. S. Army. 

"To Senor Don Dolores Pachecrj, 

Alcalde of San Jose." 

From the Laguna Seca, Fremont moved 
by easy marches in the direction of the Santa 
Cruz Mountains Avhich he crossed about ten 
miles from vSan Jose at the gap where the 
Los Gatos Creek enters the Valley. On 
March 1, he encamped on the rancho of Ed- 
ward Petty Hartwell. While here he received, 
late in the afternoon of the fifth a dispatch 
from Don Manuel Castro, prefect of the dis- 
trict, charging him with having entered the 
towns and villages under his (the Prefect's) 
jurisdiction in contempt of the law's of the 
Mexican Government and ordering him out 
of the country, else compulsory measures 
would be taken to compel him to do so. On 
receiAdng this communication Fremont did not 
display much hesitancy in arriving at a con- 
clusion. That evening he struck camp and 
ascending Hawk's Peak, a rough looking 
mountain on the Gabilan range, about thirty 
miles from Monterey and 2,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, commenced the construc- 
tion of a rude fort. It was protected by felled 
trees. Stripping one of the limbs he nailed 
the Stars and Stripes at the top, forty feet 
from the ground. The morning of the sixth 
of March found him waiting for developments. 

On the day that saw Fremont established on 
Hawk's Peak, Castro sent the following letter 
to the minister of Marine at the City of 
Mexico : 

"In my com-munication of the fifth ultimo 
I announced to you the arrival of a captain 
at the head of fifty men, who came, as he 
said, by order of the government of the Unit- 



ed States to survey the limits of Oregon. 
This person presented himself at my head- 
quarters some days ago accompanied by two 
individuals (Thomas 0. Larkin, U. S. consul, 
and ^^'illiam A, Leidesdorff, vice-consul,) with 
the object (if asking permission to ]3rocure 
])rovisions fi;r his men \\diom he had left be- 
hind in the mountains. The permission was 
given, 1)ut two days ago, March 4, I was much 
surprised on lieing informed that this person 
was only tAvo days' journey from this ])lace 
(Montere)- ). in consequence I immediateh' 
sent him a communication ordering him, on 
the instant of its recei])t, to put himself on the 
march and lea\e the Department, Ijut I have 
ncit recei\"ed an answer. In order to make him 
ol)eA', 1 sent out a force to oliserve his o]iera- 
tions and today, the sixth, I march in per- 
son to join it and see that the o1)ject is at- 
tained. The hurry with which I undertake mv 
march does not ])ermit me to be more dif- 
fuse ami I beg that >-ou will inform His Ex- 
cellenc}', the Rresident, assuring him that not 
only shall the national integrity of this partv 
lie defended "with the enthusiasm of gocid 
}ilcxicans, but those who intend to Aiolate it 
will find an imjiregnable barrier in the a alor 
and patriotism of e\"ery one of the Californians. 
Receive the assurance of my respect, etc. God 
and Libert}'." 

In his hastily constructed fort, e\'er}- aAcnue 
to wdiich was commanded I)}' the trusty rifles 
of his men, h'reniont calndy awaited the si)ce(h' 
vengeance promised \n the ccjmmunication of 
the prefect. To carr_\- it out Don J(.)se had 
sumnioneil a force of 200 men wdiich was 
strengthened ])\' one or two cannon of small 
calilier, Init nothing lieA'ond a demonstration 
was attained. In the language of the late 
General lve\ere (then Lieutenant) "Don lose 
was rather in the humor (A that King of 
France, \\lio with 20,001) men, marched u]) 
the hill and then marched down again." 

Castro's next mo\-e was the concocting of an 
epistle to Fremont, asking for a cessation of 
hostilities and suggesting that thev join forces, 
declare the countr}' independent and with their 
allied armies march against Governor Pio I'ico, 
wdio was then in Los Angeles. To John Gil- 
ro}', an old Scotch settler, after wdi(jm Gil- 
roy was named, was entrusted the deliver}- of 
this i)iece of treachery. He reached Hawk's 
Peak on the night of the tenth and found 
the fort untenanted. Fremont had tired of 
Avaiting for Castr(j to attack and had made a 
forced march to the San Joaquin Valley. Gil- 
roy, on his return, told of the retreat, which 
so elated Castro that he at on.ce resolved to 
attack the fort, which he was the first to en- 
ter. Then he sat down i^n one of Fremont's 
discarded pack saddles and penned a dispatch 

to Monterey describing the glorious victory 
he had gained and promising that his return 
need not be looked for until his promise, long 
ago given, had been fulfilled. 

And so matters rested for a time. The 
American settlers began to feel far from safe 
and it was the consensus of opinion that no 
time should lie lost in preparing for an emerg- 
ency. Rumors were rife. Governor Pico 
looked upon them with deep hatred, their ar- 
rival and settlement was to him a source of 
])oignant jealous\', wdiile his feeling inclined 
him toAvard luigland, should the country ever 
change hands. At a convention held in San 
Juan Bautista to decide wdiich one of the 
two nations. Great Pritain or the United 
vStates, should guarantee protection tci Califor- 
nia against all others, Pico is reported to have 
said: "To \\diat a deploral)le conditirjn is our 
Countr}' reduced. Mexico, professing to be 
our mother and our protectress has given us 
neither arms nor money, nor the material of 
war for our defense. She is not likeh' to do 
an}'tliing in our lielialf, although she is cjuite 
\villing to afflict us \\-ith her extortionate 
minions who come here in the guise of sol- 
diers and ci\il olffcers tc) harass and oppress 
our people. . . . f-'erhaps \\'hat I am about 
to suggest may seem faint-hearted and dis- 
hoiioralile frnt to me it does not seem S(_i. It 
is the last hope of a feeble i:ieople, struggling 
against a tyrannical go\ernment A\'hich claims 
their submission at home and who are threat- 
ened 1)}' a band of aA'aricious strangers fr(mi 
^\'ithout, to A'oluntarily connect themseh'es 
witli a [Kiwer aljle and willing to defend and 
preser\'e them. It is the right and duty of 
the \\'eak to demand support from the strong. 
proN'ided the demand be made ui)on terms 
just to both iiarties. Is it not better to con- 
.nect ourseK'es with one of the powerful Euro- 
]iean nations than to struggle against hope 
as we are doing mnv? Is it not better that one 
of them should send a fleet and an army to 
defend and protect California rather than that 
we should fall an easy ])rey to the lawdess 
adxenturers who are overrunning our beau- 
li^ful country? I pronounce for annexation to 
France or England and the people of Cali- 
fornia will never regret having taken my ad- 
vice. Then may our people go quietly to their 
ranches and live there as of yore, leading a 
thoughtless and merry life, untroubled by poli- 
tics or the cares of state, sure of wdiat is their 
own and safe from the incursions of the Yan- 
kees who would soon be forced to retreat into 
their own country." 

Don Mariano Guadalupe 'Vallejo 

But at this moment California found a man 
whose views were more enlightened than 
those of the rulers of his country. As a pa- 



triot he could not silently witness the land of 
his birth sold to any monarchy, however old, 
and he rightl)- judLjcd that aithou,t;li foreign 
protection miglu postpone it cciuld not avert 
that assumption df pciwer which was l)eij;in- 
ning to make itself felt. Possessed at "the 
time of no political power and having had but 
few early ad\antages, still his pLisition was st> 
high and his character so highh' respected 
liy l^oth the foreign and native poi)ulatic)n 
that he had l>een in\-ited to participate in the 
proceedings of the lunta. This man was Don 
Alariano tuiadalnpe Walleju. Born in Cali- 
fornia, he commenced his career in the army 
as an ensign and in this humlile grade he ^■ol- 
unteered tn cstaldish a colony on the north 
side of the May of San Francisco for the |iro- 
tectinn cif the frontier. He thoroughly sidi- 
dued the hostile Indians of the region and laid 
the foundation of a reputation for integrity, 
■ judgment and aliiht}' unequaled ]'>y an)- of his 
countrymen. .\lthough cpiite a young man 
he had alread\' filled high offices and at this 
time A\'as lixing on his estate in the \'icinity 
of the town of Sonoma. He did not hesitate 
to oppose the \'iews of I'ico and Castro, .\mong 
other things he said: "I cannot, gentlemen, 
coincide in oiiinion with the military and civic 
functionaries \\lio ha\"e advocated the ces- 
sion of our countr}- to France or England. It 
is most true, that to rely any longer upcui 
Mexico to govern and defend us would be idle 
and absurd, it is also true that we possess 
a noble country in every way calculated from 
position and resources to become great and 
powerful. F"or that reason I would not have 
her a mere dependency upon a foreign mon- 
archv, naturally alien, or at least indifferent 
to our interests and welfare. E\'en could we 
tolerate the idea of dejiendence ought we to 
go to distant Europe for a master? What 
possible svmpathy could exist between us and 
a nation separated from us by two vast oceans? 
But Avai\'ing this insuperable objection, how 
could we endure to become under the do- 
minion of a monarchy? We are republicans, 
badly governed and badly situated as we are, 
but stidl, in sentiment, republicans. All will 
probablv agree with me that we ought at once 
to rid ourselves of what may remain of Mex- 
ican domination. Our position is so remote, 
either by land or sea, that we are m no dan- 
o-er from Mexican invasion. Why, then, 
should we still hesitate to assert our independ- 
ence? W'e have taken the first step by elect- 
ing our own governor, but another remains to 
be taken. I will mention it plainly and ration- 

j^Uy it is annexation to the United States. In 

contemplating this consummation of our des- 
tiny I feel nothing but pleasure and I ask you 
to share it. Discard old prejudices, disregard 

old customs and prepare for the glorious 
change wdiich awaits our country. Why 
should we shrink from incorporating our- 
seKes \\-ith the ha[)piest and freest nation in 
the \vorld, destined soon to be the most weal- 
thy and powerful? Why should we go abroad 
for protection when this great nation is our 
adjoining neiglibor? When we join our for- 
tunes to hers we shall not liecome subjects 
but fellow-citizens, ])ossessing all the rights 
of the iK'ople of the L'nited States and chcjris- 
ing our own federal and local rulers. We shall 
lia\e a stable go\'ernment and just laws. Cali- 
fornia ^vill grow str(jng and flourish and her 
people \\"ill be prosperous, happy and free. 
Look not, therefore, ^vith jealous}^ upon the 
hard}' pioneers who scale our mountains and 
culti\'ate our unoccupied i)lains, but rather 
welcome them as brothers, who come to share 
\vith us a common destiny." 

Those A\dio listened to (^.eiieral Vallejo were 
far liehind him in general knowdedge and in- 
telligence. His arguments failed to carry con- 
\dction tc) the greater number of his auditors, 
but the bold j^osition taken l.i}" him was the 
cause of the immediate adjournment of the 
junta, no result ha\-ing been arri\'ed at con- 
cerning the weighty question cm which the 
Californians had .met t(i delifierate. On re- 
tiring from the junta (Tcneral Vallejo em- 
bodied the A'ieT.\'s he had expressed in a letter 
to Don Pio Pico and reiterated his refusal to 
])articipate in an\' action having for its end 
the adoption of any protection other than that 
of the L'nited States. In this letter he also 
declared that he would never serve under any 
government vdiich was prepared to surrender 
California to a European power. He then re- 
turned to his estate there to await the issue 
of events. 

Raising the Bear Flag 

In the meantime circumstances tended to 
keep General Castro moving. A large num- 
ber of Americans, finding themselves numer- 
icalh' too weak to contend against the natives, 
but relying on accession to their strength in 
the spring, determined to declare California 
independent and free and raise a flag of their 
own, which they did. The famous "Bear 
Flag" was given to the breeze June 14, 1846, 
in Sonoma on the pole which before had 
floated the Mexican standard. The town was 
captured and with it the commanding officer, 
General Vallejo, Lieutenant Colonel Victor 
Prudon, Captain Salvador Vallejo and Jacob 
P. Liese, an American and the general's 
■ brother-in-law. The news of the declaration 
spread like wild-fire, both parties hurriedly 
prepared for a conflict and while the Bear Flag 
party guided their afliairs from Sonoma, Gen- 



eral Jose Castrn, from his liea(l(|uarters at 
Santa Clara, issued t\\'o proclamations. The}' 
are cnridsitics in their wa}' and as such wurth}- 
of reprciductii m here. The Ih'st fnllows: 

"The Cdntemiitililc ]")i)liev eil the agents of 
the United States of Xorth America in this 
De])artmcnt, haA'c induced a portion of ad- 
A'enturers, \Adii"i, regardless of the rights of 
men, have daringh' commenced an invasion 
])Ossessing themseh'es of the tuAvn ol Sonoma 
and the mililar\' commander nf that bnrder. 
Felliiw CdUntrymen: The defense of nur lih- 
ert\', the true religion Avhich our fathers pos- 
sessed and our inde])endence call upon us to 
sacrifice oursel\"es rather than lose these in- 
estinialtle blessings; banish from A'our hearts 
all jietU' resentments, turn }'ou and behold 
^-flurselves, these families, the innocent little 
ones, Axdnich ha\"e unfortunate!)" fallen intc) the 
hands cjf oiu" enemies, flragged from the bos- 
oms (if their fathers, wdio are jtrisoners among 
frireigners, a>id are calling uprm us to succor 
them. There is still time for us to rise en 
masse as irresistible as retributi\"e. Yon nee<l 
not doubt that DiA'ine Pro^■iflence will direct 
US in the A\-a}- to glor}-. ^'ou should not \acil- 
late because rit the smallness of the garrison 
of the general headcpiarters, for he whn will 
first sacrifice himself A\'ill be A'our friend and 
fellow citizen 


"Headquarters, Santa Clara, June 17, 1846." 

The Second proclamation jiromises tc) jiro- 
tect all .Vmericans who shall refrain from tak- 
ing (lart in the revolutionarv mijAcments and 
AA'inds up as follriws: "f^et the fortune of \var 
take its chance with those luigratefid men, 
Avho ^^dth arms in their hands have attacked 
the country, \vithout recollecting tliey A\'ere 
treated b}' the undersigned A\'ith all the indul- 
gence of A\diich he is so characteristic. The in- 
habitants of the Department are vdtnesses of 
the truth of this. 1 have nothing to fear, m\' 
dnt\' leads me to death or A'ictrirA'. I am a 
Mexican soldier and I AA'ill l)e free and inde- 
|)endent, or I \vill gladh' die for these inesti- 
mable blessings." 

As there A\'ere rumors afloat that General 
Castro \\'as on his waA- \vith a large ]iartv of 
^Mexicans, to attack the garrison at Sonoma, 
Fremont, \\ath force augmented, hastened t(j 
the relief of his compatriots. Fie arri\"ed at 
Sonoma cm the morning (jf June 25, ha\ing 
made fiirced marches. There he found that 
Castro had not carried (">ut his threat, Init had 
placid!}- remained near San Jose, carefully 
guarded by his soldiers. 

^\bout tliis time a small party intended for 
ser\ice under the I'ear Flag, had Ijeen re- 
cruited !iy Capt. Tliomas Fallon, then of Santa 

Cruz, but afterward a long-time resident of 
San Jose. This company, consisting of twenty- 
two men, crossed the Santa Cruz Mountains, 
entered the v^anta Clara Valley at night and 
halted about three miles from San Jose at the 
rancho of (n'o\-e C. Cookv Here Fallon learned 
that Castro, A\'ith a force of 200 men, was close 
at hand, ddiercfore, belie\dng discreticin to be 
the better ])art of A-alor, he fell liack intc) the 
mountains and there encam]ied. 

At sunset on June 27. Castro, placing him- 
self at the head of his arm}', marched C)Ut of 
Santa Clar.a to chastise the Sonoma insurg- 
ents. Fassing around the head cif San Fran- 
cisc("i lia}- he reached the San Leandro Creek 
from v hence he dispatched three men to re- 
counoiter. The}' A\'ere to cross the bav in 
boats. (Jn the water the}" A\'ere captured and 
shot. As the}" did not return Castro, guessing 
\\diat had hapi"iened and fearing a like fate for 
himself, marched his compauA' hiack to Santa 

War With Mexico Declared 

In the meantime great eA'ents had been oc- 
curring without. The United States had de- 
clared Awar against .Mexico, General Scott, 
after a series of brilliant exploits, h-ad captured 
the Cit}' of ^lexico and Comnioilore John 
I )rake v^loat Avas ap|iroaching ^binterev. On 
Jul}- 7, 184(3, Montere}- Avas taken and the 
American flag hoisted oA'er the town. Tavo 
da}'s later Flenr}- Pitts, courier for Commo- 
dore, rode into vSan Jose, and after an- 
nouncing the triumph of American arms, 
sought out (Teiieral Castro and deli-.'ered t(-) the 
redfiubtalile Alexican warrior ComuKKhire 
Sloat's commum'cati(jn. After reading it Cas- 
tro, with mood}- brow, called <iut his men and 
forming in line m front of the Juzgado, or Hall 
of Justice on r\larket Street, shouted, "Monte- 
re}- is taken b}- the Americans," and then ])ro- 
ceeded to read the written words of the C(mi- 

"To the inhabitants of California — 
"The central troops of Mexico liaAui-ig com- 
menced hostilities against the United States of 
-Vmerica by invading its territory and attack- 
ing the troops (if the LInited States stationed 
on the north side of the Rio Grande, Avith a 
force of 7, OCX) men under command of General 
Arista, Avhich army was totally destroved and 
all their artillery, baggage, etc., captured on 
the 8th and 0th of May last l.y a force of 2,300 
men under the command of General Taylor, 
and the city of Matamoras taken and occu- 
pied by the forces of the LInited States, and 
the tAV(j nations being actually at war by this 
transaction, I shall hoist the standard ('if the 
United States at Monterey immediately and 
shall carry it through Calif('irnia. 

lllSToin; ()l' SANTA Cr.ARA CoL'X'lA' 51 

"I declare In the iiilialiitaiils ni I'alifnrnia, cimtain, in jxissessimi of (he eIerL;"\- of Calil'(jr- 

that althiiUL;'h I emne in aians with a powei'l'ul uia, shall eontinue in the simie riL;hl and pus- 

te>rce. I do not come as an enenu' to California. session the^' now enjo\'. 

I come as their best friend, as henceforth Cal- ";\11 ])ro\isions and supplies of e\erv' kind 

ifnrnia will lie a portion of the United furnished hy tile inhaliitants for the irse of (he 

States and its ])eaeealile inhaliitants will enjov United yStates ships and soldiers, will Ijc ]jaid 

the same rii;hts and pri\ ile,L;"es tlu'\- now enjo)- for at fair rates, and no ]iri\-ate ]iroprrtv will 

toj^-ether \\-ith the ])ri\ilet;'e of ehoosin<^- their he taken for puhlie use without just conipen- 

own mat^'istrates and other oflicers for the ad- sation at the nujinent. 

ministration of justice anions;- themseUes, and "J(')]IX D. Sf/Jy\T, 

the same protection ^vill he exteniled to them •■Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. Naval 

as to an_\- other state in the Union. They will Force in the r'acilic ( )eean." 

^l^'.' ,^^"i:'>' ^, permanent K-"vernment under .pj^^. .eadint^ ,,f the fore-oino- concluded, 

which hteamlproperty an.l the constitutional r.eiieral Castro ,s saul to have exclaimed, 

right anu lawiul security to worship the Cre- ..^yhat can I do with a handful .,f men a-amst 

ator mthe wav most eono-emal t, , each ,,ne's ^p^ p-^j^^,! States? I am -oing to Mexico, 

sense ot duty, will he secure.l to which, nntor- _\p ^^.p„ ^,^_i .,^ t,, ^-,,p,,^^. „^^,^ ri-ht-ahont-faee. 

tunately,_the Lentral (.overnment ot ^lexico .^p ^^_,^,,, ^^.j^,^ ^, , ,.^.„^,^„^ ^,,^„ y., , t,, tp^;^ 

cannot attord them,. lestroved, as her resources p„„es." Dnlv a verv few cliose to follow 

'"-''f' ''>' internal tactions and corrupt othcers Castro into Mexico, whither he proceeded on 

'''^'" ":<^'''^.te constant rcNolutions to pro- ^p^, followino- dav, first takin- ,,risoner, 

'"'-'^ their own interests and oppress the Charles M. Weher, a merchant, and not releas- 

people. Lnder the ila,- ot the United States „^^. p„,^ ^,„til Los Anoxdes was reached. 
Ca litorma will he tree trom a 1 such troubles p- „ hearino- of Castro's de,,arture Captain 

and expenses ; consequentl)-, the -country will py,^p„,^ ^^^^ his 'camp m the Santa Cruz Monn- 

rapidly advance and improve, both m aoTieul- ^.^j,^,^ marched into San Jose, seized the ]uz- 

tureandeommeree:as, of coui-se, the revenue ^.^,p, ^,^,| arrested Dolores Pacheco, the- al- 

1''^"'* ^^''" '-"^^ the same m Lahtorn.a as ,n all '^.^^pi^ j_j^ ^,^^„,^.,1 Pacheco to surrender the 

other parts ot the Lnited States, ailordino- j^.^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^,,.^j^^ archives as ^^-ell, and ap- 

them all manufactures and produce ot the pohrted fames Stokes justice of the peace. On 

United States free ot any duty, and tor all lor- j„i,. p^p^ p-j^^^.i ^„ American tla- r,n the 

eigai o-,:,ods at one-quarter the duty they now -.^aff in front of the court house, the 'first flag 

pay, A great increase m the value of real es- „t ^Pe Union to wave in Santa Clara eonntv. 

tate and the products ot Calitornia may be ^ypp^ „, g^j, |„ee Fallon receiverl the folio ' 


antici]3atecl. p^g. communications from Captain ^lontgom 

'AA'ith the great interest and kind feelings erv, stationed at Yerlia Pmena ( San Fran- 

I know the government and people of the cisco) : 

United States possess to\vard the people of "U. S. Ship Portsmouth, 

California, the country cannot but improve "Yerba Bnena, Julv 1,\ 1846 

more ranidh' than anv other on the contineni ,.,-,. ^ , . . ' ' ' ' 

r \ ■ ' ' Sir: i haAC nist receu'ed vour etter with 

ot America. . ^ ^ ' ,--,■' 

,,...,,. . a copjA- ot AJr. lames Stokes apiiriintment as 

_ "Such ot the inhabitants, whether native or ^^^^-^^ ,.,f ^p^ -^^^^ ^,j ^p^, ,^.p,,„, . ^,^,_, ^ ^y^^_ 

toreign, as may not be disposed to accept the p^^^ch from the commander-in-chief of the 

hpgh privileges ot citizenship an<l to live peace- py s. Xaval Forces at Alonterev, f..r which I 

ably under the government ot the United thank von. Bv the bearer of them I return a 

States, will be all. .wed time t.;. . ispose ot then; ,p ,atc"h for Commodore SI.. at, which I hope 

property and remove out ot the country, it ^._^, ^^.^p p^^^.^ ^^^ opportunity of forwar.ling to 

the^- choose, without an)' restriction; or re- yIont^re^• 

main m it observing strict neutrality. ' ..j received vour letter of juh- 1_^ an.l wrote 

•AAdth full confidence in the honor and m- to vou, bv the bearer of it, ..n the P^th in an- 

tegrity of the mhabitants of the country, I gwer advising vou bv all means to the 

invite the judges, alcaldes and other civil of- flag of the United States at the Pueblo of St. 

fleers to execute their functions as heretofore, Joseph (San Jose) as vou expressed to do. If 

that the public tranquility be not disturbed, at "you had suflficient forc'e to maintain it there; 

least, until the government of the territory can of course you understand that it is not again 

be definitely arranged, to be hauled down 

"All persons holding titles to real estate, or "Agreeable to v'our reqm^st I send you a 

in cpiiet possession of lands under color oi proclamation, in both languages, from the 

rio"ht, shall have these titles guaranteed to Commander-in-Chief, \\hich I shall be glad to 

them'. All churches, and the property they have distributed as .far and generally as pes- 



siblc ; and be pleased to assure all persons of 
the most perfect security from injuries to their 
persons Qr property, and endeavor by every 
means in vour poAver to inspire them with 
confidence in the existing authorities and gov- 
ernment of the United States. 
"I am, sir, vour ob't servant, 

•• JOHN B. ^lONTGOr^lERY, 
"Commanding U. S. Ship Portsmouth. 
"To Capt. Thomas Fallon, Pueblo of St. 
Joseph, Upper California." 

"U. S. Ship Portsnrouth, 
"Yerba Euena. July 18, 1846. 
"Sir I have just received your letter with 
the official dispatch from Commodore Sloat, 
\\diich has been accidentally delayed one clay 
in its transmission from the pueblo and am 
much obliged to you for sending it to me. 

"1 am gratified to hear that you have hoisted 
the flag (")f our country and cannot but feel 
assured, as I certainly hoi)e, that y(jur zealous 
regard for its honor and glory will lead you 
nobly to defend it there. 

"I am, sir, A'our ob't servant, 



"To Capt. Thomas Fallon at the Pueblo 
San Jose, Uj^per California." 

Before the arrival at Monterey of Commo- 
dore Sloat it was believed in many quarters 
that the English government had a covetous 
e}-e c>n Calif(.>rnia. John Parrott, a prominent 
citizen of San Francisco, was in Mexico in 
the spring of 1846, and in a position to learn 
something of P>ritish intentions. Ascertaining 
that a movement Avas about to l3e made to hoist 
the English flag over the capitol at Monterey, 
he sent a courier to Commodore Sloat warn- 
ing him that England was about to steal a 
march on the United States. The commo- 
dore immediately went to sea. He reached 
Monterey Ba^-, and as has been related, hoist- 
ed the American flag over the capitol on July 
7, 1846. Admiral Seymour, of the British 
navy, arrived soon afterward, but having no 
authority to inaugurate hostilities with the 
United States, was powerless. 

The necessity of holding San Jose induced 
Captain Montgomery to dispatch the purser 
of the Portsmouth, Watmough, to the pueblo 
with thirty-five marines, as soon as it was 
learned that Fallon had gone south. He made 
his headquarters at the Juzgado and strength- 
ened his command by the enlistment of a few 
volunteers. The tide of war, however, had 
flowed southward, and with the exception of 
a short expedition against the Indians of the 
San Joaquin Valley, the. military operations 

did not amount to much. Watmough return- 
ed to his vessel in October. 

At this time Commander Hull of the U. S. 
sloop of war Warren, was in command of the 
northern district of California and from him 
issued commissions to Charles M. Weber as 
captain and John M. Murphy as lieutenant of 
a company to be enlisted in the land service 
to ser\-e during the war. They raised a com- 
panv of thirty and established headquarters 
in an adobe building on the east side of what 
is now known as Lightston Street. This com- 
pany did good service in scouting the country 
and preventing depredations by the straggling 
remnants of Castro's command and in securing 
sui)plies for the use of the troops. 

About the time Weber and Murphy receiv- 
ed their commissions a body of emigrants ar- 
rived at Sutter's Fort where they were met by 
Cai)tain Smith, of Fremont's Battalion, who 
had been detailed as a recruiting officer. 
Among the emigrants was Joseph Aram, wdio 
afterwards became an honored resident of 
Santa Clara Count)-. Aram immediately en- 
listed and wtis appointed a captain. With his 
volunteers he proceeded to escort the families 
of the emigrants to Santa Clara where he 
made his headrpiarters in Novemlier. The ac- 
commodations AN'ere A'ery inadequate and the 
season being a rough one, fourteen died before 
Feliruarv and many more became seriously 
ill. Ca])tain Aram had a force of thirty-one 
men and hearing that a Colonel Sanchez with 
a large force of mounted Mexicans was threat- 
ening the Santa Clara Mission, he proceeded 
tc) put it in as good a condition for defenses as . 
his means woulfl permit. Wagons and even 
branches cut from the trees on the Alameda 
were used as barricades across the various 

At the time Captain Aram took possession 
of the Alission, Captain Mervin of the U. S. 
Navy sent Lieutenant Pinckney, of the Savan- 
nah, and sixty men to reinforce AVeber and 
Murphy at San J<ise. On the afternoon of 
Novemlier 2, this force took possession of the 
Juzgado and transformed it into a barracks, 
entrenching the position by breastworks and 
a ditch. Videttes were stationed on all the 
roads and a sentinel was posted on the Guad- 
alupe bridge. In addition to these precautions 
Weber and Murphy's company were almost 
continuall}' in the saddle, scouting the country 
in all directions. This was absolutely neces- 
sary as the Mexican Sanchez, with a large 
force, was hovering around the valley picking 
up stragglers and looking for a favorable op- 
portunity for a sudden attack. At the same 
time the Americans were anxious to meet 
Sanchez on a fair field, but the Mexican's 



nio\ cnicnts were so erratic that he could not 
be broug'ht to bay. 

Ill the first days of September, Sanchez, by 
means of an ambush, surprised and captured 
Lieutenant AW A. Bartlett of the U. S. sloop 
AN'arren. ^ l^artlett was then acting- as alcalde 
At San iM-ancisco. He, with five men, were 
out lookinj:;- for supplies of cattle and reached 
a point near the Seventeen Mile House in 
what is now San Mateo County, when San- 
chez and his men dashed out from the brush 
and made the Americans prisoners. Martin 
Corcoran, afterwards a prominent resident of 
San Jose, ^\■as ^\-ith the captured party. The 
prisoners were taken to Sanchez camp among 
the redwoods in the footl)ills of the Santa 
Cruz Range. Word was liroug'ht to San Jose 
that Sanchez \\'as somewhere in the northern 
part of the valley and Weber and Murphy, 
with their company, started out in pursuit. 
After advancing a icw miles they learned that 
Sanchez had received large accessions to his 
force and was occupying a strong position in 
the hills back of San Mateo. Captain AVeber's 
little company being too small to render an 
attack advisable, the march was continued to 
San Francisco, where Weber reported to the 

As soon as A\>ber had passed on, Sanchez 
came out of the hills and encamped on the Hig- 
uera ranch, north of San Jose. Two days later 
he started for the pueblo thinking he could 
capture it without a fight as Weber's defenders 
had gone. He to<ik up a position on the Alma- 
den road, south of town and sent in a flag of 
truce, demanding surrender and stating that 
he had ^vith him two hundred men whose 
eagerness for battle could with difficulty be 
restrained ; but if the American forces would 
leave San Jose the_v would be permitted to 
depart unmolested. Lieutenant Pincknev re- 
fused the offer, doubled his guards and pre- 
pared for battle. That night was one of great 
anxiety to the little band l)ehind the intrench- 
ments on Market Street. Every one \\-as on 
the alert and although each ner^■e ^\'as strung 
to the utmost tension there A^-as no flinching. 
During the night Sanchez circled round the 
town and carefully inspected the position of 
the Americans from ever}' point. When he 
saw the preparations made for his reception, 
his heart failed him and he rode ofT with his 
command and went into camp about five miles 
north of Santa Clara. He kept with him Lieu- 
tenant Bartlett and his men. At that time J. 
Alexander Forbes, the acting Jjritish Consul 
was at Santa Clara. Taking a small English 
flag in his hands, Mr. Forlies visited the camp 
of Sanchez for the purpose of negotiating for 
the release of the prisoners. Sanchez was will- 
ing that Bartlett might go with Forbes, but 

Would not Consent that Ijartlett should go to 
the .Americans unless they would deliver tip 
Ca]it. C. M. AVeber in his |)lace. F'orbes com- 
municated this ])roposition to llie Commander 
at v^an l''rancisco and pending a reply torik 
P>artlett 1(] Santa Clara. AV^)rd came quickly 
that Sancliez' proposition c(juld ncjt l)e enter- 
tained and Bartlett was returned to the Mexi- 
can camp. 

During this time AA'eber's ffirce in San FVan- 
cisco was joined In- other f(")rces, and placed 
under the command of Ca])t. AA^ird Marstcm, 
L. S. Marine Corps, of the Sa\-annah. The 
composition <if this small arm}' was as fol- 
lr)ws : Thirt\--fi lur marines commanded by 
T^ieut. I-Joliert Tansell ; a si.x; pound ship's gun 
and ten men commanrled li}' ^Master AVilliam 
F. D. Gough, assisted b\' Midshipinan John 
Kell ; the San jose A'olunteers, a b(Kly of 
thirt\'-three mounted men nuder command C)f 
Capt. Clias. M. A\'elK'r and Lieut. John M. 
Mur])h}- \\-ith James F. l^eed, seeking relief for 
the Donner party, as second lieutenant ; Verba 
Ikiena A'olunteers under command of Capt. 
AX'illiam F. Smith and a detachment of tweh'e 
men under command of Cajit. J. ]Martin. The 
whtile liirce numbered 101 men. They left 
San l^^rancisco and on January 2, \H47, came 
in sight of Sanchez' forces al)out four miles 
north of Santa Clara. The Mexican force was 
about 250 men but notwithstanding the odds 
wert two to (me against them the Americans 
ad\anced to the attack with confidence and 
enthusiasm. Sanchez, ^vhose scouts had 
brought him intelligence of the aproach of the 
troops from San Francisco, first sent his pri- 
soners toward the Santa Cruz Mountains and 
then with great show of valor made ready for 
battle. As soon as the Americans came in 
sight of the enemy they ])ressed foward for 
an attack. Sanchez fell back and the Ameri- 
cans continued to advance. They brought 
their one piece of artiller\' into p(.)sitic)n but 
at the third round it -was dismounted by the 
recoil and half buried in the mud. The infan- 
try ho\\'ever, kept up a hot fire, whenever 
the}" could get in range, ^xdiich owing to the 
extreme caution of the Mexicans, was not 
often. A good deal oi ground was thus tra- 
versed until finally Sanchez made a strong 
demonstration around the right flank of the 
Americans, hoping b}- this maneu\er to cut 
ofl^ and stam|)ede a large band of horses that 
were in the charge of the United States troops. 

The reports of the artiller}' and the volleys 
of the musketry had aroused the people of the 
Mission of Santa Clara. The}" ascended the 
house tops to witness the battle. Capt. Aram, 
with the men under his command wished to 
join the conflict, l)ut as all the women and 
children of the countrv were under American 



militar\- jirotectii m, Aram did iiDt feel at 
liliert}- t(i aliamlrm them, especially as Sanchez 
in his retrnrrrade mriAement, A\-as ap]-)roaching- 
the Missinn. lint "when the Mexicans made 
the demonstrati'in on the American rit;-ht, he 
marched liis men Avitli sjieed tn attack v^an- 
chez' rig-ht Axing". At the s;ime time, WAher 
and ^hir])hA''s cnmitany char<;-ed, the ciimliined 
fi"irces ilriNinL;' the ?\fexicans I'rrim the field and 
toward the Santa Crnz ^lountains A\diile the 
Americans marched in trinmph to the }ilissiiin. 
Idle ?\le:-:u-an loss A\as four riien killed and 
four wiiunded. ddie Americans had twn men 
sli,t;-htl\' w'liunded. 

Soon after Sanchez had keen dri\-en from 
the field lie sent in td the Mission a Hag < if 
truce iiffrrinL;' a ci mditii ^nal surrender. d'he 
re]dA- was that the surrender must he uncondi- 
tional. Sanchez rejdieil that he would die 
rather than surrender except nn the conditions 
jiroposed \>y him. At krst a cessatinn of hos- 
tilities; was a'.^reed njion until such time as Ids 
proposition cduld he stdmiitted to the Com- 
mander iif the district at San Francisco. 

During;" the arndstice and the da}- after the 
kattle, Januar)' ,\ Cajit. Aram went to the 
^lexican corral to look for some horses that 
had keen stolen from the Americans. A\ hile 
in the ]\lexican cam]) \\-ord was krouL^i'ht in 
that another American force was adwancing 
from the direction of the ^^anta Cruz Mount- 
ains. Sanchez, Axdic) seemed in !_;Teat fear of an 
attack, requested Cafit. Ar<am tri l;"("i out and 
meet them and inform them of the armistice. 
As no reinforcements A\'ere exjiected from that 
direction Aram could nrit imag-ine wdiat this 
force cciuld lie, hut he rode out to meet them, 
ddie acting- Fritish C'rinsuk J. Alexander 
Forbes, accompanied him. It seems that the 
hope that England \\-oidd take a hand in the 
affairs of California A\as not entirely al)an- 
doned, for as I^ieutenant Alurphy stated. 
Forbes carried A\-ith him, concealed under his 
saddle, a sn-iall British flag, ]>resumahly for 
the pin-pose of in\-(-iking tlie aid of the 
strangers should theA' pro\-e to he Eng-lish. 
Several of the n-ien in the escort saw the flag 
and said afterAA'ard that had an attempt been 
made to induce British interference, the bearer 
of the flag wrnild nrit haA-e sur\-iA-ed to tell the 
story of his ne.gotiations. As it happened, 
hoAvcA^er, the ncAv party prc-jA'ed t(-j be a force 
of fift}' nine men under command of Capt. 
Maddijx of the LT. S. Na\-}-. They Avere disap- 
jjointed to hear of the armistice but respected 
its ccmditions. Three days after this event 
a courier arriAed from San Francisco inform- 
ing Capt. Marston that Sanchez' surrender 
n-iiist be unconditi(mal. 

( )n the next day, the 7th, Lieutenant Gra}'- 
son arrived at the Alission with another rein- 

forcement of fifteen men and on the 8th San- 
chez uncondilionall}- surrendered his entire 
force. His men were alkiwed to return to 
their homes, which the m.'ijcjritA' of then-i did, 
ti-i aftei-AA'ard become good citizens c)f the 
Cnited St;ites. v^ancliez A\-as taken to vSan 
I'rancisco and fijr a time was held prisoner of 
war on board the Sa\'annah. 

ddie battle of Santa Clara w-as the last of the 
Iii-istilities m this count}-. The theater of Avar 
Avas transferred to the south and no hostile 
gun was afterward fired in the beautiful Val- 
\ev of Santa Clara. I hit few months elapsed 
after this engagement kiefore the soldiers C)n 
both side.-^ were mingled together in the 
friendliest kind of business and social re- 
lations, 'kliis will not seem remarkable when 
it is remeniliered that the inhaljitants of Cali- 
foi-jiia had, for Aears, been dissatisfied Avith 
their relations to the Alexican GoA-ernment. 
ThcA- had criiitemplated a rcA-cilution and had, 
in a manner, accomplished it Avhen they drove 
2\Iicheltorena from the country. It is true they 
had no lo\-e for the United States, but that 
gr)\-ernment liaA'ing taken possession of the 
count]-}-, tlie}- accejited the situation as being 
much better than their former condition, al- 
tliough not A\liat tlie\- liad hoped tc) achicA-e, 
Idle ei|ual justice AA-hich was administered 1iy 
the ^Xmencans soon reconciled them to their 
lot and in a few }-ears they congratulated 
tliemselves o\-er the fact that things Avere 
much better than the}- had expecterl. 

Hostilities between the United vStates and 
Mexico ceased earl}- in 1S48 and on February 
2nd of that }-ear the treaty of Guadalupe 
Ilidalgcj was signed. B}- its terms California 
A\-as cedeil to the contpierors. Idiis treatA' A\'as 
ratified li}- the I'resident of the LTnited States 
on Alarcli 16, A\-as exchanged at Oueretaro on 
Ma}- ,iO, and w-as piroclaimed Ij}' the President 
on |ul\- 4tli. 

California was now the propertA' of the 
L'nited States l)Ut had neither territorial nor 
state organization. In fact it had no territor- 
ial existence until 1849. During this time its af- 
fairs w-ere administered by the senior military 
officers stationed in California. These military 
governors Avere : Commodore John D. Sloat, 
July 7, 1846; Cornmodore Robert F. Stock- 
ton, August 17, 1846; Col. John C, Fremont, 
lanuarv 1847; Gen. Stephen W. Kearney, 
":\Iarcli,1847; Col. Richard J',. Mason, May 31, 
1847; Gen, I'.ennett Riley, April 13, 1849. 

Capt. Thomas Fallon, \\-ho raised the first 
American flag in the Santa Clara Valley, ac- 
companied Fremont in the pursuit of Pio Pico. 
After the Avar ended he took up his residence 
in San Jose, erecting A\hat Avas then consid- 
ered the finest mansion in the pueblo. It stood 
on San Pedro Street at its junction with Avhat 

lllST()k\- C)\' SANTA CI.ARA CoUN'IA' 55 

'^ ""\\' >'^:iii Au!;-ustiiu- Street and extended 'I'lu' i^rain in llie liclds ^rew and rijiened, hut 

''^^^"'■^ *" t-lialMdla AUex . The j^mnnds were wailed ni \ain inv tile i-eajier and was linally 

spaenuis and were iilanted m I'rnit trees and wasteij nr de\ . iiireil liy tlie rn\ mi;- In i.i^'s. Each 

tiowenn^- plants. Here the hMSjiitahle captain re]Mirl ni a rich liml intensilied the excitement 

kept I'pen liimse lor years. Me had three wddle the nnnn.'riins sti)ries oi disa.ppointment 

daui;hters l>y his hrst wile, a native of I\Iex- seemed not in alla\' the lescr. T(j\vn and 

'*-""■ .''■^'■"-^. \^ ^'i"c' loiiked npi.n as the three C(innt>- were deserted, ddiere heint;' nu ernps 

lieanties nl ihe pueMn. The (ddest, Anita, fnr lack' (it haiwestin^- all foiMl snjjplies w^ent 

married J.ilin \\ Alalniie, who was a o-fadnate nj) to falmkins ]iiices. Tlic flniir nsed was 

nt Santa idara Cnlk-.t^e and a la\v_\ er of stand- kron^ht chietl}' frMin Cdiile and s.ild I'nr twenty 

ing- an.l akiluy. A\diile lie was deput}' district dollars a karrek JAerything' else m the way 

attorney he was seizeil \\ath the stage fever. nl fooik except meat was iiri ijinrtii niatel}' high. 

.Vkanduiiing the law he studied for the stage I.akor, when it eimld ke pr..cnred was from 

and in the early ei.ghties made kis professional ten to eighteen dullars pier da}'. Tvtimker cost 

delnit in San kraneisco ai)pearing as "Romeo" $1()(.) ])er thousand feet for hanling akme. For 

to the "Inliet" ol ?\liss Fdeaiiur Callmun. a San two years the (midiis raised on akunt six acres 

Jose girk who liad adupited tlie stage as a pro- nf <;r(innd wliere tlie Sontkcrn I'acilic depot 

fessiun a.nd wlio is n.iw (k'JJl the wife of stands yielded a net prnlit nf $_'( l,(.)l H ) a }-ear. 

J'rince l.a;:aroMtck nf Serkia. .Mak>ne starred 'pp^ tw.. most ];rominent towns in Cali- 

several year., m the hast, and was secretary f,,,-,,;.^ ;„ ]S4,S were ^Aad.a kUiena (San I'ran- 

ot the i-layers C Ink, Xew \ ork City wdien he eisc) and San | AVhen the gold dis- 

died. His wife kecame an actress kefore his ...werv Avas made Charles E. AVhite was al- 

death. Another of Captain Fallon's daughters calde'of San )ose and Idarry J'.ee, alguazil, or 

married Aat j. I'.rittam, a pr(,ininent San Fran- sheriff. All the males, wit'h few- exceiitions, 

CISCO elukman. In 1862 Fallon ran lor state joined the stampede, leaving kehind onlw the 

senator on the F^enn.cratie ticket but was ;,P1 men and the women and children." On 

keaten ky Josepli_ G. A\'allis, of ]\tayfield, l<.e- account of the favoraljle kncation and quietude 

pukihcan. in k^67 he w^as the successful candi- ,,f the town men from iither settlements came 

date for county treasurer, defeating Moody, to San lose, left their waves and families and 

Repuldican, k_v- sixty-one votes. He held no then hurried off to the mines. 

other important piihlic office, pj^^-j.^ g^^ ^p^^ p^^j ^^,-^dgj. pj^ ^,p,^,.o-e in the 

Lieut. John .Al. Murphy, who was Captain ,.aia),oo'se ten prisoners (Indiansj,' two of 

\\ekers_ second m command during hostili- were charged with murder. AVhen Al- 

ties m .Santa Clara A alley diu-iiig the Alexi- ^,,^p,p ^ypj^^ announced his intention to leave 

can war, was the son of Martm Murphy, Sr., j,,,. ^p^ ,,^,„^.,_ ,|.„-,.,. -^^ked him what disposi- 

and alter the discovery ot g(,ld, went to the t„,„ ,,f ^p^ pi-is,,ners should be made. "Do 

mines, taking with Tim a stock of .goods. He ...p^^t vou like with them," was the answer. 

employed tlie Indians to prospect and dig for Harrv' considered awhile and at last came to 

him and ])rokakly had luore g<dd m his pos- ^pg eonclusion that it would never do to leave 

session than other miners ^on the coast. He ^p^ Indians m the pueblo with none but 

was the hrst treasurer ot Santa Clara County ,v(>men and children about, for he, too, had 

and was afterward elected recorder and then j^^^^jg ^,p pj^ ,„i„j ^^, ^^ ^o the mines. He 

sheritl. His wile was A^irginia F. Reed, daugh- p„j^p,- determined to take the Indians along 

ter ot James F Reed and one of the sur- ^^.^^p ' p,„, ^„j ,,.,tp p,, father-in-law and 

vivors ot the ill-fated Donner party. Mur- , ,1 ■ 1 ^ ^ i ^ -d t 1 ■ ^i 

, , , 1 , r TT- brotner-m-law started out. Before leaving the 

phy has keen dead for man}- years. Hi 
wddow died in Los Angeles Feljruary 15, 1921 

lockup the Indians promised faithfully not to 

Charles M. AVeker was a merchant in San escape and to serve Harry well m return for 
Jose Avhere he formed his volunteer company which service they would, after a time, be re- 
to defend the pueblo. He accjuired a large stored to liberty. The party located at Dry 
tract of land in the county, raised thousands Diggings on the American River and for three 
of cattle and died in San Joa(|uin County manv' months the Indians behaved splendidly. All 
years ago. the dust they took out was given to their em- 
Gold Is Discovered plover and thev seemed to care for nothinc 

The discovery of gold in January, 1848, 

except food and shelter. At the end of two 

created the greatest excitement in San Jose, '"onths the miners thereabout began to talk 

The ne\vs came after the grain crop had been to them about the shabby way in which they 

planted. All business was suspended and were treated, telling them that they were un- 

everybody rushed to the mines. Many sue- <ler no restraint, that the gold they took out 

ceed'ed in obtaining a good supply of the prec- was their own property and wound up by 

ious metal, but many more did not succeed, giving them the curse of the aborigine, "fire 


water." Harrv soon noticed a chansje in their l)ovs on tlie ranch. Durins? the play one of 
manner and as he had cleaned up a" g-ood pile the lioy,s named Valencia, a nephew of Cha- 
he resolved to return to San Jose.' Accord- holla, accidentally injured the horse of young 
inglv he left the Indians in full posession of Pvle. The horse was so nearly disabled that 
his claim with all the tools, etc., and departed another had to he procured to take young 
hcmieward. He afterward learned that the In- I'vle home. After young- Pyle had left the 
dians .,n]v worked one dav after his departure ranch Valencia's companions began to plague 
and then" devoted what dust thev had in get- him alx.ut his awkwardness, saymg. among 
ting ,,n a glorious drunk, which' was not un- other things, that upon hearing young: Pyle's 
mixed with blo,,dshed. Not one of them ever story the jiarents would make Valencia's moth- 
returned to San lose. er jiay for the injury. Valencia appears to 

Tj o , , XT " 1 i 1 r 1 ■ T \„ have been a A-erv sensitive boy and his com- 

Hon. S. ( ). Houghton, whn died m Los An- '"'^^ ' ^^ ,,,-■,-,• '. i -^ i 

, r 1.1 1 o I ^ iianions w(-irked his teelings up to such a pitch 

geles a few rears ago, iiassed through v^an (ise i"'.! i., ^^ ^^ , , ,- ,, V) i i \. + 

■^ ,1 r 11 ■ r MO '^ c 1 ^1 I ^ that lic deteriiiinef to to low Pvle and extract 

m the tall ot 48 to hud the place compara- ^""^ nc ilici . ^ i ■ ,, ■ a *- 

^- 1 1 4 1 \ii ii 1 1 4-- 1 1 a promise to keep mum abi-)Ut tlie accident. 

tu'eh' deserted. All the male iiopulatic)n had ''1' "", ' ,' , , , , 

1 't 1 r .1 • . 1 11+ „^f„,i iMounted on a tast horse he soon overtook 

departed for the mines, Inismess had stagnated iooi-oo^^i r +i i ■ + i i 

, ,1 • 1+1 ■ ; 1 Pv e aiK with a t irow ot the lariat dragged 

and e\ervt]Ting ajipeared to be .going to rack ^ '^ ^^ 

and ruin. 

coming seasi 

terev on his wav northward, purchased of 

Capt. Josepli Aram, a redwood board for the When young Pyle did not return home his 

No provision had been made for the the boy fr,,m h,s horse. He then cut the boy s 
n Mr. Houghton, while at Mon- throat with a knife and dragged the body to 

the toothills and covered it with Ijrush. 

purpose of making a rocker for wdiich he paid 

relatives and friends instituted search for him 

one dollar per foot. Sawmills were a i)aving but without result. No clue to his wdiere- 
business those davs. After returning from the abouts was discovered until 1849 and the man- 
mines .Mr. Houghton emploved men in a saw- ner of the discovery was for years a subject 
mill, paving them as high 'as sixteen dollars "f rlispute. P'rederic Hall, m his history says 
per dav.' When the gold excitement broke out that in 1849 a brother of young Pyle met in 
the following persons were in and about San tlie San Joaquin Valley a man who said he 
Jose. Moses Schallenberger, Frank Lightson, knew all about the killing. He was brought 
Charles E. V'hite, T- W. Weeks, Ephraim to San J,,se, the remains of the murdered boy 
Fravel, Ceorge Cros.s, A. Pfister, Isaac P.ran- were found and the arrest of A'alencia soon 
ham. Dr. Ben Cory, John M. ^Muriihy, Thomas f<-)llowed. 

Campbell, Capt. Joseph Aram, AYilliam (rul- Auiither stor-\- was related by the late Julius 

nac, Charles Al. "Weber, AV. C. Wilson, Ed- Martin, of (biroy. In 1849 Alartin had a band 

ward Jolmson, Peter Davidson, Josiah Belden, of cattle in the xicinit^- of ]\lormon Island. 

Zachariah Jones, T-*. Haggert}', Jonathan Parr, ( )ne of his Spanisli vacpieros named Camillo 

the Pyle family, M. D. Kell, Peter Ouinc}-, Rainero was taken ill \vith a fever and Martin 

Hiram Miller, Samuel A'oung, Joseph Stillwell, brought him to his (Ramero's) home in the 

Arthur Cal(h\'ell, James F. Reed, Clement Santa Clara A^allew (Jne night as thev were 

Bugbee, Wesley Hoover, James Enright, riding near the Ilernal ranch, Ramero was 

Harry Bee. This does not complete the list, taken with a chill, and fearing that he was 

but nearly so. Parties were organized for the \\-as about to die, toM Martin all about the 

mines and explorations were carried on until murder of )-oung Pyle, wdio did it, how it 

just before the rainy season when the major \vas done and wdiere the body had lieen hid- 

part of the gold seekers returned. Before the den. lie said, among other things, that after 

opening of spring, wdien new expeditions had young Pyle had been dragged from his horse, 

been fitted out, the population had largely in- Valencia rode away, but soon after meeting 

creased and the city was left in a more secure his uncle was told that if he did not go back 

condition. Numbers had already increase<l and kill PyU- the Americans \vould hang him 

their store of .gold to a satisfactory extent, for what he had already done. The statement 

wdiile others wished to try their hand again. so worked on the l)ov's fears, that he went 

Killing of Young Pyle 

back, killed Pyle and concealed the bod}' near 
Sih er Creek, I)e\'r)iid Evergreen. Martin, after 
No single event created more interest and hearing Ramen'i's story came at once to San 
excitement m San Jose and vicinity than the Jose and meeting Cad. Keyes told him what 
killing of young Pyle by a Mcxkan named Ramero had confessed. Keves chanced to find 
\"alencia in 1847. From a great mass of John P3de in town and they made up a posse 
stories the following facts ha\e been gleaned: and arrested Valencia. 

In 1847 young Pyle, son of Ivlward Pyle, A party consisting of Peter Davidson, John 

visited the ranch of Anastacio Chabolla for the Pyle, AYilliam McCutchen and a few others 
purpose of playing with the young Spanish went out to find the murdered boy's remains. 



Tlicy \\-ere found in the jilace indicated by 
Raniero. It was afterward learned that \"a- 
lencia had been h\int;- a hie of torment ever 
since the commission of the deed. From the 
place where he li\ed to the spot where he 
had hidden the body of his \ ictim a path had 
been worn liy frequent ^■isits. It was said 
that hardly a nigdit passed without seeing him 
trudging- the lonely path to the gra\e of his 
\ictim. After his arrest A'alencia was arraigned 
before K. H. Dimmick, Judge of the First In- 
stance. He confessed to the crime before his 
trial and the trial resulted in a convicticm. 
The execution took place on ^Market Plaza in 
the presence of Judge Dimmick and a large 
nunrber of spectators. 

Local Government 

Pending the meeting of the con\'ention and 
the adoption of a new state constitution in 
Monterey in October, 1S4*^\ the country was 
ruled pro\isionally b}- American officials. Each 
large settlement had for chief officers an al- 
calde, wdio under Mexican laws had the en- 
tire control of municipal atiairs and adminis- 
tered justice pretty much according to his own 
ideas on the suliject, without being tied down 
In" precedents and formal principles of la\v. 
He could make grants of bmlding lots within 
the town boundaries to intending settlers and 
really his right of administration, except in 
cases of grave importance, seems to have been 
limited only by his power to carrj^ his de- 
crees into effect. When the Americans seized 
the country they were obliged to make use of 
the existing machinery of local government 
and the customarv laws that regulated it. They 
accordingly everv'where ap]K)inted alcaldes of 
towns and districts and instructed them to dis- 
pense justice in the best possible manner, pay- 
ing always due regard for the national laws 
of ^Mexico and the provisional customs of Cali- 

Such was the condition of the town gov- 
ernment wdien that memorable year, 1849, 
opened. The rulers in the Pueblo of San Jose 
were as follows: H. K. Dimmick, to August, 
first alcalde ; Richard M. May, from August 
to NoA'ember, first alcalde : John C. Conroy, 
from November, first alcalde : Jose Fernandez, 
second alcalde; John T. Richardson, from No- 
vember 2 to December 3, judge of the first 
instance ; W. M. Kincaid, from December 3, 
judge of the first instance. The Juzgado, fjr 
court house, was located on Market Street, 
corner of El Dorado (nowr Post). It was 
built of adobe and had a primitive and weather- 
beaten appearance.' 

In 1847 a survey of the town had been made 
and streets laid out and in 1849 the three 
main thoroughfares were Market, First and 

Santa Clara streets, the last named taking the 
lead as far as travel and business were con- 
cernc<l. There were but few business houses 
earl\' in the vear. Rightston iv Weber held 
fortli in an adube l)uilding on the southeast 
Corner of Santa Clara and Eightst("in streets. 
There was no hotel in town then and emigrants 
or strangers had the alternati\'e of either 
slee])ing in tlie ojien air or paving as high as 
$50 a month for a place on the floor in the 
second story of Rightston & Weber's store or 
other adobe strtictnres. Josiah Belden and 
W. R. I'asham trafficked in a tile-roofed Ijuild- 
ing on Market street at the corner cjf San An- 
tonio street. J. D. Hoppe had a store in an 
adobe on the c<irner of Market and El Dorado 
streets and William McCutchen and B. H. 
(jordon (afterward a larmer in the San Felipe 
Vallev') did business in a frame structure on 
First street, near the corner of Santa Clara 
street. On the Knox Block corner stood the 
handsomest and most aristocratic Ifjoking 
adobe residence in the pueblo. It was occu- 
])ied by Thomas and Frank West and wdiat 
"was a wonder in those da}"s, it was i)lastered 
on the inside. From that building down to 
Market v^treet, a mustard iiatch flourished in 
all its pristine vigor. The bucolic appearance 
"\\"as relieved son"iewhat by a collection of mus- 
tard huts put up by the native California popu- 
lation. The long, hardy stalks w"ere selected 
and with the aid of a fewr willow branches 
and a liberal supply of adobe mud, a com- 
fortable abiding place was constructed. No 
pains appear to ha\"e been si)ared by these 
children of the plains and the Sierras in thor- 
oughlv ventilating their dwellings, and as ven- 
tilation and health go hand in hand, it is not 
to be w"ondered at that the occupants w"ere 
strong-limbed, hardy and long-lived. 

Antonio Maria Sunol sold general merchan- 
dise at his residence on the west side of Mar- 
ket Plaza and a Chilean firm did business in 
P'eter Da\"idson's adol)e Iniilding on San Pedro. 

There were a number of priN-ate residences, 
constructed of adobe, in and about the pueblo 
and many tents and a few wooden buildings 
put up for temporary use by the Americans. In 
1849 the t(w\"n began to increase rapidly in 
prjpulation, on account of the discover}' of gold, 
the consecpient tide of immigration and the 
ad\"antages offered by vSan Jose as a place of 
residence. The women of '49 deserve a larger 
share of praise and credit than has generally 
been accorded them. They were not hot- 
house plants, nor spoiled beauties, narrow^- 
w"aisted, w"eak-chested and doll-faced, wdio 
manifested n"iore regard for fashion and the 
latest novel, than housew"ork. They were 
women of force and worthy coadjutors of the 
men who laid the basis for the grand civili- 


zali.m Mt tnclay. 'J'he habitations (adolie, tent dangv.s and other divertissements made up the 
or shacl<) were not supplied with the man}- pro.^Tam ol pleasure. 

Vivid Description of Early Days 

lUN'eniences of tuda^'. Man)" of the house- 
hiild utensils ^\"ere of ])rimitiA-e design and in 
the matter of groceries the stock was not as The condition of affau'S m San Jose at this 
extensn-e and 'varied as mav be seen in these time A\-as graphically described by the late 
later (kn,-. In place of the handsome and "Orandma" Bascom m a story transcribed l)y 
convenient range or gas stove, with lal)or- Mrs. .M . H . Field, which appeared m the Over- 
saving and handy accessories, they were land Monthly in 1XX7. The tollowmg excerpts 
obliged to put up with an adobe fircidace ijr are made: 

two sticks drix'en into tlie ground, forked at 'AVe reached Sacramento the last day of 

their upper ends with a third stick laid across flcti^lx-r. Then Ave took a boat to San Fran- 

thc top uiion which the kettles and pots were ciscci. It rained and raine<l. I remember that 

su.spended alio\e the fire underneath, ddie}- at I'.euicia we ])aid .'^l.^ fc)r a candle. At San 

did not have an}- bell-knocker or idectric luit- Franci-^co \vc hoped to find a house all ready 

ton on or near the front door, nor a parlor to be put together, wdiich the Doctor had 

with a piano and lots of chromos in it. In Ix.ught in Xew York and ordered sent around 

the majority of cases the kitchen, dining room, the Horn. He had also sent in the same cargo 

bedroom, .--itting room and parlor were one a great lot of furniture and a year's supply 

and there was generally an alisence of ear- of pro\isions, but they ne\"er came until the 

pets and wallpaper. 'Idie wcjinen A\'orked hard nevt .\])ril ami then ever}-thing Avas spoiled 

in those (hns, adapting themselves cheerfully l)ui the house. A'\'e had alscj bought in San 

to the rouy-h conditions. Many of them are iMMUcisco tAvo lots f(-ir SI, 700 each. The best 

now li\'ing in costl}' dwellings, surrounded A\'e could do A\'as to camp on them. The first 

b_\" appurlenances of wealth, refinement and ruLjiit in San Francisco ^Ir. ]5r_A-ant came to 

ease. Idie}- deserA'e the success the_A" and take supper A\-ith us and the Doctor, to cele- 

their husbands ha\e achie\'eil and it is all the brate, liought $5 worth of potatoes. We ate 

more enjoyable after the hard exiieriences of them all for supi)er and didn't eat so very 

the earh- (kaA's. iinaiiA- of them, either. 

Early Buildings of San Jose 

■A\'e had intended from the first to come to 
the Santa Clara \'allev, for the Doctor said 
In the latter of '49 the Bella Union that Avherever tlie Catliolic Fathers had picked 
Saloon Avas erected on a portion of the ground ^,^^(. ,^ ^j^^, j^ ,„j^st pg ^ „.,„,a ,,„£. The chil- 
noAv occu]ned liy the .\uzerais House on Santa ,1,.^,.^ .^,^,1 ^ staved m the citv while the Doc- 
Clara street. The pr,,prietors Avere Joseph AY. ^,„. ^^.^.^^^ ,„^ horseback to San ]ose and bought 
J(dinson and a Mr. A\ hitney. The iMansion ^ h,,u^e for us. Then he came back and Ave 
House was begun by J. S. Rnckel on the started for San Jose with Professor Jack, 
ground A\here noAv stands the old Music Hall ^^.pp^^. ^i^^ Doctor staved in the city to buy and 
building on North First street; and the City ^,„j, f„niiture and provisions to us. We came 
Flotel on the opposite of the street Avas com- ^,, Alviso in the boat and paid $150 in fare, 
pleted and .,].ened to the public. Mine host ■^^^^- p.^ me and the children. From Alviso 
was Peter Oumcy, (since deceased) and the ...^ came to San bv the Pi.)neer stage 
prices charged for l)..ard and lodging Avere through fearful mud and pouring rain, pav- 
iiigh en,, ugh to allow a boniface to get rich „,„. .^\^ '..unce' each for fare. On the boat 

I got accpiainted Avith two nice gentlemen, both 

in a month. 

Where the Bank of Italy building noAV ministers, Avhose names Avere Brierly and 

stands a\ as a large cattle corral and t,( the Blakeslee. They, too, Avere coming to San 

east anil south plains of mustard greeted the Jose; also a Mr. Knox. 

eye, an adolie house, occupied by a native " A\'e haven't any place to lav our heads 

Cahfornian, noAv and then dotting the Avaste Avhen we get there,'' one of them said, 

and relieving the monotonous exjjanse. The " AX'ell, I've got a house,' said I, just as 

mustard stalks grcAv as high as young trees— if I was in Kentuckv, 'and if you can put up 

higher tlian a man's head and it Avas the easiest with what I'll have to you can come Avith me 

thing m the world to take a Avalk in the shade and Avelcome.' So Ave Avere all driven straight 

of the yellow branches and get lost! to my house at the corner of Second and 

The grand jniblic place Avas the Plaza, then San h'ernando streets. It Avas dark and the 

hard, le\el and. treeless. Here the native Call- 10th of 1 )ecember. 

fornians were in the habit of congregating and "The house had been b'otight from a Mrs. 

enjoying themseUes according to the customs MatthcAvs and she AAas still in it. Doctor had 

that had been handed down for generations, paid $7,000 for the house and t\A'o fifty vara 

Horse racing, bull fights, ecjuestrian feats, fan- lots. I expected to see at least a decent shel- 

UlS'r(:)RV (^)l. SANTA 0[.ARA C( )[A\1A' 59 

ler, Init nil. iii\'! it was just as ,,iu' nl llic cliil- full. Tlic fust iIu'iil;- 1 kiu'W I liad thirteen 

(Iron sai'l. '.Must as l;i)i>i1 as nur nM Kentuck\' Im.arders — seiialMrs ami rcpre^eii t.'iti\ es, miiiis- 

ci'fu crili.' It had twn ninius aud a luft which ters and teachei-s. Xdhml}" whn caiue would 

was cliniliedi iutn I)\- a kind nf ladder, 'idle l;'i) a\\"a\". I ei juld alwaws iiiauai^e li i m.ake peri- 

rnnf \\ as .if shakes and let the rain rii.;lit ]ile feel at linnie, aud they wnuld .all s,ay they 

througdi. and the llnnr was nf plauks, laid \\aiuld put u]i with .anythiipi;- and help ill all 

diiwNui with the suiiMith side up with L;a-eat sorts of wa\s, if 1 would onl\' let them stay, 

cracks hetween to let the water run out. I JMr. I^eek (he ^\'as the eiirollint;' clerk (jf the 

was thankful for that, ddiere was a chimney Lc.qaslature ) \\'as a wonderful h.'ind at making 

111 the house .and a hreidace. hut liardl)' a liatter cakes. We got ,a re]iutatioii on hatter 

hit of tire and no wooik It was rather a cakes and our house was (hihhed "Slapjack 

forUirn place to come to and hriug \isi1:ors to, Idall" h\' iir,' ho\-, .\I. It stuck to us. Mr. 

now wa.^u't it? Vet we had heeii through so Bradford, of Indiana, coiild hrown coffee to 

much that the poorest shelter looked gciod to p)er{eeti(jn. 

me and lu-sides it was our new home. We ■■},[,-. Orr and .Afr. Mullen alwa^•s hrought 

must make the best of it. Mrs. Afatthews ,^l] tlie water, dduw were senators.' I used to 

had a good supper for us on the tal.le and th,„i^ theA" liked th'e joh hecaiise there was a 

the children Avere overjoyed to see a real table pretty girl in the house wdiere the}- got the 

cloth once more. w-ater. And that reminds me that several 

" A\dll }'ou tell me where I can get some families gijt water from the same \vell. It 

Wood?" I said tc) Afrs. Matthews, thinking that \vas just a hole in the ground, about eight or 

a fire AAanild l;ie the best possible thing for us ten feet deep and no curl) around it. (Jnce 

all. 'You can buy a Inirro load in the morn- a baliy Awas creeping on the ground and fell 

iiig.' she answered. 'I'Ae used the last bit into it. The mother saw it and ran and jumpied 

to get supjier A\'ith?' Well, the end of it A\-as in after it. ddien she screamed and I ran 

that we ti^iok our supper and went to bed — out. There she \\-as in the Avell, holding the 

irot on our nice Kentucky leather lieds, but baby upside dowui to get the Avater out of its 

cm buffalc) skins spread on the floor and with- lungs. 'ThroAv me a rope,' she screamed and 

out auA- pilhiws. Mr. Kuo.-v, Mr. Blakeslee 1 ran for a rope. Then she tied it ar(~)und the 

and Afr. Brierh- climbed up into the loft and bal)_\- and I drew it up. Meanwdiile our cries 

turned in as best thev crmld. Mr. Knox Avas l.;)rought men to the rescue and they drew^ up 

sick but I couldn't e\'en giA-e him a cup of the poor woman. AVe kept the well covered 

hot tea. I said to Mrs. Matthews that I Avished after that. 

I could heat a stone to put to his feet. 'Stone !' "Before Ave got the Idack man it seemed im- 

said she. 'There are no stones in this country.' possible to get a cook. We even had a Avom- 

"AA'e slept as if Ave A\'ere on downy lieds, an come doAvn from San Francisco, but she 

Ave Avere sc) tired. The next morning I bought didn't stay Avhen she found Ave really expected 

a burro load of Avood for an 'ounce'. EA-er}'- her to cook. She said she Avas a niece of Amos 

thing cost an 'ounce'. I soon got used to it. Kendall and Avasn't going to cook for au}-- 

AMieat Avas 75 cents a pound, butter $1 a body. Professor Jack helped me steadily and, 

pound, eggs S3 a dozen. A chicken cost $3, as I said, eA-erybody lent a hand. AA'e had a 

milk $1 a quart. But the prices matched all A-erA' gay time over our meals and everybody 

around. Doctors charged $5 for pulling a Avas A\-illing to Avash dishes and tend baby, 

tooth and other things Avere in proportion. I I used to go to the Legislature and enjoy the 

don't knoAV as if it made any difference. I fun there as much as the members enjoyed 

divided my mansion into four rooms, A\'ith my housekeeping. The March of that Avinter 

curtains. Doctor came and brought us furni- was something to remember. People used 

ture and all the comforts money could buy. to get swamped on the corner of First and 

He paid $500 to get shingles for our roof. Santa Clara streets. A little boy Avas drowned 

Mr. Blakeslee and Mr. Brierly stayed Avith us. Uiere. ft Avas a regular trap for children. 

We all seemed to get on Avell together. It "Oh, did I tell you I built the first church 

Avas not till spring "that the Doctor found a and the first schoolhouse in San Jose? I did. 

black man Avho could cook. He paid $800 I built it all Avith my OAvn hands and the only 

for him. Folks said he Avouldn't stay — for, of tool I had Avas a good, stout needle. It was 

course, he Avas free in California — but he did. the famous 'Blue Tent' you have heard of. 

He lived with us for four years. Mr. Blakeslee asked me if I could make it 

"People began to ask if they couldn't stay and I told him of course I could. He bought 

Avith us till they found some other home, and the cloth and cut it out. It Avas of blue jean 

then somehow, thev staved on. Everybody and cost seventy-five cents a yard. The Pres- 

had to be hospitable. The Legislature Avas byterian Church Avas organized in it and Mr. 

then in session and the town was more than Blakeslee had a school in it all Avinter. 



"We had a good deal of party-g-oing and 
gave entertainments just as if we had elegant 
houses and all the con\-eniences. Some of the 
Spanish jieriple were A'ery stylish. The ladies 
had dresses rich as silk and embroidery could 
make them., and iir their long, low adobe 
houses there were rich carpets and silk cur- 
tains trimmed Avith gt)ld lace. I went to the 
first wedding in one of those houses. Miss Pico 
married a I\Ir. Campbell, it was ver)' grand, 
liut the odd dresses and the odd dishes upset 
my gra\'itv more than once. Governor and 
I\Irs. AIcDougall lived in an adobe house on 
Market street and the}' had a grand part_v 
there. I had a party, too, one day and asked 
all the ladies of m}' accpiaintance. Airs. Bran- 
ham ha<l given me six eggs and I made an 
elegant cake which 1 was going to pass around 
in fine style. 1 began !:>}' passing it to one 
of the Spanish ladies and she took the wdiole 
cake at one swoop, \\'ra[)ped it up in the 
skirt of her gorgeous silk dress and said, 
'Mucha gracias'. I was never so surprised in 
ni\- life, but there was nothing I could do. 
The rest I if us had to go without cake that 

"Cattle and horses ran alxiut the streets 
anrl there \\'ere no sidewalks. We just had to 
pick our wa}'- around as liest we could. 

"In the spring my piano came. It was sent 
b}' "way of the Isthmus. It «'as the first piano 
in San Jose. It made a great sensation. Ev- 
erybody came to see it and hear my little 
girl play. Indians an<l Si-ianish used to crowd 
around the dours and ^vindows to hear the 
\\-(mderful music, and man}- a white man, too, 
lingered and listened because it reminded him 
of home. 

"AVe mo\"ed into a l.ietter house m the spring, 
ver}- near «diere the Methodist Church South 
afterward st(M:)d. W''e paid $125 a month for 
it. Ijut \vhen I look back it seems that I 
ne\"er had such an intellectual feast as I had 
in old 'Slapjack Hall'. Tiie gentlemen who 
figured as cr.inks in my kitchen \vere the most 

intelligent and agreeable men you can imagine. 
They were all educated and smart and they 
appeared just as much like gentlemen when 
the}' were cooking as when they were mak- 
ing speeches in the Legislature. I don't be- 
lieve we ever again had such a choice set of 
folks under our roof here in San Jose. Doctor 
and I felt honored in entertaining and yet 
they paid us $20 a week for the privilege. 

"C)f course }'i>u know General Fremont and 
his wife were here that winter and I knew 
them Ixith. Mrs. Fremont's sister, Mrs. Jones, 
and I were great friends. Yes, indeed, there 
iieA'er were finer people than my boarders and 
neighbors in '49. Let me see : There were the 
Cooks and Hoppes and Cobbs and Joneses, the 
Ijranhams and Beldens and Hensleys and Wil- 
liams, the Bralys, the AVesters and Crosbys, 
Mur])h\-s, Dickensons, Hendersons. Kincaids, 
Campbells, Reeds, Houghtons, Tafts and 
i\lood}'s. Then amongst them were the Picos 
and Sunols. Very likely I haAC forgotten 
a great many, just telling them off in this 
fashion, ])ut I never forgot them, really. Many 
of the best citizens of San Jose now, with 
their Avives and children, A^es, and grandchil- 
dren, A\-ere slim AT)ung fellows in those days 
A\dio had come to California to seek their for- 
tunes. Fine, enterprising lioys they were, too. 
Some of them boarded with me. C. T. Ryland 
and P. C). Minor were inmates of 'Slapjack 
Ilair and Dr. Cor}- and the Reeds will re- 
memlDcr it well. 

"In 1852 we mo\'ed out on the Stockton 
ranch and bought our own farm in Santa Clara 
on A\diich we Iniilt our permanent home, Som- 
erville Lodge. I remember Ave paid our head 
carpenter $16 a day. The house cost us $10,- 
000. It w(iuld not cost $1,000 now. W''e bought 
seeds for our garden and an ounce of onion 
seed cost an ounce of gold. AA'e paid $6 each 
for our fruit trees. A mule cost $.300; a horse 
$400. But doctor's services Avere just as high- 
])riced and so Ave kept e\en." 


San Jose as the Capital of the State — Meeting of the First Legislature — The 
Removal to Vallejo — Land Grants and Suertes — A Trumped-up Robbery 
— Settlers' War — Fourth of July Celebration. 

L'letAveen the \ears 1846 ami 1S49 California 
remained under the cuntrol nf the United 
States military forces. A military commander 
controlled affairs, but there was no real gov- 
ernment. As long- as the war lasted it was only 
natural to expect that such would be the case 
and the people made nv protest, but after peace 
was declared and the military rule continued 
much dissatisfaction was aroused. With the 
changed ^'iews of the people, General Riley, 
the military commander, entirely sympathized. 
When it was found that Congress had ad- 
journed without effecting anything for Cali- 
fornia, he issued a proclamation — June 3, 1849, 
— calling for a convention. The proclamation 
stated the num1)er of delegates which each 
district should elect and also announced that 
appointments to judicial offices would be made 
alter being voted for. The delegates from 
the Santa' Clara Valley district were Joseph 
Aram, Kimljall M. Dmimick, Antonio M. Pico, 
Elam BroAvn, Julian Hanks and Pedro Sain- 

Constitutional Convention 

On September 1, 1849, the Convention met 
at Monterey, Robert Semple, of Benicia, of 
the district of Sonoma, being chosen presi- 
dent. The session lasted six weeks and not- 
withstanding an awkward scarcity of books of 
reference arid other necessary aids, much la- 
bor was performed, while the debaters exhib- 
ited a marked degree of ability. In framing 
the original constitution of California, slavery 
was forever prohibited within the jurisdiction 
of the state ; the boundary question between 
the United States and Mexico was set at rest; 
provision for the morals and education of the 
people was made; a seal of state, with the 
motto Eureka was adopted and many other 
pertinent subjects were discussed. The con- 
stitution was duly framed, submitted to the 
people and at the election on November 13 
was ratified and adopted by a vote of 12,064 
for and eleven against it; there being besides 
over 1,200 ballots that were treated as blanks 
because of an informality in the printing. On 
the occasion the vote of the district of San 
Jose was 567 for and none against its adop- 
tion, while 517 votes were cast for Peter H. 
Burnett for governor and thirty-six votes for 

W. S. Sherwood. The popular voice also made 
San Jose the capital. 

During the session of the Con\-ention, the 
residents of San Jose in pu]:>lic meeting, elect- 
ed Charles White and James F. Reed a com- 
mittee to proceed to IVIonterey and use their 
utmost endea\'ors to have San Jose named 
in the constitution as the state capital. They 
found a staunch opponent in Dr. Semple, the 
president, who co\-eted the hfjuor for his home 
town, Benicia. But tlie San Joseans were not 
discouraged b}' this opposition. They prom- 
ised to have reafly a suitable buihling b\ the 
15th of Deccmljer. aliout the time when the 
Legislature \vould l:>e ready to sit — a rash 
promise when is considered the fact that such 
an edifice had not been completed in the town. 
vSan Jose was selected as the capital and it 
was now up to the residents to proA'ide a 
building for the sessions. In that vear tliere 
stood on the south half of lot si.x — the east 
side of Market Plaza — a large adobe structure, 
erected by Sainsevain and Rochon, which was 
meant for a hotel. This structure the town 
council tried to rent for tlie legislative ses- 
sion, lint tlie price was so exorbitant — $4,000 
per month — that is was deemed best to pur- 
chase the liuilding outright; l:>ut here the pro- 
prietors declined to take the pue1)lo authori- 
ties as security. Now it was that the residents 
of means stepped in and saved the day. Nine- 
teen of them executed a note for the price 
asked, $34,000, with interest at the rate of eight 
per cent per month. The nineteen were R. W. 
May, James F. Reed, Peter Davidson, William 
McCutchen, Joseph Aram, David Hickey, 
Charles White, Frank Lightston, J. D. Hoppe, 
Peter Quincy, R. C. Keyes, W. H. Eddy, 
Benjamin Cor}', K. H, Dimmick, J. C. Cobb, 
P. Sainsevain, Josiah Belden, Isaac Branham 
and J. C. Cook. .\ conve3'ance was made to 
Belden, Reed and Aram, to hold the premises 
in trust for the purchasers. An appropria- 
tion of $50,000, purchase money for the build- 
ing, was made b}' the Legislature, and bonds 
bearing interest at the rate of two and one- 
half per cent per month, were issued. Un- 
fortunately the credit of the territory was be- 
low par and the bonds were sacrificed at the 
rate of forty cents on the dollar. The amount 
received by the sale was used in partial liqui- 


(latjiin nf the cIl-IjI, the indehtfijiiess remain- to the iinrth of San Franeisco Bay, addressed 

in,i,^ Ijeing snl3sequently the cause of vexatious a nienmrial to the Senate, dated April 3, 1850, 

and protracted le,L,>"islatic)n. ixiintinq- out tlie ad\-antages possessed by the 

^. -r . , ^ site iif tlie tuwn of X'allejo over vSan Jose and 

First Legislature Convenes ^|^^, ,,^1,^,. ^,i.^^,^.^ l„ddnig'f„r the state capital. 

On Saturda}', Deceniljer 15, 184'), the first Tn secure the hoon the General ofTered to 
Legislature oi California met at San Jose. E. grant to the state, free of cost, twent}- acres 
Kir1)y Chamberlain was elected jiresident pro f(.ir a capitol and grounds, with 136 acres added 
tern (if the Senate and Thomas J. AA'hite, fur other state Iniildings: and in addition to 
speaker of the Assembly, A\hich august l3od)' this he agreed to donate and ])ay o\"er to the 
occupied the second storx" of the State Idouse. state, Avithin two A'ears, the large sum of $370,- 
The lower jiortion, intended for use of the 000. tci lie de\'oted to the constructicin of build- 
Senate, not being read}- for occupanc}\ the ings and their furnishing. l^an Jose stro\"e 
senators were taken, fur a shiirt period, to hard to retain the prize. The citizens did ev- 
the house of Isaac ISranham, located on the er}"tliing in their jiower to make things pleas- 
southwest corner of iMarket I'laza. (.)n the ant for the legislators. Their |)a}-, sixteen dol- 
oiiening da_\' there Avere only six senators lars a da)-, Avas recei\'ed in state scrip, hv no 
])resent. The following da\' Co\-crnor Riley means at par \alue in the market. To 
and his secretary, IL A'. Halleck, afterward jiropitiate them the hotel keepers and trades- 
a distinguished general in the U. S. Army, men consented to take the scrip at its face 
arrixed and on iMonda}- ncarh' all the mem- walne. This offer created a goofi impression 
fiers were in their ]daces. but was not sufficient m force to offset the 

At the start consideraljle dissatisfaction over offer of A'allejo. Seeing that the tide \\-as turn- 

the i) accoinniodauons at the State blouse ii'^.y' against them, the San Joseans, through 

\\"as manifested and onlv four (kiAS after open- James F. Leed, ottered four block-s of land 

ing for business f'.eorge B. TingleA-, a mem- and 160 lots, the lots to lie sold tu raise nione^' 

ber from Sacramentrj, introduced a liill to for the building of the caidtid. Another bid 

moxe the cai'ital to Ab mterex". It jiassed its \\'as that of Cfiarles A\diite, A\dio tendered one 

fii"st reading and then died a natural death. and one-half srpiare miles of band, upon the 

(On the twentieth of Fiecemfier, 1840, Qoa- condition that the state should la\' it out in 

ernor Rile}" turned oAer his office to (governor bits ior sale, i-eser\dng a jmrtion sufficient for 

Peter 11. Burnett and on the same date Sec- buildings and that one-third of the sum so 

retary Halleck was relie\"ed of his duties and realized should Ijc ])aid to hini and the bal- 

K. H. Dinimick was appointed Judge of the aiiec gi\en to the state for building jmrposes. 

Court rif First Instance. -V third offer, of 200 acres, made Ii}- Jcihn 

'bhe personnel of the first Legislature of Ti'wn.-,end carried the stipulation tliat all the 

California was as follows: Senators — David '^tate buildmgs, save the penitentiarA', should 

F. Douglass, M. G. \'allejo, Flean Heyden- he ]-)laeed thereon. 

feldt, Baldo de la Guerra, S. F. ^^^;)odworth, 'Jn receipt of (k-n. Wallejo's memorial to 

ddiomas L. \'ermeule, A\'. D. Fair, Elisha O. the senate, a committee was aiipointed, wdth 

Crosb}-, D. C. Broderick, E. Kirfi}" Chamber- instructions to consider all the offers made 

lain, J. Bidwell, II. C. Robinson, B. J. Lipi)in- and re|-iort. ( )n April 2. 1850, the report was 

ccitt. made. 1 1 concluded with these Avords : 'A'onr 

Assemlilymen — Flam BroAvn, J. S. K. (")gier. Committee cannot (bvell Avith too much 
F. lb ITateman, Edmund Randolph, E. P. Bald- warmth upon the magnificent ]:iro])ositions 
A\'in, A. P. Crittenden, Alfred Adieeler, James J-'fmtained in the memorial of General A'allcjo. 
A. Gray, Joseph Aram, Joseph C. iMorehead, They l)reathe throughout the sjiirit of an en- 
Benjamin Cor_A-, Thomas J. Henley, lose M. Lirged mind and a sincere public lienefaetor, 
Corvarrubias, Elisha AW McKinstry, Geo. B. *'""' ^\'hich he deser\-es the thanks of his coun- 
Tingley. tr_\-inen and the admiration of the Avorld. Such 

f)n the twentieth of December two L'nited "^ i)ropositi("in looks more like the legacv of 

States seucators A\'ere elected, the lueky ones '^ might}- emjieror to his people than the'free 

lieing Col. John C. Fremont anrl Dr. AVilliam donation of a priAate planter to a great state, 

^I. (.liAun. C)n the following day GoAernor X^'^ pnor in iniblic finance but soon to be 

Burnett delixered his message. among the first of the earth." The report, 

D 1 r r- •. , Avhich Avas ]iresented bv Senator David c' 

Removal of Capital ]>,-, ,i,.,-; -n Ai i ft i i t , /,f 

t^ l.ioileiKk (Avlio was killed by Judge Terrv 

The next lcgislati\e move of importance '" <'' 'Fiel in 1859) of San Francisco, goes on 

Avas the attempt to remove the capital. Gen. to jxiint out the necessities that should gov- 

Mariano Guadalupe XTillejo, senator from the em the site for California's capital, recaj^itu- 

Distriet of Sonoma, and owning lordly acres kites the advantages pointed out in the me- 


niiirial aiiil finally vrccininuMKls the accc|>tancc First July 4th Celebration 

of (General \ alUTi's olTcr. /r, r \ • i i i 

Hie acceiitanee ihi tint pass the Senate , ■ ,■ n ' i i ■ <i r , 

. , ' . . , . ^ '""■'- was iiatni iticalh- i-enieniliered m the tirst ^■ear 

witliout sunie nppi isitinn and ecinsKerahe r ■ -i i ■ ■ ; <■ ■ << ^■i ^' 'r 

, , , ^. ' ' , ,_ . ^ ^ , I iw .1. .!_ ( ii ci\ il ahnpnistiatii m ni I ahhiiana. San jose 

(lelaw ( Ml r^eiheni her ' ', l,S,-iO Lahhuana was 111 1 1 1 .■ 1 1 

, -. ^ , . ' ,, . • , • ," ' , held a "rand eeleliratu m and nuieh more m- 

adniitted pUh the L nion and on hehrnar\' 14 , . ' r 1, .1 1 ■ • ,1 

..-,-, , . , , . . , ' -. ! lerest was lelt than nn sueh rieeasions m tlie 

ISM, dnnno- the last sessum oi the l.e.i^asla- ...stern states. hVrd II all, in his histnrv, says : 

^"•■^" \" ^^'V" -l"^^y' ^'^' -.^^; "t i^emnval was ..'Phe is.datum fnnn the other states made the 

l'^^^^'^'*' ^V"' "" V^7' ^ "! ^^''-'^ ?■"''' *''" '^^-'"^ icelin.^ nt national ,n-ide pierease. We felt 

'■^^"•^^^ adlonrned hut the arehn es were not .,, ^,^;,^,^.i^ ^^.. ^^,,.,.^, „, ,, f,„.^,,^,.„ ,.,,^,1 ,„,,, ^,,^. 

l"^''"'T,^'^ t" \alle,nnntd later. I he thnal (,„dcnev was tn x n,lv and hri-hten the love 

Lesaslatnre eoHNened at A allejo Jannary .^ ,,f the whole eonntrv in everv American. On 

l^-- ^^'^^'^ '^^>'^ '''^^■': ■t,!^;'^ transterre.l to ^|^,^^ ,,eeasion the lion. AVilham Voorhies de- 

^acrameiUo: January o, lN:^.y it met a-am at ,j^.^^,.^,, ^,,^ oration: lames Al. h,ne< also deliv- 

^^^^^T'. 't was remoNed to Lenieia .m 1; eh- ^,,^.,| ,„.,. „^ Sj.anisT for the' henefit of the 

^u^^ry U .:l ihc ^mc y^nv. ^:h^rc n rcm^xmvA Alexieans present. .Mr. Sanford, a lawNX-r 

until the end ot the session, and then hy enaet- f^,„,^ (>,,ro-ia, read the Declaration of hide- 

'?^"t the capital was iiennanentlv locate.l at j,.,,,!.,,,.. 'Thirteen vonn- ladies dressed m 

Sacramento, where it has smce reiiiame.l. ,,]^,^, .„,.,, .„,,, ,,.,,■,,. .p,,^, ,-,-„i^ ,,„ ,^„,,.. 

'1-f ^l"^^f""^ "'. t^*^']^.-;'!'?)- ot the removal ,,,^^,,^_^ followed hv the Kao-|e (kiards, com- 

^"^•■^ iTono-ht np m ]N>i lietore the Supreme „,.,„,,,.,i ,,,. ^apt: TliomasAVhite ; also 500 

Lourt when a inajonty ot the justices. Hey- ..j^i^ens, some on horsehack, some m carnaa-es 

denteldt and A\ells, held that accordin- to ,,„,, ^,„,^^ ^^j.,„^^ ,„_.„,^. ^,^^. „.^,,„„.,, ,,_,,.:,„! 

'=!"" ^^'"^ >'^' "-''f the capital ot the state. ^,^,^^ ^^_,,^^,^,, ^^^ ^^,_.,^. j,, ^,,^. ^,,,^^,, ,,- ^,,^^,,^^ ,^ 

1 hereupon the lollowmo- order was made: ,,„.,^. , „. ^^^„,.,^,^ „^ j,;^ „.,.,, ^.^. ,^^,^,. .|^_ Almaden 

.'■It '/ "■■'l'-''-^-'l that the sherill- ot Santa ,-,,ad : and there the ceremonv was performed 

Llara Lounty procure m the town ot San Jose ^,, ^|^^ ^^^^^ pleasure and pride of the A.meri- 

and properly arran-e and turmsh a court- ^^,^ ^.^j,^^^ ,,^ ^,^^ ,^^.^^. „,„„t,,... 
rciom. clerks othce and consultation room, lor 

the use of the court. It is further ordered Boundaries of Santa Clara County 

that the clerk of this court forthwith remove ^y^^-^^ ^,^^^nslature was in session in San 

the records ot tins court tr, the town o San ^,,^^ ^^^^ houndanes of Santa Clara County 

J«^e. It IS turther ordere<l that the court ^vlll ;^.^.,.^, ^,^^,-,^^,,,^ ,p|^^ ,,^,^,,_^^^, orio-"inallv included 

meet to dehver opinions at San Jose on the ^,^^. p.^.-^jhi ,,f A\-.,shintTton, ot" Alameda 

1st Monday in April and on that day will ^,,,^,,^^^_^ ,.,^^^ ^.|.,,^ ^^.,^^^ ^.^^^ ; ,^^- ^^^^^ ^j^^ ^^_^^^^^^^, 

appoint some future day ot the term tor the ...i^,.;, t„ its (.resent limits, as follows: Re- 
argument ot cases. 



inning- at a point iipjiosite the mouth of the 
v^an Francisquito, heing the common corner 
,^ T- -n- 1-1 /-M 1 ■■ "f .Alameda, San Alateo and Santa Clara conn- 
Attest: D. K. Yoodside, Clerk. ^,^^ . ^,^g,^^,^ easterly to a point at the head of 
A writ of mandamus on the s^trength of the a slough which is an arm of San Francisco 
foregoing was issued from the Third District i>av at its head, making into the mainland in 
Court against all the state officers, command- f,-,,„t of the Gegara rancho ; thence easterly 
ing that they remove their offices to San to a lone sveamore tree that stands in a ravine 
Jose or show cause why they should not do l)et\veen the dwellings of Flujencia and A'alen- 
so. The argument Avas heard and the theory tine Gegara: thence easterly up said ravine 
maintained that San Jose was the proper to the top of the mountains as surveyed l>y 
capital of the state. An appeal was taken to l-i„race A. Higlev: thence in a direct line east- 
the Supreme Court. In the meantime Justice g,-],- to the common corner of San Toarniin 
AVells had died, h,s place bemg^ hlled bv Jus- Stanislaus, Alameda and Santa Clara counties 
tice Bryant. In the appeal the Sttpreme Court ,,,^ ^,^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ,.,^. ^,^^ ^.^^^^^^ Range : "thence 

decided that San Jose was not the state cap- 
ital, from wdiich (lecision Justice Heydenfeldt 

southeasterly, following the summit of the 
Coast Range to the northeast corner of Alon- 

„, ^ T • 1 , 1 i ii 4. terey County^ thence westerhy following the 

The first Legislature passed an act that ;, •' - '^ 

\-, -^ _ .-7, c..„j- 1 .„! ,-„.,^,.^,-,,-^,t:,,„ ,,„ northern boundary of .Montere}- Count}- to 

the southeast corner of vSanta Cruz County; 
'!\IarchT'l8507rnd"on April ifthe Ayunta- thence northwesterly, h.llowing the summit_^ of 

o-ave San Jose its first legal incorporation un- 
der RTnited States rule. The act was passed 

mienTo Yield' lAs' last meeting. The new- com- Hie Santa Cruz Mountains to the head of San 
iTion council held its first lueeting under the Francisquito Creek; thence down said creek 

barter on the 13th. to its mouth ; thence in a direct line to the 


place of bei;inning. Containing about 1,300 No\ember, 1859, to December, 1860 — H. D. 

square miles. Coon, H. J. Bradley, Isaac Branham. 

The county government was first adminis- December, 1860, to October, 1861 — H. J. 

tered by the court of sessions, which held Bradle}', W. M. Williamson, H. D. Coon, 

jurisdiction until 1852, when the board of su- October, 1861. to November, 1862— H. J 

l^ervisors was created. In 1854 the govern- Bradlew W. M. Williamson, J. H. Adams 

ment again went mtu the hands of the court Xovember, 1862, to March 1864— W M 

ot sessions, where it remained until the next ^ynHamson, J. H. Adams, S. S. Johnson ' " 

year, when the board of supervisors was re- a r i i or i ^ 

"vived to administer the atTairs of the county , /^.''Y''''y./'^'^"^' ^^ March, 1866— John A. 

ever since. Following is a list of those who '-*"'"-'' ^'^'"^P;"^" ^''^'es, L. Robinson, J. A. 

have administered the county -government -^ erkms, !< rank Sleeper. 

from the date of organization to the present March, 1866, to March, 1868 — John A. 

time: U"i"h3;- Frank Sleeper, John A. Perkins. J. 

On the 1st day of June, 1850, the court of W' ;^- '-S'lH''". Frank Cook, 
sessions was organized with J. W. Redman March, 1868, to March, 1870— David Camp- 
president, and Caswell Davis and Fl. C. Smith "?'!• J"'in Cook. William H. Hall, W. H. 
associate justices. n'^n""' *-*'"'^'" ^^""le. (Cottle served vice 

Julv 5. 1850— F W. Redman, president; J'a'l"". wliojosigned. ) 
fohn'Gilrov, Caswell Davis, associates. March, 18/0, to Alarch, 1872— David Camp- 
August 18, 1850—1. W. Redman, president; '[^'^- W- H. Hall, W. H. I'atton, J. M. Battee, 
Charles Clavton and Caswell Davis, associates, '"^amuel I. Jamison. 

October (X 1851 — 1. W. Redman, president; ^-March, 18/2, to Alarch, 1874 — J, M. Battee, 

R. B. i:'.uckner and" Marcus Williams, asso- AVdliam Paul, A\'. N. Furlong, S. 1. Jamison, 

ciates. J- W. Boulware. 

Decem1)er, 1851 — F \V. Redman, president; March, 1874, to March, 1876 — J. M. Battee, 

Cyrus C. Sanders and Alarcus Williams, as- ^V. N. Furlong, J. M'. Bouhvare, Alfred Chew,' 

sociates. A\'illiam I'aul, A. King, H. M. Feonard. 

May 14, 1852— J. W. Redman, lu'esident; Alarch, 1N76, to March 1878 — S. F. Ayer, 

Peleg Rush and Catus G. vSanders, associates. ^Y H. Rogers, J. M. Battee, Alfred Chew, 

An election for supervisors was held June Y. X. Inirlong, _\. King, H. M. Feonard. 

3, 1852, and the new board was organized as March, 1878, to Alarch, 1880 — S. F. Ayer, 

follo\vs : Isaac X. Senter, chairman; Fred F. "^^' • FI. Rogers, Y', X, Furlong, John Y''eathers 

Whitne}-, AX'illiam E. Taylor, Jacob Gnnvell, J- FT. M. Townsend, M. D. Kell, H. M. Feon- 

associates. ard. (Townsend resigned in December, 1879 

Decemlier 6, 1852 — L. H. Bascom, chairman ; ?ind was succeeded h\ [ames Snow.) 

John B. Allen, A. M. Church, Fevi Goodrich, March, 1880, to February, 1883 S. F. Ayer, 

Joseph C. I'x.yd, associates. John A\'eathers, James Snow, M. D. Kell, h' 

September 7, 1853 — George Peck, chairman ; M. Feonard, H. H. Main, Samuel Rea. 

Daniel Murphy, R. G. Moody, William Dan- Feliruar}-, 1883-1885 — W. E. Ward, H Til- 

iels, W. (jallimore, associates. lotson, AM (J. Y'atson, H. McCleary Peter 

In April, 1854, the court of sessions again Donnelly, H. H. Main, S. A. Blythe. 

took charge. It was composed as follows : R. March, 1885, to March, 1887 S. F Ayer 

B. Buckner, president ; Caswell Davis, Thomas AY. A. Z. Ed^vards, A. Greenino-er W. o' 

Vermuele, assi")ciates. Y'atson, Peter Donnelly. 

October 1, 1854 — R. B. Fuickner, president; March, 1887, to March, 1891 S. F. Ayer 

Caswell Da\is, C. G. Thomas, associates. Y'. A. Z. Edwards, A. Greenino-er W o' 

On April 9, 1855, another board of sujier- Watscm, James Phegley. 

Ais(.)rs was elected. The organization of the 1891-1895 — P. Donnelly, A. Greenino-er W 

board from that time has been as follows: A, Z. Edwards, [. S. Whitehurst William' 

April 1, 1855 to November, 1855— Samuel Erkson, S. F. Ayer. 

Henderson, W. R. Bassham, Daniel Murphy. 1895-1897 — A.Greeninger Geor^^e E Rea T 

November, 1855. to November, 1856— W. R. S. Selby, John Roll, S F Aver '^ ' 

Bassham, AY. R. Bane, Samuel Morrison. 1897-1899— Geo. E. Rea, Paul P Austin F 

November, 1856, to October, 1857— Gary M. Stern, John Roll, S. F.' Ayer ' " ' ' 

Peebels, China Smith, D. R. Douglas. 1899-19(>1 — F. W. Knowles, Geo. E Rea F 

October, 1857, to October, 1858 — Joseph H. F. Cottle, John Roll, S. F. Ayer. ' ' ' " 

Kincaid, Samuel A. Ballard, Albert Warthen. 1904-1907— F. E. Mitchell Ayer Roll Rea 

October, 1858, to November, 1859— John M. and A. L. Hubbard. 

Swinford, H. D. Coon, Eli Jones; Isaac Bran- 1907-1911— H. S. Hersman H M Ayer A 

ham served vice Jones. L. Hubbard, John Roll, F. E.' Mitchell 



From the last named date the following 
have held ottice eontinuouslv : Henry Hecker, 
A. L. Hnbbard, H. U. Aver, F. E. Mitchell, 
John Roll. 

Settling Titles of Land Grants 

At the time of the cession of California there 
was i)robalily not a perfect title in the whole 
territory of Alta California. Under the terms 
of the treaty,, however, the holders of these 
incomplete titles were to be permitted to go 
on and complete them nnder the laws of the 
L'nited States. After the acqnisition of Cali- 
fornia and after ascertaining the inchoate con- 
dition of the land grants and the importance 
of having them segregated from the public 
domain, and for the purpose of carrying out 
the provisitms of the treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo, an act was passed by the Congress 
of the United States on March 3, 1851, pro- 
^■iding fcir commissioners to be appointed by 
the President for the purpose of ascertaining 
and settling J)ri^•ate land grants in California, 
with a right of appeal, by either the govern- 
ment or the claimant, to the U. S. District 
Court for the State of California, or to the 
U. S. Supreme Court. To this commission 
all claimants were required to present their 
petitions for the confirmation of their claims. 
Failure to so present them within a specified 
time after the passage of the act worked a 
forfeiture of the claim, which was afterward 
treated as a part of the public domain. Upon 
the confirmation of these claims surveys were 
made bv the surveyor general and patents 
issued thereon. 

Those lands which had not been granted by 
the Mexican Government were subject to the 
laws of the United States governing the dis- 
position of the public domain. Besides these 
two classes of land there was a third — the land 
granted to pueblos. 

Under the plan of Tepic, Mexico, on the 
formation of each new pueblo in the New 
World, it was entitled, for its own use, for 
building purposes and for cultivation and pas- 
turage, to a square of land extending one 
league' in each direction from the center of 
the plaza, making in all four square leagues. 
Where the topography of the country, either 
by reason of the juxtaposition of the sea or 
of mountain barriers, prevented the land be- 
ing taken in the form of a square, the four 
leagues were taken in some other form so as 
to include the pueblo. 

On the settlement of the pueblo of San Jose, 
the Mission of Santa Clara having been es- 
tablished to the west, the Mission of San Jose 
to the north and east, and the Mission of 
San Juan to the south, it became necessary to 
designate the boundaries so that the jurisdic- 

tion of the pueblo and the adjoining Missions 
should not conflict. Frc^n year to year the 
old inhabitants of the ])ueblo, in company with 
the ydunger persons in the conimunity, were 
accustomed tn go out and ^■isit the monu- 
ments erected to designate these lines, and 
to cast additional stones upon them to keep 
them intact. The delimiting line between the 
pueblo and the Mission of San Jose ran from 
the mountains to the bay, about midway be- 
tween Warm Springs and the present town 
of Milpitas. On the west the Guadalupe River 
was fixed as the boundary, \^hile the line be- 
tween the pueblo and the Mission of San Juan 
was fixed across the Aalley to the south in the 
vicinity of Las Llagas Creek. 

San Jose Land Company 

San Jose, before the admissiijn of California 
to the Union, was one of the few populous 
settlements in California and was known at 
the time, and before, as the "Upper Pueblo." 
The city becoming involved and unable to pay 
the debt incurred to provide suitable accom- 
modations for the Legislature and the officers 
of the state, a judgment was obtained against 
her and her creditors. An execution was is- 
sued on the judgment and all the pueblo lands 
were sold at sheriif^'s sale and bought in by 
a syndicate styling itself the "San Jose Land 
Company." This syndicate soon became 
known locally as "The Fortjr Thieves," al- 
though the number of its members was less 
than forty and they were, by no means, thieves. 
But the title they claimed under became pop- 
ularly known as the "Forty Thieves Title." 

The San Jose Land Company, after acquir- 
ing its sherilT's deed to lands belonging to 
the city, claiming to be the successor in in- 
terest to the pueblo, presented its claim to 
the United States Land Commission, sitting 
in San Francisco, praying for confirmation to 
it of the lands contained within the estab- 
lished boundaries, asserting that there had 
been a concession by the Spanish Crown of 
that large tract to the pueblo. A mass of 
documentary evidence, correspondence, etc., 
was introduced, also the testimony of wit- 
nessee to the fact that the monuments had 
been placed there years before and had been 
recognized by the aitizens. Althoug'h no 
formal concession or grant had ever been 
found or produced, it was asserted that those 
acts indicated that one had actually been 
made. The board and the U. S. District Court 
confirmed the grant to these exterior boun- 

In the meantime settlers had located on 
lands included in this tract under the impres- 
sion that they belonged either to the Govern- 
ment or to private parties from whom they 



had purchased. They had made improvements 
and established homes. By this decision ex- 
tending the limits of the pueblo, their prop- 
erty was absorbed, and they united, some four- 
teen of them, in securing an appeal to the 
Supreme Court. 

At that time there was in existence a body 
known as the commissioners of the funded 
debt of the City of San Jose. Judge F. E. 
Spencer, who was a member of this board, 
was anxious to have the decision of the Dis- 
trict Court sustained, believing that the land 
company had no valid claim, and that if the 
title to this large tract was confirmed to the 
city it could be maintained. He succeeded 
in effecting a compromise, by which the Su- 
preme Court affirmed the decision of the lower 
court, except as to the tracts claimed by the 
fourteen settlers. A final decree to this effect 
was made. Afterward this body of land Avas 
sold in tracts to actual settlers at the price 
fixed by the United States Government for its 
public lands. With the proceeds of these sales 
the debt of the City of San Jose was extin- 
guished and up to 1887 the city had no debt 
whatever. In due time the pueblo was sur- 
veyed and in 1884 a patent was issued. 

The claim of the City Land Company was 
the subject of more or less litigation and 
trouble from time to time until 1869. It came 
up in the case of Branham et al. vs. the City 
of San Jose, where it was held by the Supreme 
Court that the city's lands were not subject 
to execution and sale under a judgment against 
her. A number of years later, upon the adop- 
tion of a charter by the city, a clause was 
inserted which, it was claimed, confirmed the 
land company's title. Upon that claim an ac- 
tion was brought in the United States Circuit 
Court for the District of California to recover 
possession of the large body of land within 
the corporate limits which had not passed by 
legal grants. The case was Leroy vs. Chaboya 
et al., some 600 defendants being named, and 
involving the title to a very large portion of 
land within the city limits. F. E. Spencer, 
who was counsel for the defendants, obtained 
a ruling from the District Court to the eiifect 
that the provisions of the charter referred to 
did not amount to a confirmation in favor of 
the land company or its successor, thus end- 
ing a case of great importance to the city 
and surrounding territory, and which went far 
to settle land titles in the vicinity. 

Grants, of rather an indefinite character, 
were claimed to have been made to the vari- 
ous Missions, both in Northern and Southern 
California. When the Missions were secular- 
ized, these grants reverted to the state. Not- 
withstanding this act of secularization, several 
of the Missions retained more or less landed 

property, such as church edifices, orchards, 
etc., and these, in most instances, were after- 
wards confirmed to the church. But a large 
liody of grazing land passed into the general 
domain and was re-granted to private indi- 
viduals. There was quite an extended legal 
warfare before these lands were confirmed to 
the church. It was claimed that when the 
Missions were secularized all property re- 
verted to the Mexican Government, and as it 
had never been re-granted it became the public 
domain of the LTnited States on the cession of 
California, and was therefore subject to pre- 
emption. The orchard property at Santa Clara 
was particularly valuable and was settled upon 
by several sets of squatters. J. W. Redman, 
count}' judge for several years, held the orch- 
ard, selling the fruit at enormous prices. It 
went through several hands, but was finally 
confirmed to Archbishop Alemany, represent- 
ing the church. 

While the Mexicans held California, Lieu- 
tenant Moraga, under the direction of the 
Spanish Government, partitioned to the orig- 
inal settlers the lands of the new pueblo of 
San Jose. The allotments were made in ac- 
cordance with a rule adopted b}' the govern- 
ment by which all pueblos or towns were to 
be laid out and established under the plan of 
the city of Tepic. The tracts of land were 
divided into three classes : solares, or building 
lots ; suertes, or lots for cultivation, and egidos, 
or lots ff)r pasturage and wood. By the Tepic 
method, each family was given four suertes 
and one solar. 

Though there is no record evidence that 
an allotment ^vas made after the pueblo was 
moved from its first location. Judge Spencer 
said that in 1852, and even later, there re- 
mained landmarks that showed something of 
the general plan of the location. Among these 
were the stumps of hedge-rows forming alleys 
leading to the Guadalupe River — evidently 
roads used by women going to the creek to do 
their washing. At that time, and until the 
willows and other vegetation had disappeared, 
the Guadalupe Avas a perennial stream, sup- 
plied in the summer time from the springs in 
the lower ground south of town, while from 
the Guadalupe were the remains, tolerably 
defined, of ditches leading into Canoas Creek. 
This word "canoas," besides meaning "canal," 
also signifies a "trough," and it was probably 
for this latter meaning that the Mexicans ap- 
plied it to this stream, as they evidently used 
it for the purpose of conveying water to their 
suertes, or planting lands. 

There were also the remains of branch 
ditches, or acequias. One went out and crossed 
the plaza near the site of the city hall and 
continued on, crossing First Street near San 



Fernando, as if to irrigate the land sk>ping to 
the north and east. Another one was a Httle 
west of Market Street, crossing Santa Clara 
Street diagonally, going through the grounds 
now occupied by the Sisters of Notre Dame 
and continuing to the present site of the Hotel 
Vendome. From this was irrigated the lands 
between it and the Guadalupe River. In one 
of the suits regarding the land claimed as 
suertes, old Pedro Chaboya and other old Mex- 
ican witnesses testified that all the alkali land 
in the northeast ]iortion of the city was, in 
very early days, fine land for crops; but the 
Coyote Creek having overflowed its banks and 
rushed down across the country, the top-soil 
was washed off and when the water receded 
it was converted into an alkali sink. 

With the Americans came land speculators, 
and as the pueblo grew in importance and its 
lands in value, suits were started to obtain 
possession of some of the most valuable por- 
tions of the city under suerte title. None of 
them, however, were successful, but they 
formed a chapter of the most important and 
sharpest litigation in the history of the county. 
There being no record of the original allot- 
ment of suertes, their existence could be proved 
onlv by parol testimony, and for this purpose 
the "oldest inhabitant" was in constant de- 
mand. There stood a few old landmarks with 
all the dignity due to their antiquity, but 
neither these nor the imperfect family tradi- 
tions of the oldest poblanos were sufficient to 
warrant a judgment in favor of the claimants. 
The methods used by the Americans to 
measure and mark out the boundaries of their 
grants were very crude and resulted in much 
inaccuracy. Many of them, when surveyed 
by the United States, shrank or expanded in 
dimension to the extent of many hundreds of 
acres. Persons who had settled on what was 
thought to be Government land would, after 
some years of labor, find their property in- 
cluded within the boundaries of a neighboring 
grant and would be forced to lose their homes 
or purchase them again of another owner. 
Some persons were compelled to purchase 
their farms several times before their title be- 
came assured. This state of affairs caused 
great dissatisfaction among the settlers and 
societies were formed to meet adverse claims 
and prevent eviction. 

These societies, though very determined in 
the expression of their rights, generally 
avoided violent measures. In fact, with one 
exception, they confined their efforts to the 
raising of funds for the purpose of defending 
their claims in the courts. The exception re- 
ferred to occurred in 1861 and is thus recorded 
by Frederic Hall: "The greatest excitement 
and demonstration that was ever exhibited in 

this county upon the question of land titles 
took place this year. The grant of Antonio 
Chabolla for the tract of land known as the 
Yerba Buena Rancho, Ij'ing east or southeast 
of town, had been confirmed to the claimants 
thereof under the Chabolla title by the United 
States courts. There were many settlers on 
the land, some of whom had occupied the same 
for quite a lengthy period under the belief that 
it was public land. They seemed to be of the 
opinion that the grant was a fraudulent one, 
notwithstanding the fact that the land had 
been patented by the United States in accord- 
ance with the decree of confirmation. The 
advice which had been given the settlers was 
evidently not of that kind which had a tend- 
ency to better them, or to cause them to view 
the matter in a proper light. They were in- 
duced to spend money in the way of lawyers' 
fees that was as useless as throwing money 
into the sea. The Government had conveyed, 
in fee simple, the land to the claimants, and 
no party but the United States could move to 
set aside that patent upon the ground of fraud 
or any other ground. Suits in ejectment had 
been instituted against some of the settlers on 
said land and judgment rendered against them 
for the possession of certain tracts by the 
Third Judicial Court, in and for the County 
of Santa Clara. William Matthews, Esq., of 
counsel for plaintiff in those cases, caused 
writs of execution for possession to be issued 
to the sheriff that the plaintiff might have pos- 
session in accordance with his judgments. 

''The sheriff summoned a posse of 600 men 
to go with and to aid him in executing the 
writ. When the posse assembled at the Court 
House they were asked if they were armed, 
to which they replied in the negative ; then 
being asked if they would arm themselves, 
likewise replied in the negative. They were 
then dismissed. About one o'clock in the 
afternoon about a thousand settlers paraded 
through the town, some on horses, some in 
wagons, some on foot, and nearly all armed. 
The_y had one small cannon. All the settlers' 
leagues of the county and some from adjoin- 
ing counties were said to have been present. 
Toward the close of day they went to their 
respective homes without doing any damage, 
save that of disobeying the writ." 

Until 1847 there had not been much certainty 
as to the location of, or titles to, lots in the 
pueblo of San Jose. It seems to have been 
taken for granted that the laws regulating the 
establishment of Mexican towns had been com- 
plied with and that those in possession had 
valid titles. Whether the title was good or 
not seemed to be of little consequence under 
the then existing condition of affairs. There 
were no regularly laid-out streets. The cen- 



ter of the town was the Juzgado, or the plaza, 
and the houses were scattered north and south 
on irregular lines with a roadway between. 
The roadway is now Market Street. After the 
defeat of Sanchez at the battle of Santa Clara, 
and the certainty that the arms of the United 
States would be victorious in Mexico, the for- 
eigners became impressed with the conviction 
that Alta California would be ceded to the 
victors and a permanent government estab- 
lished. Viewed in this light, the solares and 
suertes of the pueblo became of more impor- 
tance and an attempt was made to settle the 
question of their ownership. 

Early in 1S47 the Ayuntamiento and the 
alcalde directed William Campbell to survey a 
plat of land a mile square to be laid out in 
building lots. Assisted by his brother Thomas, 
he did this work, the tract so surveyed lying 
between the following boundaries : C)n the 
north by Julian Street, on the east b_v Eighth 
Street, south by Reed Street and \\'est by Mar- 
ket. This tract was intended to exclude all 
cjuestions relating to suerte claims. John Bur- 
ton, ^vho \vas then alcalde and had resided in 
San Jose for twenty years, stated that the 
result of his investigation was that no suerte 
claims, except the Gongora claim, extended 
farther south than Julian Street, or farther east 
than Market Street. This is the original plat 
of San J<ise and from this survey may be dated 
the existence of the city. The streets were 
located through this tract, making nine blocks 
from Julian to Reed and eight blocks from 
Market to Eighth. The exact course of the 
streets running north and south was at 45 deg. 
west, magnetic variation, 15 deg. 22 min. east. 
The length of these streets was 5,607 feet. The 
cross streets were laid out at right angles to 

The survey having been completed and a 
map filed, the alcalde gave notice to all per- 
sons claiming land "within the limits of the 
survey to present them to him for investiga- 
tion, and, if found valid, he would issue them 
a new title. Burton, who was no lawyer, 
seemed to possess a remarkably level head. 
Notwithstanding persistent litigation on the 
part of contesting claimants, all the alcalde 
grants under the Campbell survey have been 
held by the Supreme Court to be valid. In 
Campbell's survey four blocks were reserved 
for a public square. This was named Wash- 
ington Square and is the present location of 
the State Teachers' College, the high school 
and the Carnegie Library. 

The pueblo having been thus located, its 
limits and boundaries of its blocks and lots 
defined, the settlers from the states resolved to 
secure a portion of the outside lands belonging 
to the pueblo. A meeting was called, the prop- 

osition to make the survey into lots of 500 
acres each was adopted and J. D. Hutton ap- 
pointed to make the survey. This was done 
in July of the same year. The lots were num- 
bered consecutively and corresponding num- 
bers placed in a hat. The head of each family 
was ])ermitted to draw one number, this en- 
titling him to choose a lot, his choice being in 
the order of the numbers drawn — that is, the 
person drawing number one was entitled to 
first choice, and so on. After the drawing the 
alcalde gave to each party a certificate of title. 
These alcalde titles were afterwards declared 
in^■alid by the Supreme Court. 

In May, 1848, another survey of the town 
was made, this time by C. S. Lyman. He was 
a practical surveyor and possessed all the nec- 
essary implements for practical work. By this 
sur\e}' the limits ^vere extended easterly to 
Eleventh Street. He enlarged Washington 
Square to its present dimensions, 1,160 by 1,005 
feet. He laid out St. James Square, which is 
610 b\- 550 feet. Market Square, the site of 
the city hall, he fixed at 1,160 by 259 feet. 
Market, Santa Clara and Eifth streets were 
made each 100 feet wide, and all the streets 
running north and south, except Fifth, were 
made 80 feet ^vide. The system adopted by 
the survey is the one now in use. San Fer- 
nando vStreet is the base line and the ranges 
are counted easterly from Market Street. 
Other surveys have been made as additional 
territory was taken into the city limits. 

The tract of land lying west of Market 
Street and along the Guadalupe River, was 
used for cultivation and was not surveyed into 
town lots for several years after the admission 
of California into the Union. It was held as 
suertes and was watered by an acequia, or 
ditch, leading from the Canoas Creek south of 
town. This ditch furnished water to the peo- 
])le for some time after California became a 
state ; l)ut gradually the foreigners acquired 
this land from the RIexicans and streets were 
opened from time to time as the population 

Public Treasury Robbed 

Before the first month of the year 1853 had 
been brought to a close, the entire county was 
startled by the news that the public treasury 
had been robbed. The treasurer, William 
Aikenhead, declared that he had been knocked 
down in the darkness of night and robbed of 
his keys, and that the unexpectedness of the 
attack prevented him from recognizing the 
robber. His story of the assault was this: 
Hearing a noise in the rear of the building 
about eight o'clock in the evening, and not 
long afterward a step on the front porch and 
a calling of his name, he opened the door to 



ascertain who it was. Instantl_v he received a 
blow on the head that laid him prostrate; he 
was then choked, his pockets emptied and the 
key of the safe taken. The office was then 
entered and several thousand dollars were car- 
ried away. The board of supervisors placed 
full credence in Aikenhead's story, and after 
investigation made a report exonerating him 
from neglect or blame. In the month of Feb- 
ruary, Aikenhead disappeared. A committee 
of three, in company with the district attorney, 
was ap])ointed to examine all the books and 
papers in the treasurer's office and file a re- 
]iort with the clerk. The committee was com- 
posed of J. M. Murphy, W. R. Bassham and 
A\'. L. Smith, and their report made Aikenhead 
a defaulter in an amount approximating 

Following is the list of the various tracts of 
land in Santa Clara County to which title was 
granted l.iy the Spanish and IMexican govern- 
ments : 

Arroyo de los Pilarcitos, one scpiare league, 
to Candelario Miramontes. Canada del Corte 
de Madera, to Domingo Peralta. Canada de 
San Felipe Las Animas, two square leagues, 
to Charles M. AVeber ; patented August 9, 1866. 
Canada de I'ala, 8,000 b}^ 1,200 varas, to Jose de 
Jesus Bernal et al. ; patented August 9, 1863. 
Canada de los Capitancillos, to Guadalupe Min- 
ing Company. El Corte de Madera, two square 
leagues, to Maximo Martinez; patented June 
14,"l85S. El Pasito de las Animas, 3,042 acres, 
to Robert AA'alkenshaw. Embarcadero de 
Santa Clara, LOOO varas, to Barcelia Bernal. 
Juristae, one square league, to Antonio and 
Fausten German. La Polka, one square league, 
to Bernard Murphy; patented March 3, 1860. 
La Purissima Concepcion, one scjuare league, 
to Juana Briones. Los Tularcitos, to Antonio 
Hignora et al.. heirs of Jose Hignora ; patented 
July 8, 1870. Las Animas, or Sitio de la Brea, 

to Jose Maria vSanchez. Las Coches, one-half 
square league, to Antonio Sunol et al. ; pat- 
ented Decemlier 31, 1857. La Laguna Seca, 
four square leagues, to Liberata Cesena Bull 
et al. ; patented November 24, 1865. Los Capi- 
tancillos, three-cjuarters of a square league, to 
Charles Fosset ; patented February 3, 1865. 
Las Animas to Frederic E. Whiting. Milpitas, 
one square league, to Jcjse Maria Alviso. Mis- 
sion of Santa Clara to James C. Galindo. 
Mission of vSanta Clara, 13,13 acres, church 
property; patented March 3, 1858. Ojo de 
Agua de la Coche, two square leagues, to Ber- 
nard Murphy; patented Januar)' 4, 1860. Po- 
trero de Santa Clara, one sc[uare league, to 
Robert F. Stockton. Pastoria de las Borregas. 
3207^4 acres, to Martin Murpln' ; patented De- 
cember 15, 1865. Pueblo de San Jose, to Mayor 
and Common Council; confirmed October 8, 
1866. Pala, one square league, to Ellen White 
et al., widow and heirs of Charles White. 
Quito, three square leagues, to ^.lanuel Alviso; 
patented Ma}- 14, 1866. Rincon de San Fran- 
cist] uito, one-half square league, to Maria An- 
tonia Mesa, ^vidow of Rafael Soto. Rancho de 
Ivefugio, or Pastoria de las Borregas, three 
S(|uare leagues, to Tomas Pacheco and Augus- 
tin Ah"iso. Rincon de los Esterus to Francisco 
Berrycssa et al., heirs of G. Berryessa. Rin- 
con de los Esteros to Rafael Ah'iso et al. 
Rinciin de los Esteros, two thousand acres, to 
Ellen E. W'hite. Rinconada de los Gatos, one 
and (ine-half square leagues, to Sebastian Per- 
alta and Jose Hernandez ; patented Alarch 19, 
1860. Santa Ana y Quien Sabe, seven square 
leagues, to Juan Miguel Angas and Manuel 
Lariiis; patented Ma}' 1, 1860. San Ysidro, 
one square league, to Ouentin Ortega et al. ; 
ixitented September 27. 1869. San Francisco 
de las Llagas, six square leagues, to Bernard, 
Daniel, James and Martin Murphv; patented 
.March 19, 1868. 


The Early Bar of San Jose — Alcalde Burton's Common Sense — The Eccen- 
tricities of Judge Redman — Strange Career of Rufus A. Lockwood — 
Irrepressible J. Alexander Yoell — Change in Court System. 

Courts of First Instance had no existence in 
San Jose until after the American occupation. 
The first court was organized in 1849 and held 
its last session in March, 1850, when the 
County and District courts were organized. 
Prior to this period justice was administered 
in San Jose by the alcaldes. The first Ameri- 
can alcalde was James Stokes, who was ap- 
pointed by Captain Fallon when Dolores Pa- 
checo was deposed. He was succeeded by 
John Burton, and of Burton Judge John E. 
Richards of the Appellate Court, and one of 
San Jose's ablest and most respected citizens, 
writes as follows in his entertaining booklet, 
"The Earl}' Bench and Bar of San Jose" : 

"Old John Burton, Capitan Viejo, the na- 
tives called him, was appointed to office by 
Captain Montgomery, militar}- commander of 
the Northern District of California, on Octo- 
ber 19, 1846, about three months after Captain 
Thomas Fallon had hoisted the Stars and 
.Stripes in front of the Juzgado. The old al- 
calde was a pioneer of the pioneers. He had 
fleserted from a New England merchantman 
in 18.^0 and. coming to the pueblo of San Jose, 
had married a Mexican woman, assumed the 
title of captain anrl li\ed an easy existence 
among the natives until disturljed by the 
American occupation. He was a native of 
.Massachusetts, init he seems to have neglected 
those opportunities for book learning which 
that home of culture afforded. He \\as a man, 
however, of consideral:ile common sense, is re- 
puted to ha\-e been \'ery honest and to have 
liad the esteem and confidence of the native 
Ijopulation. The office of alcalde required 
these qualities in an eminent degree just at 
that time wlien the loose garments of RIexican 
rule were Ijeing replaced with the close-fitting 
fabric of American institutions. The alcaldes' 
courts of California had, prior to the change in 
go\'ernment, ])ossessed a very wide and quite 
undetermined jurisdiction, and had been con- 
ducted with a freedom from the formalities of 
jurisprudence which was primiti\e in the ex- 
treme. Alcalde Burton continued to exercise 
the jurisdiction of his predecess(jrs with much 
the same laxity in forms. No fusty lawyers 
ever y)rofaned the sacred precincts of Alcalde 
Burton's Juzgado, either to hinder or hasten 
his judgments with pleas of writs sustained by 

musty precedents. There was a patriarchal 
simplicity about the administration of justice 
in Alcalde Burton's court. The old Juzgado 
stood in the center of wdiat is now known as 
?vlarket Street, at its intersection with El 
Dorado Street. It was a low adobe building, 
divided into three compartments — the alcalde's 
court, the smaller room for the clerk of the 
court, and the calaboose. There old Captain 
Burton sat and administered justice in his own. 
original way, following somewhat loosely the 
forms of the Alexican law relating to alcaldes' 
courts. The method of procedure was as in- 
teresting as it was unique. Every grievance 
which a complainant had against a person, for 
which he had, or hoped to have, a legal rem- 
edy, he carried to the alcalde and openly stated 
his case. Thereupon Alcalde Burton called his 
alguazil, or constable, and delivering to him 
his siher-headed cane, as the symbol of his 
authorit}', directed him to bring the person 
against whom the complaint was urged before 
the alcalde. The cane was an important part 
of the judicial system. It was the vara de 
just'icla, of 'staff of justice,' and in the hands 
of the alguazil symbolized the state. Bearing 
the alcalde's sil\ er-headed cane before him, the 
alguazil sought out the defendant and, holding 
up the staff, deliAcred his oral summons to 
appear immediately at the juzgado. The de- 
fendant never disobeyed the command of the 
alcalde, but at once came before him. When 
he arrived the complainant was sent for and 
the i)arties met in the presence of the alcalde. 
What was technically called, what was in fact, 
an 'altercation,' then ensued between the par- 
ties. The alcalde sat and heard their dispute 
and endeavored to adjust their differences and 
strike a l)alance (.>f justice between them upon 
their own statement of facts. Very frequently 
he A\'as successful and a sort (jf compromise 
judgment was rendered at once. When, how- 
ever, the parties ^^'ere too wide apart for com- 
])romise, the case proceeded as follows: Each 
j)arty chose an arbitrator and these two buenos 
hombres. as they were termed, sat with the 
alcalde and heard the evidence in the case. If 
then they and the alcalde could agree upon 
a judgment, it was rendered accordingly; but 
if not, the alcalde dismissed the buenos hom- 
bres and decided the case himself. So ran the 
wheels of justice in Alcalde Burton's court. 



"The record which oUl John Burton kept of 
his cases was a very meatier one, and hence a 
large mass of interesting court notes have 
been lost with the passage of years. Some few 
recorded cases there are, and in the recollec- 
tion of our pioneers a few more remain to 
illustrate the unique character of primitive jus- 
tice here. hVom among the ancient documents 
reposing in our city archives the following case 
has been exhumed and translated for this 
sketch. Pedro Mesa was accused of stealing 
Thomas Jones' horse. The record reads : 

" 'Territory of California vs. Pedro Mesa — 
May 1, 1847. The parties having appeared and 
the case entered into, after weighing the case 
and taking testimony, judgment is rendered 
that defendant shall pay a fine of $5, and $9 
for saddling the horse, and costs of court taxed 
at $4.75 ; $2 for the guard.' Alcalde Burton 
evidently did not regard horse-stealing as a 
very serious offense, and does not seem to 
have visited upon it a suflicient penalty to 
make the avocation unprofitable. It is curi- 
ous to note that Alcalde Burton records him- 
self as 'weighing the case and taking the tes- 
timony.' It would appear from all we can 
learn that it was the mental habit of the old 
captain to weigh the case first and make up 
his mind about it, and then, as a mere form- 
ality, 'take the testimony.' 

"Another of Alcalde Burton's decisions has 
survived the tooth of time. Juan Lesaldo and 
his wife did not agree and yet had hardly 
reached that point where they agreed to dis- 
agree. Juan, therefore, laid before the alcalde 
a complaint, of which, with the subsequent 
proceedings, the following record remains : 
Juan Lesalda vs. Maria de los Naves. On 
complaint of plaintiff, that defendant, his wife, 
he believes, is about to abscond, he therefore 
claims that she be brought before the court to 
show cause why she will not live with him. 
The parties having appeared and the case en- 
tered into, April 27, 1847, it is directed that 
they be united again, and if not they shall be 
imprisoned until they consent to live together. 
May 1st. ,\ letter was sent to the priest at 
Santa Clara, who ordained that they should 
be compelled to live together. After three 
days' time was given she refused to comply. 
May 4, 1847. Defendant was put in prison 
until she should comph- with the order of the 
court.' Here the record ends, and whether 
Maria de los Naves was ever brought back to 
the arms of her spouse by the stern rigor of 
the law remains a problem which may well 
be submitted with The Lady or the Tiger' to 
our modern dames for a solution. So far as 
known the precedent' set by Alcalde Burton 
has not been followed by those who have suc- 
ceeded him in a judicial effort to adjust the 

differences which have ever arisen in domestic 
life. There are, however, a few fragmentary 
records of Burton's decisions which show that 
he foreshadowed at least some phases of our 
modern law. On March 7, 1847, Alcalde Bur- 
ton dismissed a complaint brought by Gabriel 
Castro against Antonio Hernairo to recover 
plaintiff's winnings in a horse-race. It does 
not appear whether Hernairo was the loser in 
the wager, or only the stakeholder, but if the 
cause had been tried before our present courts 
instead of before the old alcalde, the same rule 
would be applied. 

"There are a few other cases preserved in 
scant records, wliich, if not yet precedents, 
might well be made so. In 1847 P. Real com- 
plained before the alcalde of 'men who stand 
in the church doors to look at the women as 
thev come from mass.' The alcalde judged 
that it was a 'practice which should be stopped 
in the interests of religion, morality and public 
tranquility.' In another case a Mexican was 
complained of for selling liquor and was tried 
without a jury, as the alcalde naively explains 
that the 'native element of the juries in such 
cases failed to convict.' 

"The Court of the First Instance was estab- 
lished in San Jose in the spring of 1849. R. 
M. May was the first occupant of the bench 
as judge of the court. He was shortly suc- 
ceeded by Judge Kincaid, who remained on the 
])ench until the court was abolished by the 
formation of the state. The pioneer members 
of the bar were Peter O. Minor, C. T. Ryland, 
Craven P. Hester, James M. Jones, William 
\'an Voorhies, Judge Almond, William T. 
Wallace, George B. Tingley, Rufus A. Lock- 
\\'ood and others, some of whom lived in San 
Jose and some of whom came down from San 
Francisco when cases required. The yarns 
^\d^ich those old 'Nestors' told upon them- 
selves, upon their clients and upon each other, 
would -fill a A'olume. One of the earliest cases 
tried before Judge Kincaid was the famous 
mule case of Caldwell vs. Gode)'. The plain- 
tiff sued the defendant for the possession of a 
mule which he averred was his property. The 
defendant denied the allegation and the case 
came on. Caldwell produced a dozen or more 
reputable witnesses who swore that they had 
known the plaintiff in Missouri, where he had 
o^vned the mule ; that they had crossed the 
plains with him when he brought the mule to 
California : that there was no doubt as to the 
identity of Caldwell's mule. On the other 
hand, the defendant produced as many wit- 
nesses, equally reputable, who swore they 
had known the defendant, Godey, and his mule 
in Texas, and that they had come to California 
with the mule, and there was no earthly doubt 
that this was Godey 's mule. They also swore 



that the mule was branded with a diamond on 
its hip. The court was sitting in the old Juz- 
gado and was in a quandary indeed. At this 
point John Yontz. the sheriff, came into court 
and asked his honor if he should bring in the 
witness. The judge, all innocent, told the 
sheriff to 'bring him in.' The sheriff brought 
'him' in and the ^\•itness ^\-as the mule. He 
filled the courtroom with his presence and the 
court with righteous indignation. 'Mr. Yontz,' 
said his lionor, sternly, 'take that mule out of 
here, sir.' 'Hut your honor ordered me to 
bring him in,' responded Yontz, 'and I obeyed 
the order.' The scene ^vas ludicrous in the ex- 
treme ; the sober face of the facetious sheriff': 
the still more sober aspect of the innocent 
mule: the judge's withered face jtale with in- 
dignation, and the countenances of the specta- 
tors red with mirth. The ^^'itness was taken 
out, but his intrcidnctirm won the case for the 
defendant, for there upon his ne\vlv-sha\-en hip 
appeared the diamond brand to which the other 
^\'itnesses had sworn." 

The constitution ordained and the first 
legislature estal)lished a complete s\'stem of 
courts \\-hich should suiiersedc the courts of 
the Alcalde and the First Instance. These ' 
were District, County and fustice's courts, and 
the}- A\'ere put into operation fluring the year 
1850. Judge John H. AA'atson «-as apixjinted 
the first district judge of the Third Judicial 
District, ^\■hich included the ciiunties of Contra 
Costa, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Montere\-. 
J. "W. Redjuan was rmr first count\' judge. 
The influx of population into the state had 
brought ]a\\}-ers rif all degrees of excellence 
from all f|uarters of the globe. The session of 
the first Legislature had left a numlx-r r]f law- 
yers \vlir) \\-ere its memljers ti^i increase and 
adorn our local Ijar. Of the many bright 
minds A\-h(j practiced law before Judges Wat- 
son and Redman and their successors, the fol- 
lowing are a few: Freeman McKinney, AVil- 
liam T. AVallace, F. ?,. Murdoch, AVilliain Mat- 
thews, ;\. L. ^'ates. F. K. Sanford, H(-)race 
Hawes, Rufus A. r.,ockwood, [. Alexander 
Yoell, John 11. Mo,,re, judge Almond. AVil- 
liam StaiTord. William D. Flarvard, C. T. Ry- 
land, (k-orge ]!. Tingley, Alexander Campbell, 
A. V. Crittenden, James M. Jones, La\\'rence 
Archer, Thomas Lodley and Judge R. F. Peck- 
ham. These Avere not all, but the>- \vill exam- 
ple the local bar, and while man\- of these are 
gfjne forecer from our \ision, from th(]se who 
remain the quality of the rest may be esti- 
mated. I will tell the stories of the early bar 
in much the same order that thev ha\'e l)een 
told tc] me : 

"Judge Watson A\-as, by prr>fession, a physi- 
cian, who had learned a sufficient smattering 
of the law to secure a seat upon the bench, for 

which place there was little competition among 
lawyers, for the reason that the salary was 
comparatively small, while the fees at that time 
\\'ere large to the lawyer who was competent 
to be judge. The style of Judge Watson's 
charges to his juries was, therefore, often free 
from legal verbiage and of legal principles as 
well, as the following story of the case of Dean 
vs. IMcKinle}' will illustrate : The case was 
tried in Monterey County and took its origin 
in this \\-ise: McKinley was a merchant at 
^lontere}- in the '40s. It was part of his busi- 
ness to stock traders who were going to the 
mines. Dean was one of these traders and he 
bought from McKinle}' a stock of goods, prom- 
ising to ])a_\' him when he returned. Several 
}-ears jiassed and Dean did not return until 
after the ;Vmerican occupation. He came 
liack 'broke,' and showed no dispr>sitir)n to pav 
McKinley for his goods. Finalh' the latter 
went l^cfore Alcalde Mariano Malarin and had 
Dean arrested and im])risf)ned for the debt. 
The Monterey jail at that time ^vas in no 
cr)ndition to keep a ^irisoner long against his 
\\\\\, but it suited shiftless "William Dean to 
stay there. He was his own jailer and "when 
e\'ening came he would ]")ull the plug out of 
the jail door and go to the fandangoes or other 
places of amusement, and after the fun A\-as 
o\-cr would go fiack to the jail, lock himself 
in ,'Lnd go to sleep, swearing' he 'would make 
old Mclvinley ])a_\" frjr this false imprisonment 
of an .\nierican citizen.' Well, \\-hen the Dis- 
trict Coin-t tt'as cirganized Dean, incited there- 
to by sex' lawyers on contingent fees, sued 
McKinley for large damages lor his alleged 
'false ini|)risonment.' The case came on for 
trial \\-ith :i cloud of attorncA-s on either side, 
it A\-ns a ]u-olonged case and A\'hen cmicluded 
A\'as argued at great length b}- all of the attor- 
ne_\'s. AMien finally the cause was submitted 
to the jury, Jmlge AA'atson squared himself 
afiout pompously, and (lcli\"ered the following 
charge : 

" '(Tcntlemen of the jury, as the mariner re- 
turning to his jiost after a long sea A-t)vage is 
enabled to catch a faint and fleeting glimpse 
of the land through mists and fog which sur- 
round it, so )'ou, gentlemen of the jur}-, may 
be able, by the aid of the court, to catch a dim 
conception of the facts in this case through 
the obscurity which the arguments of counsel 
ha\-c throAxui arcjund it. I \\\\\ illustrate the 
merits of this case with a simile. I will liken 
this case to a railroad train. The court is the 
track, the attornews are the engine, and the 
client is the grease. You all know, gentlemen 
of the jury^ how an engine \\W\ run Avhen it is 
well greased. In fact, I ha\'e seen engines so 
well greased as to cause them to "play such 
fantastic tricks l)efore high heaven as made 
angels weej)." To carry the simile further, 


gentlemen, suppose that a railroad train runs "Among the attorneys wlio practiced before 

over and kills a man. Who is to blame? The Judge Redman was Freeman McKinney, whom 

engine, the track or the grease? I think, the all the early pioneers will remember. He was 

engme. Centlemen of the jury you will bring a little fellow with a long red beard which 

m a verdict for the defendant.' came down to his waist, and withal a man of 

"Judge Redman, who presided over the a good deal of force and dignity. < )ne day a 

County Court, was a good lawver, but was fellow was arraigned liefore Judge Redman 

also a man of many ]ieculiarities, of strong for horse-stealing. He had no attorney. The 

prejudices and of eccentric modes of expres- Jndge apjiointed Free McKinney to defend 

sicm. Some of the lawyers of his court he him, with this instruction: 'Mr. McKinne}', 

had a great liking fcir, antl toward others he the court a|)p(>ints you to act as attorney for 

manifested dislike \\ithout any apparent rea- this defendant. You ma\' retire with him and 

son. Among the former class was William T. .get his statement of the case. You will .give 

AYallace, for whom he had a strong affection, the prisoner the best advice and assistance you 

and always, out of court, called him "Rilly, m\' are aide in view of the law and of the facts 

boy.' Among the latter \\'as ]. Alexander he may ,gi\e you.' McKinney \vent dut with 

Yoell, against whom, fre(|uenth' and unjustly, the prisoner to tlic door of the Court House 

Redman showed his feeling. ()ne day after the and asked him if he had an}' money. The 

trial of a hotly contested case in ■\\-hich Yoell fello\\' said he had a fifty-ddllar slu.g. 'Give it 

toiik a A'igorous part. Judge Redman limped to me,' said McKinney. The fellow reluct- 

(he had a wooden leg) out of the courtroom, antly ga\e up the slug. 'Now,' said IMcKin- 

leaning on AA'allace's arm. T'resently he said, nc}-, 'as a matter of fact, you st(jle that horse, 

in a reflecti\-e and S(demn way, as though didn't 3'f)U ?' The jirisoner admitted to his at- 

speaking to himself: 'It would not he idola- torne}- that he did. 'In that case,' said Mc- 

tr^'.' 'What would not lie idolatry?' asked Ivinne)', T ad\'ise \it\\ to get into the 1)rush 

Wallace. 'It would not be ichdatr)- to bo\\- as fast as the Lcjrfl will let }-ou.' The prisoner 

down and \\-orship him,' said the Judge in the '.got,' and presentl}- ^McKinney wandered liack 

same reflectiA'C ^vay. 'A\'orsIiip whom?" asked -into tlie court rofjm and sat down. Socm the 

AWallace. 'It would not lie idolatry to fall case of the horsethief \vas called. '\\'here is 

down and W(:>rship Yoell,' resp(:}nded Redman. A'our client, the prisoner, Mr. ArcKinne\'?' in- 

'And wh}- not?' asked W^allace. 'LUll}-, my (piire<l Redman, 'I don't know, your 

boy," said the scdemnly, 'haA'e a'ou for- honor,' answered ]\IcKinne}', Avitli the utmost 

gotten the commandment A\diich saA's, "Thou sang-froid. 'The last time I saw him he was 

shalt ucit bow- down and worshif) tlie likeness making for the brush abi>ut as fast as he 

of anything that is in hea\-en abo\e, or that could go.' 'Is it possil)le, sir,' thundered the 

is in the earth beneath, or that is in the waters court, 'that }-ou ha\'e permitted the prisoner to 

under the earth"? No\\", Yoell is not like an>'- escape?' 'Your honor,' said McKinneA", calmh', 

thing that is in the hea\'en above, nor in the '1 ha\e olie}"ed tc> the letter the order r.f this 

earth beneath, nor in the Avaters under the court. Your honor a])|)ointed me as the at- 

earth, and therefore I'll be dashed if it would tcjrney for the defendant with the instruction 

constitute idolatry to fall do\\'n and worship that 1 should give him the best ad\-ice I Avas 

hini.' able in \\q\y of the law and the facts. The 

"Anr.ther member of the early bar whom ^'f^^ ,"'e>-t. as the defemlant admitted to me. 

Judge Redman disliked was F. B. Murdoch, that he stole the horse. I he best advice I 

, , ^ ^ ■ ^ ^ ,• 1- ir could gue him was to get int(-) the birush. 

who ater went into local lournalism. Aiur- .ir ,„ .i, .• * i t i t> i -^i i- 

, , , , - T TT AT • i-lum])hl snorted ludge Redman witli dignity, 

doch had a case ot J. hi. Moses against some- x'all the next case"' 

body and got a jiulgment. One of the wit- ..^p, , j i t r i i 

" - . ■^, J &■ i he storA' ot how b"i Johnson summoned 

nesses in the case was named Moses Scott, y^,,,^,^ Redman mto cairt" one morning, and 

and when Murdoch came to write his decree t^g penalty therefor, is fresh in the minds of 

he wrote the name of the witness m it by „„-,re than one member of the bar. fudge 

mistake for that of the plaintiff. Discovering Redman liked his tipple and would also ''buck 

his error later on, he made a motion before the tiger' on occasion. The County C<-)urt was 

Judge Redman to set aside the decree and held for a season in a building which stood 

haye entered an amended one, and when he near the corner of Santa Clara Street and 

had concluded Judge Redman said : '^Ir. Mur- Lightston Alley. .A. saloon was across the 

doch, your motion is denied. It has long been street in Avhich Judge Redman spent much of 

the well settled rule of this court that when his time and A\diere he often lingered beyond 

an attorney comes before this court with a the hour for couAening his court, (jne day 

case and burns himself he will be compelled the assembled bar grew impatient at his ab- 

to sit on the blister.' sence. Freeman McKinney called the bar to 



order and gravely moved that the bailiff be 
instructed to call 'old' Redman at the door of 
the court three times, and that if he failed to 
answer he be fined for contempt of court. The 
bailiff \\as Jo Johnson, and taking the matter 
in all seriousness, he went to the door and in 
a powerful voice called out: 'Old Redman! 
Old Redman! If you fail to answer you will 
be fined for contempt of court.' The sten- 
torian tones of Bailiff Johnson penetrated to 
the room where Judge Redman was seated at 
his game of cards. He deliberately finished 
the game and the lawyers heard the uneven 
thump of the Judge's wooden leg as he crossed 
the street. He entered the court slowly, 
ascended the bench with dignity, and then 
said with judicial severity: 'Mr. Clerk, enter 
a fine of seventy-five dollars against Jo John- 
son for contempt of this court.' When |o 
Johnson afterwards told this story he alwa\s 
ended it in an injured tone: 'The worst of it 
was that the blanked old fool made me pay 
that fine.' 

"Aproi)OS of Judge Redman's social infirmi- 
ties, the following story is told as an actual 
fact: The bar became tired of the Judge's 
lapses and eccentricities, and at last felt called 
upon to request him to resign. The rec|uest 
was signed Idv exevy member of the bar in the 
county and was ser^'ed one evening upon the 
Judge. Tlie next morning his court room 
was full of lawyers to see what effect their 
petition would have upon Judge Redman. The 
Judge entered the rcjcjin, perfectly sober and 
with a sad and contrite expression upon his 
face. He A\'alked \vith halting step di:)wn the 
aisle and awakened a feeling of pit^' in the 
breasts of se^■eral who harl signed the request. 
The court opened with the customary 'Hear 
ye,' and then the venerable iorm of the Judge 
arose from the bench. He looked timidh- 
around as though searching' for a friend, and 
then in faltering tones addressed the bar. 
'Gentlemen of the bar,' he said, 'last night I 
received a petition from }'ou, signed by all of 
your numfier, couched in respectful language 
and setting forth reasons whv I should tender 
my resignation as judge of thi.s court. Con- 
scious of my many infirmities and realizing the 
necessit}- of a pure judiciary, throughout the 
silent hours of the i)ast night I have given to 
your i)etition painful and, I may add, prayerful 
consideratirm. I feel, gentlemen, that you have 
acted from a high sense of duty in this matter 
( liere the eyes of the members of tlie bar be- 
gan to moisten \\'ith tears), and in res])onding 
to your petition requesting my resignation, I 
would simply say (here the Judge straightened 
up and altered his tone) that I will see you all 
in liell first, and then I w(m't resign. Mr. 
Clerk, call the next case.' 

"It was one of Judge Redman's infirmities, 
if it be such, to be fond of horse-racing and to 
bet freely on his favorite. Horse-races were 
very frequent in the early '50s and Judge Red- 
man generally contrived to make the sessions 
of his court conform to the time of the race. 
(Jne day a cause was on for argument wherein 
John H. Moore represented one side and a 
San Francisco attorney the other side of the 
controversy. A race was coming oS that day. 
Judge Redman had little difficulty in per- 
suading Moore to submit the case without ar- 
gument in order that both court and counsel 
might attend the race. The San Francisco 
attorney, however, insisted on arguing his side 
of the case. During the first portion of his 
speech Judge Redman listened patiently, but 
as the hour for the race approached the Judge 
Itecame fidgety and cast anxious glances at 
the hands of the clock with increasing fre- 
cpiency. At last, when the hands of the clock 
had all but reached the hour of the race, the 
attorney closed his speech. As he sat down 
the court hurriedly arose and without a break 
uttered the following sentence: 'I will take 
this case under advisement until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. This court is adjourned. 
Moore, I'll bet you $100 the black filly wins 
the race.' 

"One of the most celebrated cases in Red- 
man's court was the trial of a mulatto girl 
named Mindy Johnson for grand larceny in 
18.t2-.t3. Mind}' ^\'as a very good-looking girl 
I'f ripe charms and quite popular among the 
Idoods of the bar. It was even reportecl that 
Judge Redman had a weakness for Mindv. She 
was by vocation a cook and washerwoman and 
one (lay fell from grace to the extent of steal- 
ing Some articles of clothing and a carpet sack 
with $.300 in money from the premises of a man 
named White. The theft was discovered and 
Almdy was arrested and indicted. In those 
davs grand larceny was a capital offense. The 
evidence was clear and the girl's own confes- 
sion seemed to seal her fate. She was tried 
Ijefore Judge Redman and convicted. The 
\erdict of the jury was recorded and the mo- 
ment for her sentence came. Judge Redman 
was at his wit's end for an excuse to save her, 
but he had none. 'Mindy,' said the ludge with 
assumed severity, 'stand up.' Mindy stood up. 
'Have you any cause to show why judgment 
of the court should not be pronounced against 
your' At this moment Freeman McKinney, 
wlio witli William T. Wallace, had been Min- 
dy 's attorneys, arose, and with much dignity 
moved the court for arrest of judgment upon 
the grounds that it had been shown in evi- 
dence that Mindy was brought to Cali- 
iornia by a man named Clarkson as a slave 
and had never been manumitted. That 



as a slave she was property aiul that as a 
property she could not commit grand lar- 
ceny. 'Ah!' said Judge Redman, with a sigh 
of infinite relief, 'that's the point which the 
court had in mind during the whole trial of 
this case, but did not want to suggest to coun- 
sel for the defendant. I am glad to see, young 
man, that you have not forgotten your early 
training in law nor failed to burn the midnight 
oil m this case. The point is well taken; the 
defendant is discharged, the jury is dismissed 
and the court is adjourned.' District Attorney 
Moore protested, but his protest availed 
naught. The court remained adjourned and 
Alindy went on her way rejoicing." The record 
of this remarkable case, if anyone is curious 
enough to consult it, is to be found in Record 
Book H. Court of Sessions, among the musty 
tiles of the office of the County Clerk. 

"There is another story of Judge Redman 
in which John H. Moore figures in his capacity 
as District Attorney. In 1852 the state legis- 
lature passed a law depriving the county court 
of jurisdiction to try certain offenses, of which 
grand larceny was one. It took some time in 
those days to get the oflicial copies of the 
statutes distributed about the state. There 
was pending in Judge Redman's court about 
that time a peculiar case of grand larceny. A 
somewhat lawless limb of the law had gone 
out deer hunting, and failing to find deer had 
shot and carried home a fine young heifer be- 
longing to a Spaniard, who, discovering the of; 
fender, had the lawless lawyer indicted. He 
retained Lawrence Archer and William T. 
AA^allace to defend him and the case came on 
for trial. Of course Archer and Wallace 
wished to clear their client, both because he 
was such and also because he was a fellow at- 
torney. Possibly Judge Redman shared in 
this desire. It was a hot May morning some 
weeks after the legislature had adjourned that 
the case was called in Judge Redman's court. 
District Attorney Moore arose and asked that 
the case be certified to the District Court in 
consecjuence of the statute recently passed 
which took away the jurisdiction of the county 
court. 'Mr. Moore,' said Judge Redman, 'what 
evidence have }'ou to offer showing that the 
court has no jurisdiction to try this case?' Mr. 
Moore respectful!}' called the attention of the 
Court to the statute which the legislature had 
passed. 'But what proof do you present of the 
passage of any such statute?' asked the judge. 
'Why, everybody knows that the statute was 
passed,' said Moore, 'and here is a newspaper 
containing the statute in full,' answered the 
district attorney. 'Mr. Moore,' said Judge Red- 
man, 'this court does not act upon what every- 
body knows in depriving itself of a jurisdic- 
tion so often exercised, and, furthermore, I 

will inform you, sir, that a newspaper is not 
evidence of anything in this court. Proceed 
with the trial.' In vain the district attorney 
protested that the court had lost its jurisdic- 
tion. The court insisted on going on with the 
case, until at last the district attorney, in 
a rage at the court, left the room. This stopped 
the case and the attorneys for the defendant 
wanted it to go on. After a while Judge Red- 
man sent the sheriff after the district attor- 
ney and again demanded that he either go 
on with the case or produce a certified copy 
of the statute. Mr. Moore would not do the 
one and could not do the other and went off 
again inwardly (and I suspect outwardly) 
cursing the court. Again and again he was 
sent for and again and again the procedure 
was gone through by the Judge, and so the 
hours of a sweltering day moved on in the 
old adobe court house until at last Judge Red- 
man, after a last attempt to get Moore to try 
the case, commanded the clerk to enter upon 
the minutes of the court that the case having 
been called and the district attorney having 
been ordered to proceed with the trial, and 
having both refused to do so and failed to 
show by proper evidence that the court had 
lost jurisdiction of the case, the prisoner 
was discharged. So the lucky dog of a law- 
yer escaped justice and Messrs. Archer and 
Wallace won a bad case without a struggle. 
"Among the lawyers who sought success 
at the San Jose laar in the early '50s there 
were some who found it not and who w^ere 
compelled at last to seek it in other voca- 
tions and other fields of labor. Among these 
was a lawyer named AVilliani M. Staiiord — 
a great big, jovial fellow who could not some- 
how succeed and had a hard time to get along. 
He lived in the southern portion of the city 
in a tumble-down tenement and came to be 
known among his fellow lawyers as 'The Lord 
of Hardscrabble.' At last he gave up the strug- 
gle for success at the bar, and going down 
into Pajaro Valley, engaged in farming. His 
departure was celebrated Ijy the publication of 
a poem written b}' Col. William D. M. How- 
ard, a very bright and witty lawyer of the 
time. I extract from it a few stanzas for 
the purpose of illustrating the humor and mer- 
it of Colonel Howard's production : 

* , 

'The Lord of Hardscrabble. Oh! where has he 

He has vamoosed his rancho and left us for- 

He has gone to the land where the big" 
"praties" grow, 



In the rich, loamy valley of the Rio Pajaro. 
No more shall his presence enliven our hall 
In spring and in summer, in autumn and fall. 
No longer his eloquent counsel we'll hear. 
When the wise Cit}- Fathers in conclave ap- 
No more will we gather those gems of debate 
He let fall when discussing affairs of the state, 
^^'ith a broadcast of "palabros" scattered 

Like the ripe fruit of autumn strewn over the 

The Lord of Hardscrabble, r)h ! what will he 

Where the Locos abound and the AVhigs are 

so few : 
For he's gone where the cocks of Democracy 

O'er the crestfallen coons of Rio Pajaro. 

'In the good old AAdiig cause he was valiant 

and stout. 
W^as never yet conquered and never backed 

And Deuiocracy will find itself in a bad box. 
For he'll rally the coons and lie down on the 

The Lord of Hardscrabble's a gallant old blade. 
As tlie sex Avill 1)ear witness, both matron and 

maid : 
But somehow" nr other he lived "an old bach," 
Till the roof of his head has disposed of its 

Oh ! whv lias lie A'cnturcd to go forth alone 
AA'ith "no flesh of his flesh," no bone of his 

bone ? 
May soine kind-hearted maiden his loneliness 

And his fine portlv shadow niai,' it never grow 

And \\hen cif warm evenings he seeks his re- 

On his cot in the house or the ground out of 

IVIav there lie no mosquitoes around him in 

' fkicks, 
No flies on his nose an<l no fleas in his socks; 
May his dair}- be filled with butter and cheese 
And his acres aljound with "frijoles" and peas, 
Grain, onions, potatijes, whatever Avill grow 
And advantage him most in Rio Pajaro. 

'The Lord of Hardscrabble, when will he re- 
turn ? 
His absence Ijoth daily and nightly \ve mourn. 
And a greeting of joy will resound in his ears, 
When his well-known "cabeza" among us ap- 
Roll on, happy day, wdien his jolly old face, 
All radiant \\'ith smiles, shall illumine this 
place ; 

With his purse full of cash and his heart full 

of joy, 
Success to Hardscrabble, the jolly old boy.' 

"The first court house of the county of Santa 
Clara was located on the west side of First 
street between Santa Clara and El Dorado 
streets, and about opposite what was then 
.Archer, but is now Fountain Alle}'. The low- 
er part of this building was adobe and was 
used as the court room of both the District 
and County Courts. The upper part w^as frame 
with the stairway on the outside of the build- 
ing and in that portion were located the of- 
fices of the sheriff and clerks of the court. 
"Judge Watson Avas the first district judge. 
Judge Redman the first county judge, E. K. 
"SanJiorn the first district attorney, H. C. Me- 
lone the first clerk, and John Yontz the first 
sheriff of the county of Santa Clara. In this 
old court house during the years 1850-1, these 
dignitaries with the assistance of the members 
of the Jiar, dispensed justice in their own primi- 
tive but rather vigorous way. A great man}^ 
of the cases were tried with the aid of the 
jur^-, and out of this fact arose a curious cus- 
tom, A\-hich, as is iierhajis A\-ell knowm, has 
gone iiut of date. In the early '50s Avhittlin.g 
was a great acconqdishment in the average 
citizen, A\dio idled his time away about the 
stores or saloons or in the jdaza of the village 
of San Jose. It was probaldy from this class 
of citizen that the early juries were mainly 
drawn. AA'hen trials were tedious and argu- 
ments of counsel long drawn out. A\diat else 
could be expected than that the cxi^ert whit- 
tlers ("in the jury would perhaps unconscious- 
1)' dis]iku- their skill on the benches, posts 
and railing of the jury box. Sheriff Yontz, 
soon after his otTicial duties liegan thought 
that the redwood and ]>ine of the jury box 
in tlie court room A\-as gri:i\\-ing grotesque in 
form and Ijeautifully less lieneath the expert 
jack knives of his juries. He was at a loss 
for a time for a remedy, but presently he found 
it, and thereafter at every session of the court, 
A\'lien a jiuw- A\'as to be drawn, Sheriti: Yontz 
graveh' lirought into the court room and 
placed on the jury liox a large bundle of white 
pine sticks cut to a size and shape to suit a 
whittler's fancy. Ky this expedient the sher- 
iff sa\ed the pillars and benches of the jury 
lif).x from a destruction that was more rapid 
than the tooth of time. 

"Among the lawyers wdio practiced at the 
bar of our District Court Avas William B. 
Almond, wdio had Ijeen Judge of the Court 
of First Instance in San Francisco before 
the organization of the state. Judge Almond 
was a genial gentleman of the old school, who 
loxed his tipple and always kept a demijohn 
of cognac in the chambers adjoining the court. 



When the judicial duties of the day were over 
it was the Judge's liahit to go to his cham- 
bers and enjoy a glass of ct)gnac. The Court 
of First Instance Avas a very busy tribunal 
during Judge rMmond's term, owing to the 
many cases which arose in '49 over the pos- 
session oi lots in the growing city. In con- 
sequence Judge Almond had a great man}^ 
papers in the form of orders and decrees to 
sign and in the hurry his signature often 
became a very hasty and formal act. Among 
the attorney's who practiced in Judge Almond's 
court was Gregory Yale, who loved joking 
and brandy with equal fervor. On one of 
Judge Almond's busiest days Gregory Yale 
gravely presented an order for the Judge to 
sign. The signature was attached and Yale 
went away. Presently the court adjourned 
and Judge Almond went to his chambers for 
his wonted glass. The demijohn was gone and 
in high dudgeon Judge Almond called the bail- 
iff of the court and asked him what had be- 
come of it. The bailiff answered that he had 
taken it over to the office of Gregory Yale. 
'Who ordered you to do that?' said the Judge 
in a rage. 'Your Honor did,' responded the 
bailiff, and straightway drew from his pocket 
the following order signed by the Judge : 

" 'Good cause appearing therefor, it is or- 
dered that the bailiff of this court do forth- 
with convey to the office of Gregory Yale, Esq., 
that certain demijohn of cognac, now lying 
and being in and upon those certain premises 
known and more particularly described as the 
Chambers of the Honorable Judge of this 
Court.' It was the order he had signed that 
morning. Judge Almond never saw nor tasted 
his cognac again, but the flavor of this joke 
remained with him for many a day. 

"Throughout all my gleanings of fact and 
fancy there has been constantly presented to 
me the outlines of a gigantic figure; the rem- 
iniscences of a character vast and strange; 
the recollections of a genius more powerful, 
more original and yet more eccentric than any 
other which ever flashed its light across the 
history of California ; the memories of a man 
and of a lawyer whose living and whose dy- 
ing verified the truth, 'Great minds to mad- 
ness closely are allied.' I refer to Rufus A. 

"In the early part of the year 1850 an im- 
portant case came on for trial in the Court of 
First Instance at San Jose. It was the case 
of Hepburne vs. Sunol et al., involving the 
title and right of possession of a portion of 
the Los Coches Rancho. C. T. Ryland and 
John H. Moore represented ^he plaintiff and 
James M. Jones appeared for the defendants. 
The plaintiff's attorneys were then young men, 
recently from the East and not yet versed in 

the Spanish language or law. The attorney 
for the defendant, on the contrary, was a law- 
yer of great e,xi)erience in the practice of the 
civil (or Spanish) law and a linguist perfect- 
ly familiar with the Spanish language. He 
was, moreover, one of the deepest students and 
most lirilliant men of the time, and in the 
case at issue had the young attorneys for the 
plaintiff at a disadvantage. One day while 
some phase of the case was up before Judge 
Kincaid for argument, E. L. Beard, of the 
San Jose Mission, happened into the court 
mi and soon saw that Moore and Ryland 
were getting worsted in their case by rea- 
son of Jones' superior knowledge of the Span- 
ish law. Fle went over to Moore and sug- 
gested that he ought to have the assistance 
of a lawyer wdio could read Spanish and cope 
with Jones in the application of the law. 
'Where can we find such a man?' asked Mr. 
Moore. T have the very man you need at 
the Mission,' answered Beard, 'and I'll send 
him down to assist you. His name is Lock- 
wood.' When the day for the trial of the 
case came on there walked into Judge Kin- 
caid's court room in the old Juzgado a large, 
"awkward and roughly dressed man and took 
his seat with the plaintiff's attorneys. It was 
Rufus A. Lockwood. He made no immedi- 
ate manifestation of power, but listened close- 
ly while the pleadings were read, the jury im- 
paneled, and the trial of the cause begun. He 
saw that the case involved one of those clash- 
ings between the American and Mexican peo- 
ple so common in those early times. He no- 
ticed that the jury was a 'Missouri' jury, whose 
sympathies would naturally be with the plain- 
tiff. He quietly waited for his opportunity to 
cope with the only dangerous element in the 
case, viz., the learning and ability of James 
M. Jones, the defendant's attorney. Presently 
a question of law arose and Jones began to 
argue it with the aid of the Spanish statutes, 
which he read and then translated to the court. 
He made an argument clean cut and strong, as 
was his w^ont, and sat down confidently. Then 
Lockwood arose, and with one sweep of re- 
sistless logic destroyed the whole fabric of 
Jones' speech. He turned to the very statute 
from which Jones had quoted, read it with the 
facility of a master of the Spanish tongue, 
translated it luminously, expounded it learned- 
ly, and from it showed to court and jury that 
the law was with the plaintiff in the case. The 
whole court room gaped Avith astonishment, 
while the plaintiff and his attorneys hugged 
themselves with delight at the possession of 
such an ally. Every one felt and saw- that 
they were in the presence of a master mind. 
The expected victory of Jones was turned into 
a rout, which during the remainder of the trial 



he could not check with all his talent and in- 
dustry. He worked the night out to win his 
case, but in vain. 'This man Lockwood is kill- 
ing me,' said Jones to Moore as the case drew 
to its close. The last day of the trial was 


1850, when Lockwood's speech to 

the jury was delivered. Brief snatches of that 
splendid burst of oratory still linger in the 
memories of our pioneers who were privileged 
to hear it. They tell of Lockwood's descrip- 
tion of the Battle of Buena Vista, which oc- 
curred on February 22, 1846, and of which 
this day was the anniversary. He pictured 
General Taylor's victory over the 'greasers' to 
that jury of Missourians and called upon them 
to celebrate it today with a victory for the 
American plaintiff and against the 'greaser' 
defendant in the case. Such an appeal was 
irresistible and Lockwood not only won his 
case but established himself at once as the 
greatest lawyer who had ever shaken the walls 
of the Juzgado with the thunders of nis elo- 

"The next great case in which Lockwood 
was engaged and tried in San Jose was the 
case of Metcalf vs Argenti. The suit arose in 
this wise: Argenti was a banker in San Fran- 
cisco and was prominent among the members 
of the first Vigilance Committee. Metcalf 
was an arrival from Australia, who for some 
reason fell under suspicion and was rough- 
ly treated by the Vigilantes. He brought suit 
against the leading inen composing that body 
and employed Lockwood and Edmund Ran- 
dolph as his attorneys. The case was tried 
first in San Francisco and resulted in a mis- 
trial by reason of the strong prejudice in fa- 
vor of the Vigilance Committee of that city. 
It was then transferred to Santa Clara Coun- 
ty for a second trial and came on in 1852. 
Lockwood was very much opposed to the 
methods of the Vigilance Committee and went 
into this case with more than his usual zeal 
and vigor. Those who heard his speech to 
the jury in that case say that it surpassed all 
of the speeches they have ever heard before 
or since. It was published in pamphlet form 
and may still be found occasionally in the li- 
braries of the lawyers of that time. 

"The abilities which Lockwood displayed in 
the trial of these great cases gave him a state 
reputation as being the greatest lawyer on the 
Coast. Doubtless he was and would have died 
secure in that reputation, but for that strain 
approaching insanity in his nature, which led 
him to such extremes in conduct and experi- 
ence. Many stories are told of his skill in the 
court room where he was the wonder and ad- 
miration of the bar. In fact every one who 
came in contact with him had imprinted on his 
mind a vivid picture of the man; of his facial 

expression, of his physical movements and of 
his original style, and a strong remembrance 
of his powerful voice, which, to use the lan- 
guage of Judge Moore, 'was like the growl of 
a grizzly bear.' Walking down the street the 
other day I met J. H. Flickinger who told me 
that of all the pioneers of California his recol- 
lection of Lockwood, was perhaps the earliest 
and the most pleasing. He was a fellow pas- 
senger with Lockwood when he first came to 
California around the Horn in 1849. For the 
first month out from New York Lockwood 
never left his cabin, but after that he began 
to mingle with the rest. Before the voyage 
was ended the passengers became aware of 
the fact that they had on board the most sin- 
gular, brilliant and versatile genius they had 
ever known. The range of his reading and 
of his experience; his knowledge of human 
character; his command of language, of liter- 
ature and the infinite variety of his moods, 
were a revelation to his shipmates. After the 
voyage was ended and during the whole of 
Lockwood's career in California he retained 
his friendship for Mr. Flickinger, and when- 
ever he was in San Jose was pleased to spend 
a while with his "shipmate" and live over again 
their mutual past. 

"Elias L. Beard, of San Jose Mission, was 
a long and strong friend of Lockwood. Beard 
was an aggressive character and was involved 
in lawsuits of various kinds in all of which he 
had Lockwood for his attorney. One time a 
fellow whose name has escaped immortality, 
sued Beard for slander and employed E. K. 
Sanford as his attorney. The case came on for 
trial before Judge AVatson, with Lockwood for 
the defense. Sanford made his opening speech 
to the jury, and it was very flowery. He quot- 
ed elaborately from the poets as to the value 
of a man's character and the outrage of slan- 
derous assaults upon it. 'Who steals my purse 
steals trash, etc.,' came in the climax, and San- 
ford sat down well pleased at his burst of ora- 
tory. Then Lockwood arose, and, addressing 
the jury, also took the subject of character for 
his theme. He dwelt upon the value of char- 
acter more eloquently than his opponent, quot- 
ed again all of the poetic passages which San- 
ford had done, and adding to their number, 
built up his speech to the very summit of a 
splendid consummation and then capped it all 
with this anti-climax, which won his case. 
'Gentlemen of the jury, remembering all that 
I have said to you of the value of human 
character, I solemnly declare that if you will 
give a down-East Yankee a jack-knife and a 
cedar stick he'll whittle out a better char- 
acter in five minutes than has ever been es- 
tablished yet in any court of justice.' 



"Rufus A. Lockwood was once the defend- 
ant in an action brought by one named Harlan 
in our District Court, and involving the title 
to a piece of land adjacent to San Jose. Lock- 
wood was his own lawyer and did not have 
a fool for a client, in spite of the old legal 
saw. The case turned upon the validity of a 
certain deed which made its appearance at 
the trial and was offered in evidence by the 
plaintiff. It appeared to be entirely in the 
handwriting of Lockwood and to convey the 
premises in question. If valid and so found 
by the court, Lockwood would have stood be- 
smirched with having acted dishonorably to- 
ward Harlan. The case was hotly contest- 
ed on both sides, and Lockwood's blood was 
up. When the deed was produced and offered 
in evidence Lockwood looked it over careful- 
ly and then arose in court, and in a voice of 
thunder declared it a forgery. William T. Wal- 
lace was attorney for the plaintiff, and seeing 
Elias L. Beard in the court room, called him 
suddenly to the witness stand to testify as to 
Lockwood's signature. Beard didn't want to 
testify against his friend, but after carefully 
examining the instrument he was obliged to 
swear that he believed it to be in Lockwood's 
hardwriting. Lockwood cross-examined him 
as follows : 'Elias, you think that I wrote that 
deed, do you?' 'Yes, Rufus,' reluctantly stam- 
mered Beard, 'I think that's your handwrit- 
ing.' 'Now, Elias,' said Lockwood (who prid- 
ed himself on his spelling), 'if I was going to 
write a deed, do you think that I would spell 
'indenture' with two tt's?' Beard hastilj' 
scanned the deed, and there, sure enough, was 
'indenture' spelled with two tt's. 'No, Ru- 
fus,' said Beard, exultingly, 'I don't believe you 
would, and I think this deed is a forgery.' And 
so it proved to be, for after the case was end- 
ed it was discovered that a fellow who was 
staying at Harlan's house, and who was an ex- 
pert penman and given to imitating handwrit- 
ing, had written the deed." 

Judge Richards' graphic and interesting pic- 
ture of Lockwood gives the historian oppor- 
tunity to supplement it with the following 
review of the distinguished lawyer's checkered 
career : 

Rufus A. Lockwood was born in Stamford, 
Conn., in 1811. His true name was Jonathan 
A. Jessup. At eighteen he was a student at 
Yale but left in the middle of the term to 
enlist on a United States man-of-war. In his 
first cruise he saw one of his shipmates tied 
up and brutally flogged for a trivial offense. 
Shocked by the sight he deserted and changed 
his name to Lockwood. It was not long be- 
fore he was in Chicago. After teaching a 
country school, studying first medicine and 
then law, he was admitted to practice in the 

courts of the state. In 1836 he opened a law 
office in Lafayette, Ind. An opportunity to 
show his merit soon came. Engaged for the 
defense in a celebrated murder case he made 
such an impressicm tm the jury that a ver- 
dict of acquittal was rendered. The speech 
was such a masterly effort as to warrant its 
publication in pamphlet form. This historian 
saw a copy in the late '60s. It was the prop- 
erty of Joseph I'atton, then a member of the 
police force and a brother of the second wife 
of J. J. Owen, then the editor of the Mer- 
cur}'. Patton had been present at the trial 
and he said that the perusal of the speech 
ctiuld give no adequate conception of its liv- 
ing effect. It was, in his opinion, the best 
jury speech ever delivered on this continent. 
Lockwood's victor}' brought him into the full 
blaze of popular attention and applause. For 
a few years his professional business was large, 
but through dissipation and unfortunate land 
speculations his debts at last accumulated be- 
■iond his ability to pay. He raised what money 
he could for the benefit of his creditors, 
then went to Mexico and there entered upon 
a course of riotous living interspersed with 
periods of study in which he obtained mas- 
tery of the Spanish language and Spanish civil 
law. When his funds grew low he worked 
his way back to the United States and re- 
sumed his law practice in Lafayette. While 
the California gold excitement was at its 
height he joined in the rush; arrived in San 
Francisco low in pocket and for six months 
was clerk in a law office where he not only 
furnished the law, but swept out the office, 
made fires, etc. He received his wages every 
evening; every night found him in a gambling 
house; every morning found him penniless. He 
afterward entered into a law partnership but 
soon threw up the business on account of his 
unfortunate habits and as a penance hired 
himself out as a day laborer, shoveling sand, 
coaling steamers, doing anything that came 
to hand. This fit lasted a month or two. 
Then with a clear brain he opened a law 
office and was soon in possession of a lucra- 
tive practice. 

His professional gains only increased his 
passion for gambling and drinking and again 
at war with himself and the world he sailed 
for Australia, remaining there two years. One 
time he was clerk in a law office, but was 
discharged because he refused to copy into 
a brief a paragraph that was not law. His 
last occupation in Australia was that of herd- 
ing sheep. After his return to San Francisco 
he was engaged to argue a famous land case 
before the U. S. Supreme Court. By his ef- 
fort in that court he showed himself to be 
the equal of the best lawyer in the land. He 



returned from Washington in 1856. In the 
fall of 1857 he sailed for the Isthmus en route 
to New York, on professional business. At 
Aspinwall he connected with the Central 
America on her last voyage. She was wrecked 
in a storm and not a single passenger was 

Judge Richards continues his reminiscences 
by the following stor}': "The account of 
Lockwood's death recalls the manner of dy- 
ing of another member of our early bar, of 
whom I have written — Freeman McKinney. 
AVhen Flenry A. Crabbe conceived his fatal 
filibustering expedition into Sonera in 1857 
he attracted a number of brilliant but adven- 
turous characters to his company, and among 
these was Freeman McKinney. Doubtless the 
expedition was entered upon in good faith by 
many of Crabbe's followers, who were led to 
believe that an actual revolution was in prog- 
ress in Sonora. McKinney was captured and 
shot. He met death like a brave man. 

"Still ancither story has been told of Judge 
Redman. One day as he sat in his court 
room, with his clerk, H. C. Melone, writing 
below him, J. Alexander Yoell entered. His 
business was with Melone, wdio was a large 
man of strong likes and dislikes, and of cjuick 
temper — a typical border character. Between 
himself and Yoell a misunderstanding oc- 
curred, which on Melone's part ripened at 
once into a row and he pitched into Yoell. The 
Judge sat quietly viewing and enjoying the 
tussle and making no effort to stop it until 
some gentlemen entered and separated the 
combatants. Then turning to the Judge, with 
some indignation, he said, 'You're a pretty 
specimen of a Judge to sit there and permit a 
personal encounter to go on in your court.' 
'My friend,' said Judge Redman, calml}--, 'What 
could I do? The Legislature in its wisdom has 
not seen fit to provide my court with a 
bailiff, and hence I could not order them 
into custody. The clerk, you see was en- 
gaged, and I could not have entered a 
fine ; and if I had descended from the 
bench to interfere I would cease to be 
Judge and would be no better than any 
other fool in the court room.' I am told that 
when this yarn was told to Stephen J. Field 
of the Supreme Court, the eminent jurist 
laughingly declared that Judge Redman's po- 
sition was correct. 

"It may be gathered from some of these 
sketches that the lawyers of our early times 
did not always have their law books, either 
when out of court in the day time, or be- 
tween days when they burned the midnight 
oil. Nearly all of the pioneers of the bar 
played cards and often enjoyed the game 
greater when the pot was a big one and the 

bets were high. Here is an incident of one 
of those heavy earthquakes which visited the 
Coast and struck terror to the heart of its 
denizens during the '50s, and before the aver- 
age man grew accustomed to 'temblors'. One 
day William T. W^allace, John H. Moore, J. 
A. Moultrie and a layman or two were having 
a quiet game in one of the adobes near the 
court house. The pot was large, the bets were 
made and ended, and a show-down was about 
to be made when the earthquake came. Every- 
Ijody made for the street as earthquake-shaken 
people onl}- can. After the danger was over, 
the players remembered their game and re- 
turned to the adobe. The 'pot' was still there, 
but every player, save one, had lost his hand 
somewhere in the panic. That one was 'Bill' 
Wallace, who, with a presence of mind which 
was characteristic, produced the cards he had 
clung to tJiroughout the earthquake, and 
claimed the pot. The hand was a low one, 
but he dared the rest to show a higher, and 
when none of them could, he raked the pot. 
"When Judge Redman resigned his office of 
county juclge in 1852, C. E. Allen was appoint- 
ed to serve out his unexpired term, which he 
did with great credit to himself and to the 
court. After him came R. B. Buckner, who 
was elected in 1853. We all remember Judge 
Buckner and his quaint ways of dispensing 
justice from his bench as justice of the peace 
in modern days. On the old-time county 
bench he was much the same in method, as 
the following incident will illustrate : One 
party had leased a piece of land to another 
for a term, which ended, and he removed 
from the land leaving behind him a quantity 
of compost, which later he tried to remove, 
but was prevented by the owner of the land. 
The tenant brought a replevin suit against his 
former landlord for possession of the compost, 
in Judge Buckner's court. The case dragged 
on while the lawyers disputed in briefs and 
arguments about the law. of fixtures, and the 
principles governing the change of personal 
into real property. At last the actual trial 
came on, when the defendant proved that since 
the case was commenced his chickens had 
so scattered the compost that it had lost its 
identity and become mingled with the soil 
of his land. Judge Buckner chewed his in- 
variable 'quid' calmly until the time for pro- 
nouncing judgment came. He then rendered 
his decision as follows: 'This case has been 
argued learnedly by the lawyers on both sides, 
who have drawn fine distinctions between per- 
sonal and real property. The court does not, 
however, deem it necessary to draw any such 
nice distinctions, for the reason that the evi- 
dence shows that while the action has been 
pending the defendant's chickens have scat- 



tered the property in controversy beyond 
identification, and have thereby Hterally 
scratched the plaintiff's ca.5e out of court.' 

"The iirst legislature of California, which 
met in the fall of 1S49 in San Jose, provided 
the state with a judicial system, consisting of 
a Supreme Court and nine District Courts, 
which met in as many judicial districts 
throughout the State. The counties of Santa 
Clara, Contra Costa, Santa Cruz and Monte- 
rey constituted the Third Judicial District un- 
der this statute, and John H. Watson was ap- 
pointed its judge. Judge Watson was a man 
of considerable abilit)', but of not a very vast 
fund of legal knowledge. He it was who de- 
livered the famous and humorous charge to the 
jury at Monterey in the case of Dean vs. Mc- 
Kinley, and which has heretofore been record- 
ed. One da}' while the Judge was traveling 
from San Jose to Santa Cruz (to held court 
there) in company with several members of 
the bar of his district, among whom was R. 
F. Peckham, the latter began to poke fun 
at Judge Watson for his charge to the jury 
in the McKinle}' case. 'Now, Peckham,' said 
the Judge, 'don't you think I do about as well 
as any one else who don't know any more law 
than I do?' 'Before I can answer that ques- 
tion, Jndge,' answered Peckham, 'I would have 
to ascertain just how much law you do know.' 
•' 'Well, to tell the truth, Peckham, T don't 
know any, for I never read a law book in my 
life.' 'Well,' laughed Peckham, T must say that 
for a judge who never read a law book you do 
remarkabl}- well, but how do you manage to 
get along with your cases?' 'I'll tell you the 
secretji Peckham,' said Judge Watson, '1 make 
use of two presumptions in the trial of my 
cases. When I have heard the evidence I first 
presume what the law ought to be to do jus- 
tice between the parties, and after I have set- 
tled that presumption I next presume that the 
law is what it ought to be, and give judg- 
ment accordingly.' 

"Here is another instance of Judge Wat- 
son's affection for presumptions. One day 
Tames M. Jones was arguing a case before 
Watson, which involved some proposition of 
the old Spanish law. Watson didn't understand 
Spanish, and hence Jones had to both read 
and translate the law which he claimed would 
sustain his case. Judge Watson didn't like the 
law which Jones was evolving from the Span- 
ish text and after awhile he said : 'Mr. Jones, 
the Court has no doubt that you are correct- 
ly translating that statute and that it at one 
time was the Spanish law ; but that statute is 
so absurd and unjust as applied to the facts 
in this case that the Court is going to pre- 
sume that the law you are citing has been re- 

pealed.' Of course such presumption was in- 
disputable and Jones lost his case. 

"The term of Judge Watson's service on the 
district bench was ended in 1851 by his sud- 
den resignation and return to the practice of 
law. John H. Moore was then district attor- 
ney, and being a young, vigorous and prosper- 
ous attorney, he gained many convictions. 
Judge Watson saw this criminal business 
growing in his court, and saw also Moore's 
success. He had some abilities as an orator, 
had the Judge, and he conceived the idea that 
he could make a fortune defending criminals. 
So one da}' he resigned and at once opened 
a law office. Meeting Moore afterward he told 
him of his plans and rather boastingly informed 
the young district attorney that the day of his 
success as a prosecutor was passed. Moore ad- 
vised him not to be too confident until he had 
won a case or two. The very next case which 
came up for trial was the case of one Basquiz 
for horse stealing. The penalty for this of- 
fense was at that time capital unless the jury 
fixed a lesser punishment, but District Attor- 
ney Moore, not believing in the harsh law, had 
never }'et asked a jury to permit the extreme 
penalty. When Judge Watson, however, vol- 
unteered to defend this horse-thief, Moore told 
him that he had a bad case and that his client 
might hang. The Judge, however, was confi- 
dent of his power before a jury, and the case 
came on. Upon the argument Judge Watson 
spread himself in a wild flight of oratory, but 
all in vain, for the jury stayed with Moore and 
brought in a prompt verdict for conviction 
without limitation, and Judge Watson's first 
client was hanged. 

"Upon the retirement of Judge Watson, 
Craven P. Hester, Esq., was appointed in his 
stead. Judge Hester was a native of Indiana, 
where he studied law and practiced it for some 
years before coming to San Jose. He brought 
to the bar of San Jose a fine reputation as a 
lawyer and as a man of high sense of profes- 
sional and personal honor. His appointment 
in 1859 to Judge Watson's vacant seat gave 
general satisfaction and when the general elec- 
tion came a year later he was chosen to serve 
for a term of six years as district judge. A 
great many important cases were tried before 
Judge Hester and the ablest lawyers in the 
state of California practiced in his court. ' The 
sessions of the District Court were held in the 
State House until it was destroyed by fire in 
1853, when the county provided them with 
quarters in the frame building which was re- 
cently removed from the southeast corner of 
Second and San Fernando streets. There for 
several years Judge Hester held his court. 
There occasionally came such lawyers as Lock- 



wood and Randolph and Baker and other bril- 
liant men from the bar of the State. 

"When the judicial term of Judge Hester ex- 
pired he was not re-elected, and as I am told, 
for a peculiar reason. In the district of Judge 
Hester there were many lawyers of several de- 
grees of merit. The leader of the San Jose 
bar was William T. Wallace during the '50s. 
The leader of the Monterey bar was D. R. 
Ashley, and of the Santa Cruz bar was R. F. 
Peckham during the same period. This trio 
of lawyers each worked hard at their cases, 
tried them well, and in- consequence, were very 
successful each at his own bar. Their suc- 
cess made other lawyers of less studious hab- 
its jealous, and as the time for another elec- 
tion came on, they spread the campaign rumor 
that this trio of lawyers 'owned' Judge Hes- 
ter and that he always decided their way. The 
opposition nominated Samuel Bell McKee 
upon this issue and succeeded in electing him. 
Accordingly Judge McKee became district 
judge in 1858, and remained so until the change 
in the district made in 1872, by which the old 
Third with some variations became the Twen- 
tieth Judicial District and David Belden, Esq., 
was elected as judge." 

This concludes the excerpts from Judge 
Richards' article. There are, however, more 
stories about that eccentric character, J. Alex- 
ander Yoell. He was one of the ablest law- 
yers of the early days but his peculiar dis- 
position kept him continually in hot water. He 
was fiery, impetuous and quick to take ofifense 
and could not control his tongue. If the num- 
ber of times he was fined for contempt of court 
could be ascertained it would take up a whole 
page of this history. William Matthews was 
another old time attorney. He was a South- 
erner, polite, precise, dignified and of undoubt- 
ed courage. Once he and Yoell opposed each 
other in a court case. During the trial Yoell 
became angry at some remark of Matthews' 
and made a vitriolic reply. The next instant 
an ink bottle caromed on Yoell's forehead, the 
ink running in little rivulets down his face. 
His right hand went quickly toward his hip 
pocket, but before the hand reached the pocket, 
the muzzles of two derringer pistols were 
pointed at his head. "Hands up !" sternly 
commanded Matthews. Yoell's hands went up 
immediately. Then he said in a shaking voice 
as he spat out the ink which had dribbled 
over his upper lip: "Good God, Matthews, 
won't you let me get out my handkerchief?" 

Another lawyer with whom Yoell had fre- 
quent spats was C. C. Stephens, now a resi- 
dent of Los Angeles. A will case was on trial 
before Judge Belden. Stephens appeared for 
the proponent, Yoell for the respondent. One 

of Stephens' witnesses met Yoell on the street 
and after a short talk about the case the wit- 
ness was advised by Yoell not to testify un- 
til after he had received his fee. Yoell be- 
lieved that Stephens was short of money and 
that the demand of the witness would not be 
complied w^ith. Therefore the trial would ei- 
ther be delayed or valuable testimony for the 
proponent would be lost. The witness prom- 
ised to follow the advice and in due time was 
called to the stand. Before taking the oath 
he said to Stephens : "I want my fee before 
I testify." Stephens fished out a handful of 
loose change and then said: "Be sworn and 
then I talk turkey." The witness took the 
oath and then waited for the payment of the 
fee. "One moment," said Stephens, "I've got 
to figure this out. You live in Berryessa and 
the mileage is — hold on, I've forgotten some- 
thing. Before we go any further, I must make 
sure you are the witness I want. Were you 
present when the will was signed?" "Yes," 
replied the unsuspecting witness. "Did you 
witness the signature?" "Yes, of course I did." 
"Then you are the man and that's all I want 
of _you. Mr. Yoell, you may have the wit- 
ness." So saying Stephens put back his money 
and grinned at Yoell, whose face was black 
with rage. "You're a pettifogger," Yoell 
shouted. "Mr. Yoell," admonished the Court, 
"I can not permit the use of such language." 
"But he's a pettifogger," raved Yoell, "and 
he's cheating this witness." "Sit down," was 
the stern command from the bench. "Mr. 
Yoell, you are fined fifty dollars for contempt 
of court. Mr. Sheriff take him into custody 
and keep him confined until the fine i^ paid." 
In the late '608 W. Frank Stewart, as jus- 
tice of the peace, held court in a small room 
on South Market street near Santa Clara street. 
Stewart was a queer genius and no one who 
ever saw and talked with him will ever forget 
him. He was over six feet in height and bony 
and angular. In many respects he bore a 
marked resemblance to z\braham Lincoln, 
though his features were of a sterner type. 
He was a Southerner, with the sensitiveness 
of a woman and the fearlessness of a crusader. 
His life had been an adventurous one. He had 
fought in the Mexican war, filibustered in 
Mexico with Walker, been editor, miner, poet, 
geological expert, saloon-keeper, merchant and 
justice of the peace and was quite capable 
of filling any office within the gift of the peo- 
ple. After he left San Jose, he went to Ne- 
vada, became state senator, afterward state 
mineralogist and died in the early '80s. As 
a justice he was just in his decisions but very 
testy and severe with lawyers who attempted 
pettifogging. J. Alexander Yoell was a source 
of constant annoyance to Stewart. Yoell was 



fiery and irrepressible and paid not the slight- 
est regard to the orders and rules of the 
Court. One day Stewart's wrath at Yoell's 
actions exceeded all bounds. One fine for con- 
tempt was succeeded by another until the 
amount reached a thousand dollars. Then 
Stewart used language unfit for print. The at- 
torney replied by throwing an ink bottle at the 
Justice's Ijead. Stewart dodged the missile, 
then got to his feet. 'T will adjourn Court 
five minutes." he said, "while I lick the" (the 
words are unprintable). Putting on his hat 
and grasping his cane he started for the bench. 
Yoell, realizing that Stewart meant business 
went out of the door hke a flash and tore up 
the street. Stewart, raging like a mad bull 
plunged after him and business on Santa Clara 
street was suspended while the chase contin- 
ued. But Yoell was the better sprinter and a 
physical conflict did not take place. 

While Stewart was holding court on South 
Market street, Jo Johnson, a Southerner, who 
had been bailiff of Judge Redman's court, was 
administering justice on the lower floor of the 
old city hall on North Market street. J. Al- 
exander Yoell and W. H. Collins were legal 
rivals in a petty case. Yoell's exasperating 
tactics so wrought upon Collins' nerves that 
the two attorneys soon came to blows. While 
they were rolling upon the floor like two angry 
cats Johnson left the bench, cane in hand, and 
standing over the combatants regarded them 
for a moment with an amused smile. Then he 
raised his cane and whack! it came down on 
Yoell's head; Yoell ceased to struggle and lay 
still. Then Collins got to his knees and was 
about to speak when whack ! from the cane 
and Collins straightened out and for a time 
ceased to take any interest in court room af- 
fairs. Later, when heads had been bandaged 
fines were imposed only to be remitted when 
humble apologies had been made. 

The County Court went out of existence witli 
the adoption of the new constitution in 1879. 
The judges were as follows: J. W. Redman, R. 
B. Buckner, John H. Moore, Isaac N. Senter, 
Lawrence Archer, R. I. Barnett and D. S. 

The first grand jury of the county was com- 
posed of the following persons: Charles 
White, foreman; James F. Reed, William 
Campbell, David Dickey, William Higgins, 
G. W. Bellamy, Jeptha Osborn, J. W. McClel- 
land, Arthur Shearer, C. Campbell, Lewis 
Cory, W. G. Banden, James Murphy, R. M. 
May, James Appleton, Carolan Matthews, F. 
Lightston, W. Hoover, C. Clayton, J. D. Curd. 

The first court house was the old Juzgado, 
fronting the plaza, which at that time extend- 
ed north to or beyond First Street. It was not 
well adapted to the purpose and in 1850 the 

court was removed to a two-story adobe build- 
ing on the west side of First Street opposite 
Fountain Alley. It occui)ied this buikling 
until the latter part of 1851, when it was for a 
short time held in the Bella Union building on 
Santa Clara Street. From there it went to the 
State House building, near the corner of Mar- 
ket and San Antonio streets, where it re- 
mained until that building was burned down. 
It then went into temporary cjuarters at the 
city hall, then located on Lightston Street, be- 
tween Santa Clara and El Dorado. In the 
meantime the county had purchased a lot at 
the southeast corner of Second and Santa 
Clara Streets and the buildings were fitted up 
to accommodate the county offices and courts. 
Here the department of justice rested until 
1868. when it took quarters in the Murphy 
block at the southeast corner of Market and 
Santa Clara Streets. Its stay here was only 
for a few weeks, for in the same year the 
present court house was completed and ready 
for occupancy. 

The Third Judicial District bench was occu- 
pied by Judges Watson, Hester and Sam Bell 
McKee. The legislature of 1871-72 created a 
new judicial district, which was called the 
Twentieth and composed of the counties of 
Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Monterey. Hon. 
David Belden was appointed jud^"e of the new 
district and he remained in the position until 
the reorganization of the judicial system in 
1880. Under the new system Santa Clara 
county was allowed two judges, and at the 
election in 1879 David Belden and Francis E. 
Spencer were chosen. The great learning and 
sound reasoning of these two jurists gave the 
bench of Santa Clara County a reputation sec- 
ond to none in the Union. Many times had 
these learned judges been called upon to pre- 
side at trials of important cases elsewhere, 
and hardly ever was the calendar called that 
it did not disclose some suit of magnitude sent 
to them for adjudication from other counties. 
Judge Belden died May 14, 1888. and a few 
years later Judge Spencer passed to his re- 
ward. At Judge Belden's death the whole 
state mourned. While his wonderful learning 
excited admiration and his strict integrity in- 
duced respect, no less did his warm, sympa- 
thetic nature command the af5e.-.'tion of all with 
whom he came in contact. He was simple in 
his habits and unostentatious in his appear- 
ance. Any one could approach him and draw 
at will on his great stores of knowledge, while 
neither his heart nor his purse was closed to a 
tale of distress. Judge Spencer said of him : 
"He was a truly remarkable man. Many have 
gone before him whose legal attainments have 
been equal to his. Others may have equally 
possessed the treasure of masterly eloquence, 



but it has never been my fortune to find com- 
bined in any other person so many rare ana 
g-lowing qualities of heart, brain c;nd personal 
accomplishments. As an orator it has been 
truly said of him that he possessed 'a tongue 
of silver' ; his command of language was won- 
derful, his selections bea'utiful and most 
happy. He was wont at times with his bursts 
of eloquence to hold his listeners delighted 
and entranced. Although his delivery was 
rapid, he never hesitated for an apt word or 
sentence. His words came skipping rank and 
file almost before he would. As a jurist he 
had few superiors. Well grounded in the ele- 
ments of law, and conversant with the mass of 
judicial precedents, he added that rare percep- 
tion of principles applicable to any given set 
of facts, and that peculiarly incisive power of 
reasoning that makes the true lawyer. He 
was a just judge, a wise interpreter of the lavv' 
and evidence, and withal simple and unassum- 
ing in manner and sympathetic almost to a 

Judge Spencer was a man of profound legal 
attainments. He was admitted to the bar in 
1858 and in 1863 was appointed city attorney, 
a position he held for seventeen years. Here 
he made a record that established his reputa- 
tion for legal learning and as a man of great 
resource. In two suits he not only relieved 
the city from indebtedness but removed the 
last cloud from the title of every foot of land 
in the city. He held the office of district at- 
torney for two terms and refused a nomina- 
tion for a third. In 1871 he was elected a 
member of the Assembly and was made chair- 
man of the judiciary committee of that body. 
One notable peculiarity of his work was the 
care with which he prepared his cases for trial. 
No point was too insignificant to be thorough- 
ly investigated and the law and the authori- 
ties thoroughly collated. All his knowledge, 
which included anatomy, engineering, geol- 
ogy, metallurgy and mechanical appliances, 
he carried with him to the bench. Besides 
his great learning and sound judgment, two 
other qualities stood out prominently in his 
administration of justice — the firmness and 
dignity with which the affairs of his tribunal 
were conducted and the uniform courtesy 
which was extended from the Bench to the 
Bar and to all others who appeared in his 
court. When the Leland Stanford Jr. Uni- 
versity was established. Judge Spencer was 
selected as a member of the board of trustees 
and how well he served the university every 
person of intelligence in Santa Clara County 

At the death of Judge Belden, John Rey- 
nolds, one of the leaders of the San Jose bar, 

was appointed in his place. He, too, has been 
dead for many years. He was methodical, 
painstaking and careful, while his learning 
and high character eminently fitted him for 
his appointment to the bench. 

In 1897 another change in the judicial sys- 
tem of Santa Clara County took place. The 
Superior Court was given three judges, in- 
stead of two. Upon inauguration gi the new 
system, the business was divided so that one 
court did all the probate business, .1 second the 
criminal business and the third, the civil busi- 
ness, though each department could handle 
business of either of the other two depart- 
ments, in case of overflow. The judges of the 
Superior Court under the newest system are 
as follows : A. S. Kittredge, Judge A. L. 
Rhodes, W. G. Lorigan. S. F. Leib, H. D. Tut- 
tle, John E. Richards, J. R. Welch, M. H. Hy- 
land, P. F. Gosbey and W. A. Beasly. Kit- 
tredge was appointed by the governor as the 
first judge of the new department. At his 
death in 1899 Judge Rhodes was appointed to 
the position and held it until he resigned. His 
place was filled by John E. Richards, who ad- 
ministered justice from the bench until pro- 
moted to be judge of the Appellate Court. 
Leib and Tuttle served each but short terms 
to fill a vacancy in Department 1, caused by 
the election of Judge Lorigan to the Supreme 
Bench in 1903. The judges on the bench at 
this writing (1922) are J. R. AVelch, P. F. Gos- 
bey and F. B. Brown. 

Judge A. L. Rhodes, who died in 1919, aged 
ninety-seven years, was one of the ablest jur- 
ists in the state. As the oldest member of the 
California bar he enjoyed the love and admira- 
tion not only of the bar but also of his fellow- 
citizens, irrespective of class, condition or re- 
ligion. He was a pioneer lawyer in San Jose 
when he was elevated to the State Supreme 
Bench, a position he held for several terms. 
He had gone into retirement when he was 
called upon to assume judicial duties in the 
Santa Clara County Superior Court and he 
could have held the position to an indefinite 
period if his age had permitted. The wdiole 
bar of the state went into mourning when his 
death was announced. 

Judge Lorigan, wdio died in 1918, while 
holding office as a supreme judge, was one of 
the most popular jurists Santa Clara County 
ever produced. He was a graduate of Santa 
Clara College, studied law in San Jose, did 
newspaper work on the side, served as justice 
of the peace and superior judge and estab- 
lished such a record for probity and learning 
that his appointment to the Supreme Bench 
was generally applauded. Honest, faithful 
and well-beloved, he met death bravely. 


Topography and Geology — History of the New Almaden Mines — Crime in 
the Early Days — The Mineral Springs of Santa Clara County — The Oil 

The great Santa Clara Valley is but a por- 
tion of that vast plain that stretches from the 
Golden Gate on the north to the old mission 
town of San Jnan on the south, a distance of 
ninety miles. AVhen first peopled the whole 
was known as San Bernardino. It is oval in 
form and attains its greatest width near Mt. 
Bache, where it is about fifteen miles. About 
four miles from San Jose and apparently 
forming a barrier across the valley are a chain 
of low hills called the Hills of Tears. But the 
obstruction is only apparent. About eight 
miles from this point the valley contracts to 
a width of about three miles and so continues 
for some six miles, when it again expands to a 
breadth of nearly six miles and then sweeps 
out to end a few miles beyond Hollister in 
San Benito County. 

A chain of mountains hems in the valley on 
either side, running northwest and southeast. 
From the time of its entry into the county the 
eastern range rapidly rises, becomes broader 
and ver}^ rough, having many elevated points 
about it until it culminates on the summit of 
Mt. Hamilton, nearly east of San Jose and 
4.443 feet above the level of the sea. The 
range then decreases in height to Pacheco 
Pass, east of Gilroy, the loftiest point of which 
is 1,470 feet. The western range near the 
famous New Almaden mines is crowned by 
two magnificent peaks that stand like stal- 
wart sentinels guarding the precious treasures 
which lie concealed in the yet unexplored 
storehouses of their lesser brethren around. 

In the canyons and slopes of the western 
chain are to be found growing in full vigor 
the useful redwood ^(Sequoia sempervirens) 
as well as many oaks and madrona. On the 
eastern range comparatively few trees are 
found, but its swelling undulations, pictur- 
esque ravines and wealth of natural beauty, 
pleases the eye and affords a marked contrast 
to the forests of the other side. 

At a distance of about twenty-five miles 
from San Jose Coyote Creek has its birth, and 
after springing into vigor leaves its cradle, 
joyously leaping and splashing among the 
roots of trees and playing around the smooth 
worn sides of boulders until it reaches the 
pastoral valley, where it assumes a more staid 
demeanor and languidly flows in many a 

cur\e, at last finding an end in the waters of 
San Francisco Bay. 

The next most important creek of Santa 
Clara County is the Guadalupe, so named after 
the patron saint of Mexico. It rises in the 
Sousal, about three miles southwest of San 
Jose, is fed by many tributaries and streams 
and runs in a northerly direction until it 
Comes near the city, where it takes a north- 
easterly course and empties into San Fran- 
cisco Bay near the moutl^ of the Coyote. Other 
streams are the Los Gatos, having its source 
in the Santa Cruz Mountains, and emptying 
into the Guadalupe at the foot of Santa Clara 
Street : the Almaden, the Llagas and the Uvas, 
south of San Jose and the Santa Ysabel, Smith 
Creek and the Arro^'o Honda in the eastern 

The geological and mineralogical features 
of Santa Clara County are of no little impor- 
tance. Beginning with the eastern foothills 
there is a center of metamorphic cretaceous 
rocks, flanked by an enormous thickness of 
unaltered cretaceous strata, the latter consist- 
ing of sandstone with inter-stratified shales. 
A coarse conglomerate, the boulders in which 
are metamorphic rock, differing from that 
comprising the main mass of the mountains, is 
to be found on the outer margin of the hills 
toward the San Joaquin plains. The unaltered 
tertiary and cretaceous strata flank the entire 
range on the eastern side as far north as its 
junction with the Sierra Nevadas. The ab- 
sence of the tertiar}^ is marked by the precipi- 
tous nature of the range where it joins the 
plains, as opposed to the low-rolling hills 
where the tertiary overlies the cretaceous. 

Along the eastern flank, the tertiary, as far 
as known, rests conformably upon the creta- 
ceous. The metamorphic rocks have the same 
general character, being marked by jaspers, 
serpentine and occasionall}', mica slate. Their 
limits are well indicated by the growth of for- 
est trees. The summit of Pacheco Pass, as 
well as of those of other and higher peaks in a 
line crossing the range obliquely to the south- 
east, are of trachyte. This is the first known 
appearance of eruptive rock in the main 
Mount Diablo Range south of Suisun Bay. 
The tertiary is more extensively developed on 
the western than on the eastern side toward 



the north. The hills bordering the Santa Clara 
Valley on the east belong to this period. The 
rocks are altered in places. A tertiary ridge 
extends to the northwest, separating Santa 
Clara and Calaveras Valleys. 

The geology of the belt of elevated land be- 
tween Santa Clara Valley, the Bay of San 
Francisco, and the ocean, is rendered some- 
what complicated by the intrusion of granitic 
rocks among the tmaltered cretaceous and ter- 
tiary strata of which these hills are chieily 
formed. Besides this geological formation, 
rocks similar in lithological character to those 
in the Mt. Diablo Range are found. Fossils 
sparingly are shown. A metamorphic belt ex- 
tends from Redwood City, San Mateo County, 
to the southeast for a distance of about forty 
miles, forming the eastern end of the ridge 
and the summit of Mount Bache, 3,780 feet in 
height, and of other high points. Limestone 
in detached masses occurs at several places 
throughout this belt. Evidences of what was 
once, in all probabilit}^, a complete limestone 
belt, are found at various places, from the 
summit of Black Mountain, back of Mountain 
View, to as far south as the New Almaden 
mines, which lie in a ridge northwest of that 
formed by the metamorphic mass of Mounts 
Bache, Chaoal and others. It is to be seen on 
Los Gatos Creek, dipping to the northeast, 
and is less altered there than at other places 
where it is hard and compact, though not 

The New Almaden Mines. 

By far the most interesting and important 
feature of the range is the presence of the ex- 
tensive deposits of cinnabar in the metamor- 
phic cretaceous rocks at the New Almaden 
mines, fourteen miles southwest of San Jose 
and lying in a ridge east of the main range. 

The history of the mines has never been 
presented in better form than by the late Mrs. 
Carrie Stevens Walter, mother of Roy Walter, 
city auditor, Mrs. Charles M. Shortridge of 
Oakland, and 2\Iary Walter of Los Angeles. 
It appeared in a handbook of Santa Clara 
County published by E. S. Harrison in 1887 
and is as follows : 

''Almaden — from two Araljic words, al, 'the', 
and maden, 'mine' — was given to the most fa- 
mous quicksilver mine in the world, located in 
Spain. Its namesake in Santa Clara County, 
having no superior, with the single exception 
above mentioned, deserves more than a pass- 
ing notice in a work of this character. The 
New Almaden cjuicksilver mine is situated 
about fourteen miles southwest of San Jose, 
in a low range of hills running parallel to the 
Coast Range. Tradition states that this mine 
was known to the native Indians nearly a cen- 

tury ago, and that they used the ore to form a 
pigment paste by pounding and moistening it. 
In 1824 the existence of the mine was made 
known to Don Antonio Sunol, who worked it 
for silver, but not finding this metal, and not 
suspecting the real nature of the deposit, 
abandoned it at the end of a year. In Novem- 
ber, 1845, a Mexican officer named Andres 
Castillero, visiting at Santa Clara Mission, 
was shown some of the ore, and while experi- 
menting for silver, discovered quicksilver. He 
at once filed his right to the mine as a discov- 
erer, according to the Mexican and Spanish 
law, after which he formed a stock company, 
dividing the mine into twenty-four shares. An 
American named William G. Chard was then 
employed, who commenced the reduction by 
charging a gun barrel with small pieces of ore, 
stopping the vent with clay, placing the muz- 
zle into a barrel of water and building a fire 
around the other end. The mercury, being 
driven otT by the heat in the form of a vapor, 
passed out at the muzzle, was condensed in 
the water and precipitated in the form of 
liquid quicksilver. Three or four gun barrels 
were thus employed for several weeks. Six 
whalers' try-pots were next obtained, capable 
of holding three or four tons of ore, and a sort 
of furnace formed by inverting three over the 
other three, by which some two thousand 
pounds of metal were reduced. About this 
time — 1846 — the mine was visited by Captain 
Fremont, who established its ^'alue at $30,000. 
Soon after this Barron, Forbes & Co., of 
Tepic, Mexico, became the principal stock- 
holders and in 1847, J. Alexander Forbes, of 
the firm, arrived \A'ith laborers, funds and ev- 
erything necessary to the proper working of 
the mine. A thorough examination ga.Ye so 
much promise that work was prosecuted with 
A'igor. In 1850 furnaces were first constructed 
and large quantities of ore reduced under the 
superintendence nf the late Gen. H. W. Hal- 
leck. As the true value of the mine became 
apparent disputes concerning the title arose. 
The compau}' bought in two titles for protec- 
tion. But matters liecame so complicated that 
in 1858 an injunction ^^•as placed on the mine, 
A\hich remained until February, 1861, during 
\\-hich time no work was done. In 1864 the 
company disposed of the mine and all the im- 
provements, including, 8,580 acres of land, for 
$1,700,000, to a company chartered under the 
laws of New York and Pennsylvania, as 'The 
QuicksiKer Mining Company.' 

"The workings of the mine past and present 
extend over an area the extreme limits of 
which could barely be included within a rect- 
angular block 5,000 feet long from north to 
south, 6,000 feet wide from east to west and 
2,300 feet in depth, counting from the summit 



of mine hill, the upward limit of the ore de- 
posit. The workings do not cover all the 
area here indicated, but are very irregularly 
distributed within it. Mining experts will 
readily understand from this, "but also from 
the fact that ore bodies seem to obey no spe- 
cial law of distribution, but are a puzzle to 
geologists, the difliculty offered in the work- 
ing of this mine. In its famous rival, Almaden 
of Spain, the ore bodies are placed with re- 
markable regularity, increasing in richness as 
depth is obtained, and all included in a rect- 
angular block 700 feet long by 350 broad, and 
1,027 in depth. It may be interesting to pur- 
sue this comparison a little further. For in- 
stance : The average salary paid to workmen 
at the Spanish mine is sixty cents per day ; at 
the New Almaden, about two dollars and forty 
cents. The number of workers employed at 
the Old Almaden, 3,126; at New Almaden, 
-k50. The jneld per ton of ore at New Al- 
maden average more than twenty pounds of 
quicksilver ; at Old Almaden the general av- 
erage is about 200 pounds of quicksilver to 
the ton ; the average cost of extracting per 
tiask of seventy-six and one-half pounds at 
Old Almaden is $7.10; at New Almaden the 
cost is $26.38. It is safe to alfirm that had the 
Spanish mine the same difficulties to overcome 
in working as are encountered at New Al- 
maden, it would long since have shut down, 
despite the Rothschilds, it lessees. These facts 
naturally lead one to inquire something of the 
management of the Santa Clara County Al- 
maden. The mine came under the control of 
J. B. Randol in 1870. At that time there was 
an interest-bearing debt against the property 
of $1,500,000. The amount of ore in sight was 
discouragingly small, the extraction very 
costly and the stockholders were so pushed to 
carry on the workings of the mine that they 
were compelled to raise $200,000 by subscrip- 
tion. The systems of working the mine were 
crude and expensive, furnaces and condensers 
imperfect, and the mine developed only to the 
800 foot level, with one main shaft. Much of 
the ore was brought from lower to higher 
levels in bags made of ox-hide, carried by 
Mexicans by means of a strap over the fore- 
head — from 140 to 200 pounds being conveyed 
at a load. In 1886, exploration and exploita- 
tion had been made in mine shafts, six of 
which were in active operation ; there is a net- 
work of underground passages aggregating 
nearly fifty miles in length ; mining work is 
carried on to a depth of 2,300 feet, while the 
machinery is the most complete and econom- 
ical in the world. In those sixteen years 318,- 
000 flasks of quicksilver have been reduced, 
over $5,000,000 disbursed for labor, and yet 
with a total profit to the owners of more than 

$4,000,000. The funded debt has been paid, 
large amounts expended in permanent im- 
provements and over $1,000,000 declared in 
dividends. Up to 1887 more than half the 
world's supply of quicksilver came from Cali- 
fornia. A greater portion of this came from 
New Almaden. 

"In those earlier days the social condition 
of the workmen, who were mostly Mexicans, 
was inferior. The place was noted for law- 
lessness and was a rendezvous for Mexican 
banditti. Little restraint was exercised over 
the men and gambling, drinking and other ex- 
cesses were common. Large wages were paid 
and it was no uncommon occurrence for a 
man to be killed after pay day. Then there 
were no advantages of church or schools. 
A'Vater for drinking and cooking was carried 
on donkeys and sold by the pailful." 

Crime in the Early Days. 

The historian will leave Mrs. Walter's des- 
cription for awhile to refer to some of the law- 
less characters who held forth at New Al- 
maden in the early days. 

In 1855 a quartet of outlaws, with head- 
quarters at New Almaden, terrorized vSanta 
Clara County. The- leader was one Francisco 
Garcia, commonly called "Negro" Garcia on 
account of his Afro-Mexican origin, and his 
associates were Indian Juan, Bias Angelino 
and Sebastiano Flores. In the fall of 1855 In- 
dian Juan concluded to turn over a new leaf. 
He would sever his connection with the gang, 
go to Mexico and lead an honest life. This 
intention was communicated to Garcia and 
a demand was made for a division of the 
spoils acquired in the band's many raids. Gar- 
cia refused to make the division and hard 
words following culminating in Indian Juan's 
threat to go to San Jose and .give himself up 
to the officers. Garcia, fearing that Juan 
would expose the lawless operations of the 
quartet, resolved to get him out of the way. 
On the 15th of December Garcia and Bias 
Angelino waylaid and killed Juan. Flores had 
been asked to assist in the affair and had re- 
fused. He was, however, a witness to the kill- 
ing which was done so suddenly that he was 
unable to prevent it. This was the story he 
told when he appeared before S. O. Houghton, 
mayor of San Jose, and swore to a complaint 
charging Garcia and Angelino with murder. 
Angelino was arrested, tried, convicted and 
hanged. Garcia escaped and for seventeen 
years kept out of the way of the officers. In 
1872 Sheriff John H. Adams, of Santa Clara 
County, learned that the fugitive was in Los 
Angeles. A telegraphic warrant led to the ar- 
rest. The prisoner was brought to San Jose 


to await trial for a murder committed seven- 
teen years before. The historian saw him 
when he was in jail. He was then over sixty 
years of age, gray-haired and gray-bearded. 
He refused to discuss the crime of 1855 or to 
express any opinion on the action of Sebas- 
tiano Flores. At the trial Flores appeared as 
state's witness and the late Judge Francis E. 
Spencer defended the prisoner. In 1855 Bias 
Angelino had been convicted on both direct 
and circumstantial evidence. In 1872, on ac- 
count of the lapse of time, no circumstantial 
evidence to supplement the testimony of 
Flores was forthcoming. It was therefore 
Flores' word against the word of Garcia. This 
raised a doubt and the jur}^ resolved the doubt 
in favor of the defendant and acquitted him. 
But this was not the end of the matter. A few 
months later Garcia and Flores met near the 
Mission of San Jose. There was a cjuarrel 
which resulted in the killing of Garcia. Flores 
surrendered himself to the officers and in due 
time was placed on trial for murder. The tes- 
timony showed that Garcia was the aggressor 
and Flores was found not guilty. 

Francisco (Pancho) Soto lived for some 
time at the New Almaden mines. The his- 
torian saw him in the late '70s at the summit 
of Mt. Hamilton. He was then the cook for a 
gang of laborers at work on the buldings of 
the Lick Observatory. The old man — he was 
over sixty at the tiine — \vith his tall, robust 
figure, patriarchal locks, flowing beard, placid 
face and large, full eyes of black, gave no hint 
of the dare-devil highwayman of twenty years 
before. His career was an exciting one. He 
was born to the saddle and in his vounger 
days was one of the best horsemen in the 
state. Open-hearted, but reckless, gifted with 
a strong sense of humor, he lived a wild, free 
life until circumstances made him an outlaw. 
As a bold highwayman of the Dick Turpin 
tvpe his name became a household word in 
Central and vSouthern California. Quick in 
acti6n, fertile in resource and with friends ga- 
lore among the Mexican-Spanish population, 
he managed for years to elude capture. Cjnce 
he played a trick on pursuing officers that 
greatly increased his reputation. After the 
commission of a daring robbery the sheriffs of 
four counties started out to effect his capture. 
One night two of the pursuers stopped at a 
Mexican casa in the Livermore Valley. Soto 
came to the door. He was asked if he had 
seen Soto. The reply came quicKiy and with- 
out a change of countenance: "I expect him 
here tomorrow at daylight." The officers, 
who had never seen the outlaw, were over- 
joyed at this statement and prepared at once 
to stay overnight at the casa. That night, 
after they were asleep Soto relieved them of 

their weapons, and stampeded their horses. 
They awoke to see their entertainer in the act 
of riding away. "I'm Soto," he shouted. 
"Buenos noches, senors," and ofif he went into 
the night. 

It was in New Almaden that Soto first 
stained his hands in the blood of his fellow 
man. He asserted at Mt. Hamilton that the 
killing was done in self-defense, but at the 
trial it was his word against strong circum- 
stantial evidence and he was convicted and 
given a life sentence in San Quentin. The 
killing took place near the mine. Soto was 
pursued by Deputy Sheriff Patterson and on 
the Monterey road" there was a running pistol 
fight and Patterson was shot in the leg so that 
amputation afterward became necessary. 
When Soto saw the officer fall he went to his 
assistance, bound up the wound, then rode to 
the Twentv-One Mile House and informed the 
proprietor that a man had been shot up the 
road and that there was urgent need of assist- 
ance. Soto was captured soon afterward. 
Through representations made by Patterson, 
Avho had not forgotten the outlaw's kindness. 
Governor Newton Booth first commuted the 
sentence and later issued a full pardon. Leav- 
ing San Quentin Soto returned to San Jose 
and engaged in peaceful pursuits up to the 
time of his death. 

In 1885 Augustin C. Hall was murdered in 
his own house on the New Almaden road, not 
far from the Hacienda. There were several 
things surrounding the act that indicated on 
the part of the perpetrators the most diaboli- 
cal malignity. There were no signs outside 
of the house to indicate that a monstrous 
crime had been perpetrated. The horse of the 
murdered man grazed outside of the door and 
for davs the neighbors, not suspecting any- 
thing wrong, jiassed and repassed the place. 
At last one of them opened the door and dis- 
covered the dead, mutilated body of Hall. At 
the inquest, held in San Jose, suspicion pointed 
to a resident of the city, but the trial, which 
lasted a week, resulted in his acquittal. 

In the fall of that same year, at the house 
of Ignacio Berryessa, near the New Almaden 
mine, Santiago F)erryessa killed Pedro Ara- 
vena, a native of Chile, under the following 
circumstances : Pedro had become enamored 
of the daughter of Ignacio, a young girl of 
fourteen years, but meeting with oppositicin 
from the girl's parents to a marriage, the pair 
went to Alviso and were joined in matrimony 
bv a justice of the peace. In a short time the 
girl's parents became reconciled to the mar- 
riage and the married couple returned to 
Berryessa's house. One day Santiago Berry- 
essa, the girl's uncle, saw the girl and her hus- 
band sitting in the house and without warning 



and with the utmost deliberation shot Aravena 
to death. The shot was fired through a win- 
dow. The murdered escaped and was never 

On Sunday, June 29, 1856, the brother of 
the overseer of Mexican miners at New Al- 
maden was killed by an Indian. The Indian 
was quarreling with an Irishman when the 
Mexican said to him : "Why do you abuse 
that man? He doesn't understand a word you 
say." AVhereupon the Indiaii angrily an- 
swered, "Do you take it up?" and instantly 
plunged a knife into the body of the Mexican. 
The murderer was caught and hanged. 

In Nc^vember.- 1856, Francisco Berryessa 
was mortally stabbed at his home near the 
New Almaden mines bv Calista Lanra, a 
Chileno. He died the next morning. Calista 
was on friendly terms with the Berryessa fam- 
ily and came to the house on the evening of 
the stabbing. After partaking of some cakes, 
Calista started as if he intended leaving the 
house, but in fact, he concealed himself under 
the bed occupied by Francisco Berrj-essa and 
wife. There were several women in the house, 
one of whom knew of Calista's concealment. 
Berryessa's wife also discovered him and an- 
nounced the fact to her husband. Berr^'essa 
ordered the Chileno to come out, and the or- 
der not being obeyed, Berryessa caught him 
by the hair of the head and pulled him out. 
On arising to his feet Calista drew a knife and 
stabbed Berryessa. The slayer escaped. 

Samuel Phillips and his partner, a Mr. Nes- 
bitt. attempted to open a banking house at 
the Enrequita mines, near Xew Almaden, on 
the e^'ening of Saturda}', August ,1, 1861, ^vhen 
a general row took place, knives and pistols be- 
ing freely used. A Spaniard was shot in the 
neck and killed instantly, and one or two oth- 
ers were seriously injured. 

On the night of June 4, 1864, Joseph Pelle- 
grini, a butcher doing business near New Al- 
maden, was murdered in his room as he was in 
the act of retiring for the night. A butcher 
knife was used and he was stabbed to the 
heart. The house door was forced by break- 
ing a lock and there was every evidence in the 
room of a terrific struggle. Pellegrini was a 
quiet, inofifensiA'e man and the supposition 
was that he was killed for his money. The 
murderer was never found. 

On the morning of June 5, 1864, a Mexican 
named Julian Almanea, who had lost an arm 
and who was the owner of a "dead fall" at 
Enrequita, had some words with Juan Jose 
Rodriguez. Pistols were drawn and Rod- 
riguez was killed. Almanea fled but was ar- 
rested in Los Angeles in 1867. 

In the early '80s Joe Ramirez killed a man 
at the New Almaden mines. He was tried in 
San Jose, convicted and hanged. 

Mrs. Walter's description of the mines ends 
as follows : 

"Now the visitor leaves the railway station 
two miles from the Hacienda, where are lo- 
cated the reduction works of the mine. Al- 
most the first thing to greet the eye is a pretty 
school house with its groups of neat, tidy 
children. Two teachers are employed and 
four at the school on the hill, three miles fur- 
ther on, for ten months in the j'ear, the school 
being in the regular count}' school system. 
Along the single street for half a mile are 
clean, pretty cottages, the hoines of the Ha- 
• cienda workmen, each cottage literally em- 
bowered in choice roses and other flowers. 
These houses are owned mostly by the com- 
l)any, who lease them to the ^vnrkmen at from 
two dollars to five dollars per month. Cut- 
tings are supplied free from the beautiful 
grounds of the manager, where are grown 
more varieties of roses than in any other place, 
perhaps, in the county. Along the street in 
front of the houses a stream of purest water is 
conducted in a channel for domestic purposes. 
The street is bordered with shade trees and a 
neat brick wall extends its entire length. 
Everywhere are seen signs of thrift and pros- 
perity ; the people look well kept and con- 
tented, while an all-pervading spirit of order 
and system extends to the remotest ramifica- 
tions of this important industry. 

"Three miles up a steep but well-graded 
road brings one to the mine proper, where are 
the great shafts with their huge engines, in 
fine of which, the engine of the Buena Vista 
shaft, is a piece of iron weighing twelve tons. 
The miners are principally Mexican and Cor- 
nish. Two pretty church edifices, a Methodist 
and a Catholic, located at the Hill settlement, 
were liuilt almost entirely from contributions 
by the company and manager. A social or- 
ganization, called the 'Helping Hand,' for 
^\'hich the company erected and fitted up a 
club building, for the benefit of the workmen, 
has a fine library of nearly 500 volumes, be- 
sides a list of magazines and daily and weekly 
newspapers of the best published. There are 
held frecjuent entertainments, given by the 
members, and the society is a wonderful fac- 
tcir in the jironiotion of social)ility, general in- 
formation and mental culture. 

"The miners' fund, to \\'hich each employe 
contributes one dollar per month, pays, among 
other expenditures for the good of the miners, 
the salarv of a resident physician, whose serv- 
ices are gratuitous to the contributors. The 
value of this arrangement will be better un- 
derstood when it is known that a great ma- 



jority of the workmen, are married men with 
families. The management encourages this 
class, feeling that, as a rule, it is more reliable 
and responsible that that composed of men 
with no domestic ties. The population of the 
settlement (1886) is about 1,400, of whom 600 
are under twenty years of age." 

In the late 70s ]\Iary Hallock Foote. the 
artist and novelist, author of those charm- 
ingly written and popular mining camp stories, 
was a resident of New Almaden. Her husband, 
Arthur D. Foote, was the engineer of the mine. 
Mrs. Foote, having much time to spare out- 
side of her household duties, made, during 
her residence on the Hill, many sketches of 
scenery and native tvpes, which an Eastern 
magazine was glad to publish. Her work in ■ 
this line might not have pr(.)ceeded much fur- 
ther if her husband had succeeded in securing 
the Democratic nomination for surveyor of 
Santa Clara County. That was a Democratic 
year and nomination was equivalent to elec- 
tion. The convention was held in Music Hall, 
First Street, San Jose, and Mr. Foote, resolv- 
ing to take a shy at politics in the hope that 
success might enable him to settle down, 
instead of having to move from one place to 
another in pursuit of his vocation as a mining- 
engineer, announced himself as a candidate for 
the nomination. There was one other candi- 
date, John Coombe, Avho \vas later killed bv 
mistake in an altercation in a First Street 
saloon. Coombe was ^vell known throughout 
the count V. He was a good mi.xer and had 
politics at his lingers' ends, wdiile Foote, on 
the other haml, was hardh' known outside of 
New Almaden, though he was a man of con- 
spicuous aliilitv and unblemished reputation. 
Almost a stranger to the majority of the dele- 
gates and knowing little of the tricks of the 
political trade, his defeat by the Ijallot Avas 
not surprising. And yet the contest was close, 
for the fine impression created by his speech 
before the con\-enti(in, together with his hand- 
some, manly appearance, brought him many 
votes "which were not his when the delegates 
were called tugetlier. The action of the con- 
\-ention settled tlie place of residence. When 
h'oote's Contract at New .Vlmaden was up he 
went into the mining regions of the l\(jck\' 
Mountains. Mining camps became the homes 
of Foote and his talented wife, anil in those 
Western scenes Mrs. h'oote had abundant op- 
[)ortunity for the culti\-ati(in of her literary 
and artistic gifts. Ah her stories — and she 
has \vritten man}- — l)reathe the free, romantic 
western atmosphere, and all show a thon-nigh 
acquaintance with western scenes and the 
habits, customs and mental attitude of the 

At the present time (1922) the stockholders 
of the company have taken charge of the af- 
fairs of the mines. The shafts on the hill have 
not been worked for some time, but all the 
employes, over fifty in number, are working 
in a new mine. The Senator, situated about, 
half-way between Almaden-on-the-Hill and 
Guadalupe. The prospects are most encourag- 
ing. The superintendent is Edmond Tussen, 
whose home is in Berkeley. 

The Guadalupe quicksilver mine is situated 
two miles north of Almaden on the eastern 
slope of the mountains, the fissures or canyons 
being near the juncture of the metamorphic 
rock and oil-bearing formation. The Guada- 
lupe Creek comes out of the Coast Range 
near this point, dividing the surface of the 
deposit into two parts, though the ore was 
found in a continuous body below the creek. 
Here are the white cottages of the workmen, 
a pretty residence for the superintendent and 
e-xtensive reduction works. Owing to the low 
price of quicksilver, w^ork was practically sus- 
pended fc}r several years, but now, with the 
discovery of ore in a ridge never before worked 
and with prices lietter than usual, there is 
e\-erv prospect of successful operation. 

The Enrequita mine, two miles to the south- 
-west of New Almaden, is the property of the 
Almaden Company. It has been a small pro- 
ducer. South of the San Jose Cemetery is 
the Old Chapman mine. It was never a pay- 
ing proposition and many j'ears ago work was 
stopped, ncA'er to he resumed. 

Mineral Springs of the County 

The mineral springs f)f Santa Clara County 
are noteworthy and valuable. One mile above 
Saratoga and northwest from it. on Campbell 
Creek, are situated the Pacific Congress 
Springs, S(-i called I)ecause i;)f their resemblance 
to the waters of the famous Congress Springs 
of Saratoga, N. Y. This is one of California's 
most ]iicturesc|ue and popular watering places 
and has always Ijeen in great favor as a winter 
resort. It is open the year round. There are 
at this place se\eral springs. They are but a 
foot or two deep, being excavated from the 
sandstone, the lo\\-er one receiN-ing the drain- 
age of the others. It sends off a strean-i aljout 
twrj inches in size. The \\-aters from these 
s])rings are so nearl)- alike that the difference 
can hardly Ijc determined In- tlie taste. Bv 
anal}-sis it is sho\\'n to contain ,i35.857 grains 
r)f Solid matter to the gallon, C(-)mposed as fol- 
lows: Chloride of sodium, 11Q.15'-*; sulphate 
of Soda, 12.140: carbonate of soda, 123. , 351 ; 
carbonate of iron, 14.0,30: carbonate of lime, 
17.20,S; and silica alumina with a trace of mag- 
nesia, 49.882. It is considered a healthful and 
refreshing beverage and has gained much fa- 



vor with the pubhc. The place is connected 
with Saratoi^a, Los Gatos and San Jose by 
the Peninsular Railroad. 

The now well-known Madrone Mineral 
Springs are situated in P.urnett Township, 
about twenty-five miles southeast of San Jose, 
in the Coast Range, at an altitude of 2,000 
feet. The location is in a sheltered and pic- 
turesque canyon at the foot of Pine Ridge. 
The place is free from fogs, the atmosphere is 
pure and invigorating, and the temperature is 
mild and pleasant. The mountains are clothed 
with such trees as pine, oak, maple, laurel and 
madrone. while medicinal plants are found in 
profusion. The early traditions of the Ma- 
drone Springs state that they were known to 
the Indians and there is little doubt that they 
were the "medicine waters" of one of their 
tribes, for many relics in the shape of mor- 
tars, hatchets, arrowheads and the like have 
been, and are still being, turned up in all direc- 
tions. The springs are situated six miles 
north of the Gilroy Hot Springs, connecting 
with which there is a bridle path. There is 
a fine road to Madrone Station on the Southern 
Pacific Railway. The Springs contain one 
of natural soda water, the principal elements 
of which are soda, iron and magnesia. This 
has proved of great medicinal virtue in dys- 
pepsia, liver complaints, kidney diseases and 
neuralgic affections. Another is strongly im- 
pregnated with iron and arsenic, which for 
debility, skin diseases, asthma and other kin- 
dred aft'ections has proved an excellent cura- 
tive. There is a white sulphur spring, which 
is also utilized, while guests may be supplied 
with hot and cold baths of natural soft water. 
The improvements made are extensiA-e and 

About twelve miles from Gilroy, in a small, 
rocky ravine in the Coyote Canyon near the 
headwaters of that creek, where the moun- 
tains, timlier clad to their summits, rise several 
hundred feet on both sides of that stream, 
Francisco Cantua, a Mexican sheepherder, 
wdiile hunting for some of his stray flock, dis- 
covered, in 1865, wdrat are now these famous 
springs. Pie lost no time in filing a squatter's 
claim to the place, and for some years used it 
as a camping ground for himself and friends. 
It is not probable that the Indians were aware 
of the existence of the springs, for no remains 
have been found. Besides, the hills were m 
early days much infested by wild beasts, a 
fact' that may account for their lack of knowl- 
edge on the subject. Cantua sold his interest 
to George Roop, who at once commenced the 
grading of a road to the springs, the erection 
of houses and the general clearing and adorn- 
ment of the locality. In addition to a large, 
commodious hotel, there, are fifteen cottages 

for families, garage, dancing pavilion, swim- 
ming tank, sixteen bathrooms, and other con- 
veniences of a first-class health resort; one 
hundred and fifty guests can be acccjmmodated. 
The hiDt spring possesses remarkable medicinal 
qualities. It has a nearly uniform temperature 
of 118 degrees and contains in solution sul- 
phur, iron, soda, magnesia, baryta, arsenic (in 
small quantities) and alum in small quantities. 
It is pungent but by no means unpleasant to 
the taste. Within fifteen feet of the hot springs 
there are a dozen or more large springs of 
pure, cold water, while nearly three-fourths 
of a mile away from the hotel there is a ro- 
mantically situated garden, where everything 
from an orange to a turnip will flourish. The 
place is supplied with telegraph and telephone 
communication, and in 1873 a postoffice was 
there established. The site of the Gilroy Hot 
Springs is 1,240 feet above the sea level, in 
the very heart of the mountains, amidst groves 
of pine and oak, in which game abound, while 
near by the Coyote affords a harvest of trout 
to the angler. No more charming resort for 
the pleasure-seeker or the invalid is to be found 
on the Pacific Coast. W. J- McDonald is the 

There are other mineral springs in the 
county, not the least important of which are 
the springs in Alum Rock Canyon on the City 
Reservation, detailed reference to which will 
be given in another chapter devoted to a de- 
scription of San Jose's pleasure resorts. 

The Oil Development 

There is oil in Santa Clara County. Several 
spots have been developed to some extent ; 
others have not. Near Sargent, at the south- 
ern end of the count}', wells have been bored 
and oil extracted. In Moody's Gulch, a branch 
of the Los Gatos Canyon, several wells have 
been bored and for many 3'ears oil, with a 
paraffin base, has been extracted, most of the 
time in paying quantities. For the first ten 
years the output was over 80,000 gallons. 
The work was started by R. C. McPherson in 
1873. The only fuel used was natural gas. 
Of late years the work has been intermittent, 
lack of funds often preventing development. 
The property is now (1922) owned by the 
Trigonia Oil Company, and extensi\'e devel- 
opments are now in progress. 

North of Los Gatos oil has been found, 
though there have not been any operations for 
several years. Indications of oil have also 
been found in Alum Rock Canyon and in other 
portions of the county. Some day, perhaps, 
when the country's supply of oil shows signs 
of giving out, other and more determined at- 
tempts to develop Santa Clara County's oil 
resources will be made. 


Society Events in the Fifties, Sixties and Seventies — Reminiscences of 
Pioneer Women — Mrs. Carroll's Interesting Record — Charles G. Ames 
and Judge William T. Wallace — Presidential Visits. 

For much of the material relating to society 
affairs in the early days of San Jose, the his- 
torian is indebted to that entertaining, gossip}^ 
book written in 1903 by Mrs. Mary A. Carroll, 
since deceased. Mrs. Carroll was for many 
years the society editor of the "Mercury," and 
her opportunities for gathering old-time social 
news were unusually good. 

"Society as found in San Jose before the 
days of '49 is graphically described by Mrs. 
Frances A. Sunol-Angus : 

" 'A great deal of it, some of it true, most 
of it colored with the light of other days, has 
been said and written of the stirring days of 
1849, but no one has yet lifted the veil that 
dropped when the adventurer and the pros- 
pector, following the golden light, founded on 
the Pacific sliores the realization of the visions 
conjured up by the magic name El Dorado — 
the veil that separates old California from the 
new, as invisible, yet as real, as any existing 
state line. 

" 'For the gold excitement, bringing in new 
energy and activity, brought also new disturb- 
ing elements, and where there had existed a 
boundless hosf)italit_v, with the incoming of 
the stranger the social limits contracted and 
formality and ceremony began to be observed. 

" 'I speak of the early forties; my own fath- 
er's boyhood days, and my grandfather, Don 
Antonio Sunol, and his family are a fair pic- 
ture of the chivalrous host and the warm- 
hearted hospitality of the times. The guest 
chamber was seldom untenanted, and seven or 
eight guests were welcomed and entertained 
for two or three successive weeks, English, 
Russian and American trading vessels made 
periodic visits to San Francisco and the mer- 
chandise was brought to San Jose on pack 
horses. When time permitted, the supercargo, 
captain and some of his officers, would accom- 
pany the caravan, and for weeks were royally 

" 'There being from fifty to one hundred 
Indian ser\-ants in the household, each guest 
was provided with his special one, who waited 
upon his every want during the entire visit. 
Horses, the very best in the stables, saddles, 
silver mounted or plated, and a guide were 
always at his command and a servant always 
on hand to clasp and unclasp each gentleman's 

spurs, while another led his horse away. The 
host and his family devoted themselves to the 
entertainment of the guests and a series of 
festivities was gotten up in their honor. The 
homes of Don Salvis Pacheco, Don Dolores 
Pacheco, Don Jose Noriega, and Don Antonio 
Sunol were the scenes of man}' of these fes- 

" 'Can you guess how their invitations to a 
ball were sent out? Some gay cavalier, who 
possessed a melodious voice and could thrum 
the light guitar, attired in a gay holiday cos- 
tume, with clinking silver spurs and mounted 
upon a spirited horse, pranced and curvetted 
through the plaza singing some ditty, and 
when he had arrested the attention of passers- 
by addressed them in friendly, courteous lan- 
guage, extending the invitation to all present, 
rich and poor, not low and high, for each man 
was as good as his neighbor, and wealth did 
not place a man upon a pedestal of honor. 
When ]deasantries had been exchanged be- 
tween the messenger and the crowd, he passed 
on and stopping at the door of each house, re- 
peated his invitation, thus honoring all with a 
da)'light serenade. 

" 'Young ladies attended balls and parties 
accompanied by their mothers, or, in the ab- 
sence of these, by some elderly female relative. 
The chaperon was known as the "duenna." 
Young men and maidens carried on their court- 
ship at these balls right under the unseeing 
eyes of the watchful (?) duenna. When this 
secret love-making had reached a successful 
issue between the pair, the youth acquainted 
his father with his hopes and aspirations, and 
he in turn sought the maiden's father. His 
consent gained, the bride's trousseau was nn- 
mediately prepared, the weddhrg was an- 
nounced and in a few weeks the marriage bells 
were ringing. The festivities lasted a week or 
more, and, as at other times, everybody was 
welcomed and feasted. The bride's dower con- 
sisted of household furnishings, cattle and 
horses — quality in accordance with her father's 

" 'There were no formal receptions, no cere- 
monious calls. Ladies went out from their 
homes in simple household attire and spent a 
few hours in friendly conversation with a 
neighbor. When visits were made in the even- 



ing a number of friends called together and 
the time was given up to music, dancing, fun 
and laughter. The younger members never 
felt any restraint in presence of their elders, 
although they treated them with the most 
scrupulous deference and respect. Boys al- 
ways stood with heads uncovered while speak- 
ing to old or middle-agd people, even on the 
street. There was one generous custom dear 
to the heart of the California boy, and that 
was the godfather's gift at the christening — • 
gold and silver coins thrown out by the hand- 
ful and scrambled for by the small boy. 

" 'The modes of salutation during the Golden 
Age were the hearty handshake, when the 
meeting between friends took place upon the 
street, un abrazo (an embrace) when within 
the sacred precincts of home. As I have shown 
you, simplicity was the rule ; forms and cere- 
monies were unknown. There was no vieing 
with one and another as to who should stand 
upon the highest round of the social ladder, 
but each one extended his hand to help an- 
other climb to where he stood, so that over 
all there reigned a spirit of peace and good 
will. Would that we might stop for a moment 
in our feverish rush for recognition and posi- 
tion and breathe in the spirit of the olden 
time.' " 

The late Joseph H. Scull, who came here 
at an early date and who carefully watched 
the changes that have taken place during the 
past fifty years, wrote to Mrs. Carroll as 
follows : 

"I regret to say that I will have to dis- 
appoint you in giving the desired information 
in regard to social gatherings here during the 
early '50s. I did not, for a moment, think that 
such reminiscences would be of any value or 
interest after the lapse of years, and therefore 
did not charge my memory with them. 

"Nevertheless, assuming that I have your 
permission to do so, I will jot down some 
remarks as I go along on the subject in hand. 
There were very few American women here 
in those early days, and they were mostly 
married, so far as I remember; and American 
girls, grown to womanhood, were like 'angels' 
visits, few and far between,' and hence social 
gatherings were scarce, balls being the chief 
amusement in vogue, consisting of quadrilles, 
contra dances, waltzes and Virginia reels, and 
for variety's sake occasionally an Irish break- 
down, when some Celtic fellow-citizens were 
present. Later on the schottische, the polka 
and the mazurka were introduced. The Cah- 
fornia girls, as a matter of course, were largely 
in the majority, but unaccustomed to social 
gatherings, their only amusement being fan- 
dangoes, as the California balls were then 
called. The dances were the contra dance, the 

waltz and one or two kinds of jigs; and the 
music, a guitar, and sometimes two, until the 
arrival of a Mexican who could scratch on the 
fiddle enough provincial music to dance by. 
The fandangoes continued to flourish long after 
immigration began to pour in." 

"xAs the time passed on, in the early '50s 
here, the California girls began to adopt Amer- 
ican methods, especially in balls, and soon be- 
came adepts in the steps and movements of 
the new dances mentioned, and were exceed- 
ing graceful. It is needless to say that los 
Gringos were not slow in availing themselves 
of that terpsichorean circumstance ; and to in- 
duce the girls to go to a ball they notified 
them beforehand that carriages or hacks would 
be sent for them. So, during the earliest pe- 
riod, no black-eyed senorita ever went to or 
from an American ball on foot, but when wo- 
men began to be plentiful the cavalier car- 
riages became obsolete. 

"It is worthy of remark that at an American 
ball at that time harmony, good will and the 
utmost decorum prevailed. Everybody stood 
on a perfect equality while in the ballroom, 
and to my certain knowledge there were no 
invidious distinctions, either expressed or im- 
plied. An American ball always had the ap- 
petizing adjunct of a bountiful supper. The 
music that set "the light fantastic toe" a-going 
consisted of a fiddle — a fiddle, mark you, not a 
violin — and later on with a flute accompani- 
ment. San Jose had not yet risen to the dig- 
nity of possessing a regular orchestra, but 
withal an American terpsichorean function was 
a pleasurable afliair to attend. 

"This decade was perhaps the most impor- 
tant in the social history of San Jose, for about 
this time families — men and women of sterling 
worth and possessing all the accomplishments 
necessary to the formation of a solid founda- 
tion on which to build society — settled in this 

"Before this time, however, Mr. and Mrs. 
James F. Reed, parents of Mrs. John Murphy 
and Mrs. Mattie Lewis, had arrived here. The 
Reed home was always the scene of social 
gatherings, and at one of their large dinner 
parties it is said that Mrs. Reed paid sixteen 
dollars apiece for turkeys, and bought all that 
were to be had. 

"During the meeting of the first Legislature 
'every house was an inn where all were wel- 
comed and feasted,' and all through the ses- 
sion not an evening passed without a large 
party at some home. Of course, the big ball 
at the close was the event in San Jose's his- 
tory. No wonder many belles and beaux of 
that time still preserve with care and look 
with pleasure at the white satin invitation 
which reads : 



" 'Washington Birth-Night Ball — Your com- 
pany is respectfully solicited at a Ball, to be 
given at the Capitol, on the evening of the 
22d instant, at /J^i^ o'clock p. m., being the 
118th Anniversary of the Father of Our Coun- 
try,' and which was signed by the following 
committee : Hon. John McDougal, Mr. Bass- 
ham, Mr. Bidwell, Mr. Broderick, Mr. Cham- 
herlin, Mr. Crosby, Mr. De la Guerra, Mr. 
Douglass, Mr. Green, Mr. Hope, Mr. Lippin- 
cott, Mr. Heydenfeldt, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Val- 
lejo, Mr. Vermeule, Mr. Woodworth, Mr. Aram, 
Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Bigler, Mr. Brackett, Mr. 
Bradford, Mr. Brown, Mr. Cardwell, Mr. 
Corey, Mr. Corvarubias, Mr. Craner, Mr. Crit- 
tenden, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Williams, Hon. Mr. 
Gray, Hon. Mr. Heath, Hon. Mr. Hughes, Mr. 
McKinstry, Mr. Morehead, Mr. Tingley, Mr. 
Tefft, Mr. Stowel, Mr. Stephens, Mr. Stewart, 
Mr. Scott, Mr. Perlee, Mr. Moore, Mr. Patter- 
son, Mr. Randolph, Mr. Ogier, Mr. Walthall, 
Mr. Watson, Mr. Witherby, Mr. Roman, Mr. 
Henley, Mr. Houston, G. F. Wymans, Ben 
Van Scoten. Van Voorhies, Nat. Bennett, H. 
A. Lyons, F. B. Clement, Chas. White, Col. 
Jack Hays, Major Ben McCulloch, Major Mike 
Chevallie, Major James Graham, Gen. Don An- 
dreas Pico, Antonio M. Pico, Antonio Sunol, 
John M. Murphy, John Reed.'W. H. Eddy, ]. 
b. Hoppe, T. F. Howe, Capt. W. G. Marcy, E. 
Covington, W. B. Olds, A. AV. Luckett, Bela 
Dexter, Peter Davidson, T- M. Jones, A. Coin- 
dreau, H. H. Robinson, W. R. Turner, E. H. 
Sharp, E. Byrne, Caius Ryland, E. Dickey, A. 
D. Ohr, Fred H. Sand'ford, F. Lightston. 
Among the beauties and belles on that mem- 
orable night were Mrs. John Murphy, Miss 
Rea Burnett, now Mrs. Wallace: Miss Letitia 
Burnett, now Mrs. Ryland ; Miss Maggie 
Jones, now Mrs. Josiah Belden; Miss Laura 
Jones, who is Mrs. Hunt of Visalia ; Miss 
Juanita vSoto, and Miss Marcelline Pico. 

"Among the beaux at this time was Norman 
Bestor, a civil engineer, who made his home, 
while here, with James F. Reed. He played 
on the guitar and flute, was a fine singer, and 
an all-around favorite. Mr. Bestor, in a letter, 
regrets being unable to give a satisfactory ac- 
count of the early social functions. He writes: 
'During the first Legislature I was in San 
Jose; and it was then that I surveyed the 500- 
acre tract adjacent to the town, belonging to 
Mr. Reed, and laid off as an addition. Mr. 
Reed named the streets himself. From 1850 
to 1856 I was engaged at the New Almaden 
quicksilver mines and lived there. During that 
time I frequently drove to San Jose to attend 
parties. Some of the society men of the '50s 
were Ralph Lowe, S. O. Houghton, Drury 
Malone, J. H. Flickinger, Joseph H. Scull, 

Henry B. Alvora, Aleck Moore, D. McDonald 
and Keat Bascom.' 

"In these early days many houses were 
brought around the Horn and set up on ar- 
rival. One of these is that of Judge A. L. 
Rhodes, on the Alameda, and under this hos- 
pitable roof friends have delighted to gather 
since the days of 1855. In 1854 Mr. and Mrs. 
Rhodes came across the plains with a train of 
fifteen, with Mr. Rhodes as captain. Mrs. 
Rhodes told me that one evening during the 
journey a man called and asked if his train of 
ten men could join forces with them. The 
man was Jefferson Trimble, brother of the late 
John Trimble. At Humboldt River they were 
met by John Trimble, who guided them to this 
valley, where he had already settled. Miss 
Ware, afterwards Mrs. John Selby, came with 

"When Mr. and Mrs. Rhodes moved to the 
Alameda, their nearest neighbors were Judge 
and Mrs. Craven P. Hester, who lived where 
the Clark home now stands. Charming social 
gatherings were held at the Hester home, and 
their accomplished daughters. Miss Sallie, 
afterwards Mrs. Maddock, and Miss Lottie, 
afterwards Mrs. Phelps, assisted in dispensing 
generous hospitality. 

"Among notable families that came here in 
1853 was that of Mr. and Mrs. Coleman Young- 
er, who arrived after a six months' trip from 
Missouri. Their house was brought around the 
Horn, and it is needless to say that as soon as 
it arrived, with true Southern hospitality it 
was thrown open and a large party given, 
when among the guests were : Drury Malone, 
Tad Robinson, all the state officers, Aleck 
Moore, Major and Mrs. S. J. Hensley, Mr. and 
Mrs. P. H. Burnett, Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Wal- 

"In speaking of social functions, Mrs. 
Younger said that in '54 she remembers spend- 
ing a delightful evening at the home of Don 
Antonio Sunol, whose hospitality was un- 
bounded, whose trained Indian servants were 
the envy of many less fortunate, and whose 
exquisite table linen, adorned with Spanish 
drawn work, was the admiration of all. The 
guests included Mr. and Mrs. Ryland, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wallace, and Mr. and Mrs. Younger. A 
large dancing party, given for the benefit of 
the Presbyterian Church when Rev. Dr. Gar- 
win was pastor, was among the many enjoy- 
able functions here. In this the moving spirits 
were Mrs. Crosby, Mrs. S. J. Hensley, and 
Miss Lois Bradley. 

"Mrs. Aladdock has graciously written the 
following reminiscences of those early times: 
'In looking over a journal which I kept when 
a young girl, I find that almost everything of 
interest is jotted down. The young married 
ladies were Mrs. Hensley, Mrs. Belden, Mrs. 



Ryland, Mrs. Wallace. Mrs. lolin Murphy, 
Mrs. Yoell, Mrs. Lottie Thompson, Mrs. Fred 
Appleton. and Mrs. Gertrude Horn, mother of 
Mrs. Atherton of literary fame. Among the 
young ladies were Miss Price and her sister, 
Miss Bettie, now Mrs. John Moore, both noted 
for their beauty ; Colonel Younger's daughters, 
Miss Flelen and Miss Fanny; Miss Mary 
Smith, Miss Yontz, Miss Echols (a beautiful 
girl). Miss Ellen Skinner and sister, Miss Nel- 
lie; Miss Mattie Reed, Miss Henrie Bascom 
(pretty and witty). Miss Lizzie Branham, Miss 
C. Packwood, Miss Divine (later Mrs. Estee 
of San Francisco), and pretty Miss Lizzie Mil- 
ler, now Mrs. Mitchell and living abroad. 

" 'On July 17, 1858, Mrs. Hensley g-ave a 
garden part}', when the grounds were lighted 
with lanterns and supper was served in the 
summer house. Among those present were : 
Mr. and Mrs. Josiah Belden, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ryland, Mr. and Mrs. John Murphy, Mr. and 
Mrs. Younger, Mr. and Mrs. Appleton, Mr. 
and Mrs. Yoell, Mrs. Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Archer, Misses Camilla and Betty Price, Miss 
Divine, Miss Yontz, Miss Holmes of Oregon, 
Fred Hale, William Matthews, Dr. Chamber- 
lin, Mr. McGowan, John B. Hewson, Dr. Shaw, 
William Lewis, Mr. Gregory, Mr. Yontz, Mr. 
Moultrie, Mr. Johnson, and Mr. Davis. 

" 'On February 3, 1858, Mrs. Fred Appleton 
gave a fancy dress party at her home on the 
Alameda. Mrs. Appleton was a dark beauty 
and charming in manner. She was dressed as 
a gypsy; Mrs. Smith as Night; Miss Yontz as 
Morning; Miss Packwood as Morning Star; 
Miss Lily Eschols as Mary, Queen of Scots. 
Others present were: Misses Bascom, Divine, 
Thompson. Price and Hester. The gentlemen 
were: John B. Hewson, William R. Davis, 
Messrs. Lewis, Gregory, Yontz, William Mat- 
thews, Hall, Dr. Bell, and others. Miss Lottie 
Thompson was a Highland lassie and Miss 
Sallie Hester a flower girl. 

"Then we had balls galore at the old State 
House on the plaza and the City Hall on Mar- 
ket Street. I remember a large party given 
by the young men of San Jose in 1865 at the 
City Hall. At that time others were added to 
the list of society people : Mrs. William Dick- 
inson, Mrs. Flora Burnett, Mrs. Brown, Mrs. 
Thornberg, a beautiful woman, and others.' 

"In 1858 the Young Men's Social Club was 
organized and the officers were : S. O. Hough- 
ton, W. R. Yontz, and W. A. Lewis. The 
members were: J. B. Hewson, James H. 
Gardner, George Evans, John M. Sherwood, B. 
F. Dewey, C. E. Cheney, A. W. Bell, Ralph 
LoAve, L. P. Peck, W. E. Davis, Joseph Bass- 
ler, John R. Yontz, John H. Gregory, Alex 
Beaty, S. Bassler, John Q. Pearl, A. Redman, 
J. H. Flickinger, John M. Murphy, P. O. 
Minor, Edmund McGowan, and William Mat- 

thews. Below this list was W. H. Travis, 
teacher of dancing. Mr. Lowe has also the 
dance programme of the second ball of the 
Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society, given 
at the City Hall, Friday evening, October 21, 
1859. The reception committee included James 
F. Kennedy, John B. Hewson, W. A. Lewis, 
Patrick Murphy, Colonel Hollister, and Joseph 
R. Weller. The managers were Cary Peebles, 
Colonel Younger, R. G. Moody, H. C. Malone, 
S. J. Hensley, W. A. Bray, L. Prevost, E. S. 
Chipman, W. Reynolds, and W. T. Wallace. 
The floor managers were John M. Murphy and 
H. H. Winchell. The order of dances was 
promenade march, cjuadrille, schottische, ma- 
zurka, polka, waltz, ciuadrille coquette. High- 
land schottische, varsovienne, and quadrille 
march. Then supper and afterward the qua- 
drille, waltz, polka, schottische, mazurka, 
Spanish dance, 'Home, Sweet Home.' 

"In the home of Adolph Pfister the guest 
was always sure of a cordial greeting, and din- 
ners were the favorite form of entertaining, 
the family seldom enjoying this meal without 
two or more guests. Mr. and Mrs. T. J. Wil- 
burn, who came here in the early '50s from 
their Missouri home, settled on the Alameda, 
where, with characteristic hospitality, they de- 
lighted to gather friends around them. Their 
daughter, Mrs. Givens George, speaking of 
those times, said : 'The first party I attended 
here was in the '50s and was a dancing party 
given by Major and Mrs. Hensley. Among 
the belles and beaux present on that occasion, 
I remember Miss Sallie Hester, the Misses 
Price, Miss Mattie Reed, Givens George, Ned 
McGowan, Fred Hall, Fred Appleton, John 
Gregory, Jim Maxey, and Captain McKenney.' 

"A large and delightful social circle, whose 
members did not include the votaries of the 
ballroom, but whose teas, church socials, mite 
societies and afternoon and evening gatherings 
were equally enjoyable, was formed by Mr. and 
Mrs. Donald MacKenzie, Mr. and Mrs. John 
Piercy, Misses Julia and Lou McCabe, the 
late Rev. H. C. Benson, Mrs. Benson, Mr. and 
Mrs. John Selby, Mr. and Mrs. T. Rea, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. H. Flickinger, Mr. and Mrs. John 
Trimble, Mr. and Mrs. Smith, Dr. and Mrs. 
Caldwell, Mr. and Mrs. William De Hare 
Boone, and Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Wilcox. Mrs. 
Piercy often told of the delightful gatherings 
at the home of Mrs. MacKenzie and that in 
those times it was the principal place where 
Presbyterians gathered to spend a social even- 
ing. About this time Rev. L. Hamilton was 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church and Mrs. 
Piercy said that one day the reverend gentle- 
man called at her residence on Julian Street, 
where a number of church people were spend- 
ing the afternoon, and told them of his latest 
exploit, that of climbing to the top of the high- 



est peak of the Coast Range Mountains, and 
how in honor of this feat that i^eak was after- 
wards known as Mt. Hamilton. 

"The social changes in the '60s are aptly de- 
scribed by a lady who for years was one of San 
Jose's lovely and amiable girls, afterwards 
ranking among the charming and aiiable ma- 
trons, Mrs. S. O. Houghton, now of I^os 
Angeles : 

" 'San Jose society between the years 1861- 
'65, had its social code and its e.N;clusive circles, 
but it was not governed by iron-clad rules, nor 
was it hedged with formalities. Its social 
events were suited to the conditions of an in- 
telligent, sprightly, pioneer community, whose 
best physical and mental efiforts were devoted 
to practical schemes and to matters of great 
public interest, and whose hospitable natures 
still kept in touch with old home customs and 
influences. Few of us lived in houses spacious 
enough to accommodate large numbers of 
guests, but many delightful teas and sumptu- 
ous dinners brought genial friends together in- 
formally. There were also frequent exchanges 
of visits among families in the evenings. Home 
talent provided many musical treats, and spell- 
ing matches for benevolent purposes afforded 
much amusement to large audiences. 

" 'AH entertainments for church or charity 
were regarded as social events. Madame Anna 
Bishop and Mr. and Mrs. Marriner Campbell, 
of San Francisco, occasionally favored us with 
concerts, which always brought out the most 
appreciative people. Our younger members 
had also their horseback rides, picnics, driving 
and dancing parties. 

" 'It was not yet the custom to have these 
courtesies and merrymakings chronicled in the 
newspapers, nor were brides in those days en- 
riched with wedding presents. Day weddings 
were usually followed with dinners to relatives 
and intimate friends of contracting parties, and 
night weddings frequently ended with dances 
at the 'hall,' which was decorated with ever- 
greens for the occasion. 

" 'An annual ball was given by each of the 
following organizations; Firemen, Odd Fel- 
lows, Masons, and Military Companies. Arm- 
ory Hall was tastefully festooned for these 
events with evergreens, flowers and flags. The 
refreshments served were elaborate and the 
music furnished was excellent. February 
twenty-second, July fourth. Thanksgiving 
night, and New Year's eve were the dates se- 
lected for these brilliant reunions, which re- 
ceived the recognition and moral support of 
the best people in the community. As the 
membership roll of the first named organiza- 
tion formed largely the lists of the others, 
most of the husbands, brothers, and beaux ap- 
peared in different uniforms on each occasion. 

■' 'The married ladies who, as spectators and 
chaperons, gave tone and dignity to these fes- 
tal scenes, were costumed in silks, satins, and 
velvets, high at the neck and with long sleeves, 
trimmed with laces and narrow velvet ribbon. 
They wore white gloves and carried lace 
handkerchiefs and handsome fans. Their or- 
naments were garnet and coral "sets," or neck- 
laces of gold, with pendant crosses jeweled 
with pearls and diamonds. Brides wore their 
bridal robes and ornaments, and young ladies 
were gowned in delicate shades of tarletans, 
Swiss, and grenadines. Many of their skirts 
were tucked nearly to the waist. The bodices 
\\'ere low at the neck and had short puffed 
sleeves daintily trimmed with lace and satin 
ribbon. The}- also wore white gloves, and 
flowers in their hair. Gold necklaces with 
lockets attached were their only ornaments. 
Dancing began as early as eight o'clock in the 
evening, and those who did not wish to see the 
peep of day went home before the programme 
was finished.' 

"No home was more hospitable, nor none 
opened its doors more frequently to guests 
than the one presided over by Major and Mrs. 
\A\ W. McCoy, on the Alameda. Here dinners 
and dances were an almost every-dav occur- 
rence. An elaborate dinner was given in honor 
of Hon. T. A. and Mrs. Hendricks, when the 
future Vice-President of the United States was 
touring the state in the early '60s. Mr. and 
Mrs. McCoy were assisted by their beautiful 
and accomplished daughters, Miss Nannie and 
Miss Fannie. The guests, besides Mr. and 
Mrs. Hendricks, were: Dr. and Mrs. Bascom, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Wallace, Colonel and Mrs. 
Younger, Dr. Marcus Chamblin.' 

"Following is a charming letter from Mrs. 
Fitzgerald : 'On receiving a letter asking for 
some brief account of some party I attended in 
San Jose in bygone years, my mind at once 
reverted to the wxdding of two of Governor 
Burnett's children, somewhere near 1860. 
Miss Sallie Burnett was married to Mr. Fran- 
cis Poe, of Maryland, I think, and Mr. Arm- 
stead Burnett to Miss Flora Johnson. Miss 
Burnett's bridesmaids were her cousin. Miss 
Mollie Smith, and Miss Maggie Branham, 
afterwards Mrs. Ogier. I do" not remember 
^vho were their groomsmen, but those of the 
other couple were Mr. James Johnson, uncle 
of the bride, and Mr. James Whitney, and 
the bridesmaids were Miss Lou Johnson and 
Miss Fannie McCoy. 

" 'There was a large party on the night of 
the wedding in Governor Burnett's old home 
and the elaborate supper was served in an un- 
finished house which Mrs. C. T. Ryland was 
then building in her father's yard. Next day 
the bridal party attended a dinner given by 
Dr. and Mrs. Johnson, and on the evening 



following Colonel and Mrs. Younger gave a 
large party in their honor. Other entertain- 
ments followed, and at the end of a week's 
festivities in San Jose the party, with parents 
and friends, went to San Francisco. There was 
no railroad then, and we were driven in car- 
riages to Alviso, where we took the boat to 
the city. There we attended a reception giv- 
en by Miss Page and had a good time general- 
ly for several days after. Mrs. Pee lived but 
six months after her marriage, and Mr. Arm- 
stead Burnett only a year and a half. Mr. 
Poe went East and' was killed during the Civil 
War, and Mrs. Burnett, some time after the 
death of her husband, married Mr. Will Hes- 
ter. Miss Lou Johnson is now Mrs. Dick- 
inson, and Miss Mollie Smith married a gen- 
tleman of the same name. San Jose was a very 
pleasant place in those days. It was still 
early enough for the gentlemen to greatly 
outnumber the ladies, so beaux were abundant, 
and the girls made much of. There were some 
beautiful Spanish and Mexican girls, too, some 
of whose names I forget. I remember the 
Misses Pico and Sunol, however.' 

'Tn writing of these times, Dr. Chamblin 
said that he had very pleasant recollections 
of his many old time friends in San Jose and 
of the many enjoyable social affairs he attend- 
ed here in the early sixties at the home of 
Major and Mrs. W. W. jMcCov, Judge and 
Mrs. W. T. Wallace, Colonel and Mrs. Cole- 
man Younger, and several others, all of whom 
were noted for their southern hospitality. 

"The home of Mr. and Mrs. Josiah Belden, 
which stood wdiere the Hotel Vendome now 
is, was the scene of many balls, musicales, and 
dinners. Among them a sumptuous dinner, 
followed by a dance, was given in the sixties 
in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Delos Cole, who 
had just been married. In speaking of this 
a guest, who was present, said : 'A hand- 
somer bride it would have been hard to find 
than was Mrs. Cole, and no wonder she was 
the central figure that night at the Belden 
party. Her beautiful neck, shoulders, and 
arms and her sweet face made, indeed, a per- 
fect picture.' 

"Mr. and Mrs. Norman Porter, and Dr. 
and Mrs. Knox were among the people who 
selected San Jose for their home, and in 1863 
they settled here and soon occupied prominent 
places in society. 

"A few years later Dr. Chas. G. Ames, a 
Unitarian divine, made monthly trips to Santa 
Cruz to deliver lectures, and at the close of 
the season the Unity Society sprang into ex- 
istence. Among the active members of the 
popular society, that for nearly fourteen years 
gave the most enjoyable entertainments ever 
known here were Mrs. Laura J. Watkins, Mr. 
and Mrs. M. Leavenworth, Mr. and Mrs. C. 

T. Settle, Mr. and Mrs. Ashley, Mr. and Mrs. 
Gould, Levi Goodrich, J. J. Owen, Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. G. Blaine, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. T. Herrmann and Mrs. Sarah 
J. Knox." 

The historian will here interrupt Mrs. 
Carroll's account by relating a story in which 
Rev. Mr. Ames and William T. Wallace 
figured. Wallace was a pioneer member 
of the San Jose bar, and a leader in so- 
ciety. In the sixties he was elected Chief 
Justice of the State Supreme Court. Ames 
was not a politician and made but few 
speeches, but these were something out of the 
ordinary. He was one of the brightest men, 
intellectually the country has ever produced. 
He saved the day for the Republican party 
in 1872 when George C. Gorham was the lead- 
ing Republican orator of the state. As a de- 
bater Gorham had no superior on the stump, 
and when joint discussions were the rule he 
was an enem)' to be feared. Late in the cam- 
paign a joint meeting in San Jose was ar- 
ranged, the speakers to be Gorham for the 
Republicans and Judge William T. Wallace 
for the Democrats. Wallace was then in his 
prime and one of the most eloquent and ef- 
fective orators on the Coast. A large stand 
was erected on Santa Clara street in front 
of the Auzerais House and an immense crowd, 
comprising people from all parts of the coun- 
ty was in attendance when the hour of 
discussion arrived. At the last moment con- 
sternation reigned in the rooms of the Repub- 
lican County Central Committee. Gorham had 
missed his train and could not be present. 
Without him the meeting would be a Demo- 
cratic walkover and the Republican party of 
Santa Clara County would receive a blow 
that would be felt for years. 

The members of the Committee had about 
given up in despair when some one suggest- 
ed Charles G. Ames as a substitute for Gor- 
ham. It was not expected that he could do 
much without preparation, but it was believed 
that he could, at least, put up a good blufif 
and save the Republican party its distance. 
Like a drowning man catching at a straw, the 
committee caught at the suggestion and as 
good fortune would have it they found Ames 
willing to undertake the job. The Democrats 
readily accepted the substitution, believing 
that Ames would be a mere puppet in the 
hands of the trained and eloquent Wallace. 
They also graciously consented to give Ames 
the opening and closing speech, and the meet- 
ing opened at the appointed hour before a 
crowd composed of sober-faced Republicans 
and glad-eyed Democrats. 

Ames' opening speech was short. He made 
no attempt to fire the hearts of his Republi- 
can auditors but contented himself with a brief 



but clear statement of the principles and aims 
of the party he represented. Wallace fol- 
lowed in one of the best efforts of his life. 
In the belief that he was master of the situ- 
ation, he was eloquent and sarcastic by turns, 
but strong at all times. Dismissing with a 
few contemptuous words the arguments ad- 
vanced by Ames, as if both the subject and 
the man were beneath his notice, he went over 
the history of the past and in words of burn- 
ing elofjuence pointed out the path, that in his 
opinion, all honest A'oters should travel. AVhen 
he took his seat the air was rent Avith cheers. 
A happier lot of Democrats were never gath- 
ered at a political meeting. 

The Republicans saw Ames arise but in their 
eyes there was no light of confidence or hope. 
They looked upon the day as lost and in 
imagination could see the grand Democratic 
demonstration that must follow the meeting. 
But soon despair gave place to surprise and 
surprise to joy that could hardly be restrained 
from the noisiest exhibition. Ames, after a 
few commonplaces, began to speak like one 
inspired. Epigrams, like pearls, dropped 
from his lips and brilliant bursts of eloquence 
Avere follcAved bv sentences of such biting sar- 
casm that the Democrats winced as if they 
had been pricked Ijy a knife. The speaker 
with his intellectual grasp, his thorough 
knowledge of his subject and his wonderful 
command of language, played upon his hear- 
ers as if they were some instrument and he 
the accomplished performer and master. As 
for Judge Wallace, Ames metaphorically wiped 
the floor with him and the defeat of the dis- 
tinguished Democrat was so complete that it 
AA'as years befc)re he could be induced to de- 
liver another speech in San Jose. The Re- 
publicans, and not the Democrats, had the 
demonstration that evening and Ames was 
the hero of the hour. 

Now Mrs. Carroll again. 

"In the early sixties the homes of Mr. and 
Mrs. Tliormburg and 'Mv. and Mrs. Cary Pee- 
bels, near Santa Clara, were frequently invad- 
ed by parties of merry-makers, and all were 
sure of receiving a cordial welcome. In speak- 
ing of these surprise parties, Mrs. Delos Cole 
said that she neA'er forgot the exquisite sing- 
ing of Morris M. Estee, (afterward Go\-ernor 
of the state) who was always one of the crowd 
and who sang 'The Mocking Bird' with ininii- 
table charm at the last party she attended at 
Mrs. Thormburg's. 

"Mrs. EA'aline Prothero Yoell, who for years 
was considered the mrist beautiful woman in 
the county, wrote of San Jose society, say- 
ing: 'I attended every party of importance 
from 1852 dfjwn to the last three that came 
very near together in 1870, Avhen I left the 
Garden City. The first of these three was 

given by Miss Camilla Price, sister of Mrs. 
John Moore, at Judge Moore's residence, in 
honor of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. The second 
was the golden wedding of Judge and Mrs. 
Craven Hester, and the last was given by 
Judge and Mrs. A. E. Rhodes, celebrating the 
anniversary of the wedding of their daughter, 
Miss Mary, to ]\Ir. Alfred Barstow. These 
parties, all elegant, reflected great credit upon 
the ladies wdio were to the manor born. There 
was no Eudwig or Maison Dore to beckon 
to their assistance, and who appear like mag- 
ic and quietly steal away. The ladies depend- 
ed upon their own tact and ingenuity. My 
memory is not Aery good and I could not be- 
,gin to describe them, as I fear, amid the glam- 
our of the oriental splendor of today, it would 
sound meagre, would would be injustice 
to those society ladies. At the party at 
Judge Rhodes', as I entered the room, 
I said to him: 'WHiere will you find any to 
compare with this bcAy of ladies — Mrs. W. T. 
Wallace, Mrs. Hensley, then a widow, Mrs. 
Josiah Belden, Mrs. Fitzgerald, Miss Sallie 
Hester, Mrs. A. M. Thompson, Miss Camilla 
Price, and Mrs. John Moore?' 

" 'Our society from the early '60s down to 
'70 included : Mr. Boring, afterward Bishop of 
Georgia, and daughters. Misses Jnlia and Ella, 
Mr. and Mrs. S.^T- Hensley, :\irs. C. T. Ry- 
land, Mr. and ilrs. W. T. 'Wallace, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. F. Reed, .Mr. and Mrs. Josiah P.elden, 
Judge and Mrs. Hester, and their daughters. 
Misses Sallie and Eaura, Dr. and Airs. Bascom 
and daughters. Miss Dollie Coombs, after- 
wards Mrs. Horace Hawes, Colonel J. B. Price 
and daughters. Misses Camilla and Betty, 
Miss Julia Peck, afterAvards Mrs. Eevi Good- 
rich, Miss Florence Inskeep, Afiss Mollie 
Crane, afterwards Mrs. AlcPike, Colonel and 
Mrs. IMcCo}-, Miss Nannie McCoy, Aliss Fan- 
nie McCoy, now Mrs. Adolph Fitzgerald, and 
Mrs. West Chappell.' 

"A large party Avas given by E. C. Single- 
tary in Music Hall, and it Avas one of the 
swell aiTairs of the period. W^reaths of ivy, 
mingled Avith red and Avhite roses, festooned 
the hall, and from the chandeliers hung bird 
cages, and ever and anon the shrill notes 
of the golden Avarlilers blended in complete 
harmony Avith the soul-stirring and body-lift- 
ing strains from the band on the platform. 

"Mr. SingletarA- proA'ed himself to be a prince 
at entertaining. The Ijrilliant parlor and club 
ro(Tms Avere o])en for all Avho did not Avish 
to dance; colored serxants, in li\-erA-, attend- 
ed to e\'ery Avant : carriages Avere at the dis- 
])osal of the guests, and the sumptuous sup- 
per AA'ould ha\"e done credit to rcivalty. 

"In the later sexenties the young society 
leaders organized a social clul) to introduce 
the German. Professor Millington Avas chosen 



director, and under the leadershi]) of Charles 
15. Hensley and Miss Kate Moody, the .sj^race- 
ful fiq;ures with their accompanj'ing favors, 
mirrors, fluwer^, and ribbons, were thoroughly 
enjoyed by the merry dancers. Among- the 
members were Miss Annie Hanchett, sifter- 
wards Mrs. Jack A\'right of Sacramento; Miss 
Kate Moody, now Mrs. W. C. Kennedy; Miss 
Sallie Trimble, now Airs. Nicholas Bowden ; 
Miss Ella Hensley, now Mrs. Thornton, of 
^Montana ; Miss Lou Schallentierger, now Mrs. 
Thomas Montgomer)- ; Miss Frankie Cahill, 
now Airs. Charles Wilcox; Miss Jennie Ca- 
hill, now Mrs. A. L. Veuve; Miss Jennie Wil- 
son, now Mrs. "W. P. Veuve; Miss Minnie 
Fule}', now Mrs. Richmond ; Miss Anita Fal- 
lon, Miss Ida George, now Mrs. Frank Bishop- 
rick, Miss Ada Ryland, Misses Porter, and 
Miss Pugh ; Messrs. Charles Hensley, Loring 
0. Nesmith, John T. IMalone, E. S. Breyfogle, 
W. C. Kennedy, W. P. Veu\'e, Frank Haight, 
Sam R. Rhodes, E. C. Singletarv, J. H. Camp- 
bell, H. B. Alford, George Ashley, Ike Loeb, 
Pomeroy, Cutler, McMahon, Owen, and 

"In '76 the French residents celebrated the 
Fall of the Bastile for the first time in this 
citv. The large ball and sumptuous bancpiet 
at the Lake House was a social function not 
to be overlooked. The grounds were adorned 
with flags and lanterns and here the large sup- 
per table was arranged in the shape of a hollow 
o\al. J. Poulain occupied a seat in the center, 
with Hon. B. D. Murphy, who was then mayor 
of the city, on his left, and J. B. J. Portal on 
the right. The committee of arrangements 
\\-ere I. B. J. Portal, B. Burv, A. Delmouly. 
L Jacquelin and P. Etchebarne. 

"An Authors' Carnival and Ladies' Bazaar, 
the first on the Pacific Coast, was held in 
Music Hall under the auspices of the Home 
of Benevolence. It was an event in the his- 
tory of San Jose and well maj^ the officers 
of the Home at that time be gratefully remem- 
bered for the skill with which they conduct- 
ed the afifair. Mrs, Nellie B. Eyster was pres- 
ident; Mrs. M. H. McKee and Mrs. L. W. 
Moultrie, vice-presidents; Mrs. Louise E. 
King, secretary, and Airs. Frances D'. Wil- 
liams, treasurer. The board of managers were: 
Mesdames J. C. Cobb, C. R. Span, T. W. 
Spring, A. N. Gates, Ben Cory, P. D. Hale, 
Pauline Stone, E. Coombs, T. E. Beans, S. A, 
Clark, C. H. Allen, H. J. Haskell, Jackson 
Lewis, P. T. de Cabe, A. T. Herrmann and 
M. Diamond. 

"The following bit of reminiscence about 
General Smith, at whose home near this city 
many people have been entertained, is from 
Airs.' Mary Barstow, daughter of Judge Rhodes 
and the late Airs. Rhodes. 

" 'General Giles A. Smith, who as a divi- 
si<in commander under Grant, served with 
great distinction during the Civil War, and 
\\ho \\'as afterward appointed Second Assistant 
I'listmaster-General at Washington, came to 
California in the early seventies for a rest, 
with his \vife and little daughter. May. They 
were accumpanied by Alfred Barstow. Air. 
ISarstow was also connected with the Post- 
oilice Department and he and General Smith 
l)ecame great friends. The General bou.ght a 
ranch in the foothills near Alum Ivock, where 
he built a beautiful home and entertained 

" ',\fter the General's death. Airs. Smith and 
her daughter went abroad, where Aliss Alay 
married a gentleman of Gene\a, ,S\vitzerland, 
and still lixes there in the most ideal man- 
ner, her husbantl. Air. Francis Delapalane, be-, 
ing an artist of high standing and ample 

"A l)rilliant jjart}- by the young men of San 
Jose was given Friday evening, January 26, 
"1883, when 

Shimmering satin and gossamer laces, 
Blaze of trumpets and bugle call ; 
A shifting sea of bewildering faces. 
Surging along through the perfumed hall, 
but faintl}^ describes the gorgeous scene. The 
committee of arrangements were ; John W^ Ry- 
land, E. AIcAfee, William K. Beans, J. C. 
Travis, Andrew P. Hill, J. B. Cory, and A. E. 
Haden. Alusic Hall Avas garlanded with cy- 
press and holly berries and a large green 
streamer was stretched across the stage bear- 
ing the words: AVe greet you, one and all.' 
The music was by Kauffman and Parkman, 
and one feature was a schottische composed 
for the occasion by Air. Kauffman and dedicat- 
ed to the Young Ladies' Social Temperance 

"The ladies who composed the reception 
committee were : Airs. S. O. Houghton, Airs. 
E. O. Smith, and Airs. Lawrence Archer. Airs. 
Hou.ghton wore an elegant dress of black lace 
over black silk; garniture of red roses; orna- 
ments, diamonds. Airs. E. O. vSmith was 
dressed in rich black satin, trimmed with os- 
trich feathers ; point lace fichu ; ornaments, 
diamonds. Airs. Archer -wore a dress of black 
silk brocade ; corsage boucpiet of red roses ; 
ornaments, diamonds. 

"The gentlemen who got up the ball were : 
Alessrs. H. J. Alexander, Henry B. Alvord. 
George Avery, G. Anderson, W. W. Blanch- 
ard, W^ K. Beans, A. L. Barker, Nick Bow- 
den, Frank P. Bull, Da\e Bryant, J. B(Toksin, 
W. E. Coombs, Dr. Bruce Clow, C. Colombet, 
Louis Colombet, Ed. Cla_\'ton, A. A\'. Coombs, 
C. Chapman, F. Co}-kendall, R. Coykendall, 
FI. F. Dusing, Ernest Dawson, Ed Enright, 



C. Flickinger, W. Finch, W. T- Fosgate, L. 
F. Graham, Will George, A. "E. Haden, C. 
J. Heyler, J. B. Holly, W. B. Hobson, Thad 
Hobson, A. P. Hill, M. C. Hall, S. O. Hough- 
ton, D. Hanna, L. Hartman, H. Hart, A. C. 
Ingalsby, Ed Jobson, Stanley Kelly, L. F. 
Kullak, John Cahill, M. Loryea, Andrew Len- 
drum, W. W. Leghorn, Dr. F. K. Ledyard, 
John McMahon, Charles Moody, C. J. Mar- 
tin, J. H. Maddox, John McCauley, A. McAfee, 
Louis Montgomery, Howell Moore, W. S. Mc- 
Murtry, L. G. Nesmith, W. S. Osterman, J. B. 
O'Brien, S. Oberdeener, A. Price, F. Ffister, 
R. Pierce, J. H. Pierce, Sam Rucker, John 
Ryland, F. K. Ryland, J. R. Ryland, Ed Sned- 
aker, Dr. W. Simpson, Fred Stern, Ed. Snell, 
Sam E. Smith, W. Selby, S. Stone, John TuUy, 
A. B. McNeil, J. C. Travis, F. W. Thompson, 
H. P. Thayer, A. K. Whitton, Henry Willey, 
• Charles Williams, H. Ward Wright, j. Wheel- 
er, C. A. Youngberg, E. D. Young, Ed Young- 
er, R. Smith, and F. Zuver. 

"About fifteen years ago the beautiful Hotel 
Vendome was opened with a ball in which 
the cream of San Jose and San Francisco so- 
ciety gathered and celebrated. The commit- 
tee included Dr.' W. S. Thorne, Hon. F. E. 
Spencer, Hon. B. D. iMurphy, Charles M. 
Shortridge, E. W. Clayton, A. K. Whitton, 
E. W. Newhall, Dr. A. H. Voorhies, and A. 
C. Bassett. The floor committee had as mem- 
bers, E. C. Flagg, W. S. Clayton, R. B. Spence, 
James T. Rucker, James D. Phelan and Capt. 

"A large and brilliant party was given by 
Hon. and Mrs. B. D. Murphy to introduce 
their daugher. Miss Mary, now Mrs. Ward 
Wright, into society. The interior of the 
Murphy home on South Third street was 
decorated with the rarest of flowers, inter- 
mingled with ribbons and smilax. The guests 
included all the young society people here 
and many from San Francisco. 

Distinguished Visitors 

"Among the notable social functions that 
have taken place here was the reception on 
the evening of May 13, 1901, in honor of Pre- 
sident and Mrs. William McKinley and the 
members of the Cabinet. The Vendome 
Hotel never looked grander than in its decora- 
tion of banners, bunting flags, and electric 
lights on the exterior, and blossoms, shrubs, 
and palms, in the interior. The reception 
committee was composed of Hon. Charles J. 
Martin, mayor of this city, Hon. William G. 
Lorigan, Jackson Hatch, Hon. A. L. Rhodes, 
Dr. H. C. Brown, Hon. M. H. Hyland, S. F. 
Leib, O. A. Hale, James D. Miner, J. H. 
Henry, Major William G. Hawley, Dr. J. W. 
Davy, Hon. Delos C. Druffle, W. C. Andrews, 

Ernest Lion, William A. Beasley, Alfred Hol- 
man, H. R. Chesbro, Charles W. Williams, 
J. O. Hayes, David Henderson, Mrs. Charles 
Martin, Mrs. Adolph Greeninger, Mrs. Jack- 
son Hatch, Mrs. D. Goodsell, Mrs. Henry 
Lion, Mrs. A. FI. Jarman, Mrs. S. F. Leib, 
Mrs. J. R. Carroll, Mrs. Nicholas Bowden, 
Mrs. W. P. Dougherty, Mrs. George M. Bow- 
man, Miss Belle Mackenzie, Mrs. H. S. Foote, 
Mrs. Nellie G. Arques, Miss Winifred Mc- 
I^aughlin, Mrs. Ralph Hersey, Mrs. Henry 
Booksin, Sr., Mrs. A. H. Marten, Miss Es- 
telle Lion, and Mrs. R. Hersey. The recep- 
tion was held in the south parlors. Secretary 
Hays acted as the representative of the Pre- 
sident, so unexpectedly absent on account of 
the illness of Mrs. McKinley, and he was as- 
sisted by Postmaster-General Smith and Sec- 
retaries Long, Hitchcock, and Wilson. 

"Another social event was when Governor 
Nash of Ohio and the Congressional party of 
the same state were entertained on the twelfth, 
thirteenth, and fourteenth of May, 1901. First 
was given an Italian breakfast by E. E. Good- 
rich at his famous Quito Olive Ranch, when 
among the Santa Clara gentlemen present 
were: F. C. Ensign, C. M. Wooster, W. S. 
Clavton, Hon. M. H. Hyand, J. R. Lewis, E. 
McGuiness, Rev. H. Melville Tenney, Chief of 
Police James Kidward, and F. W. Crandall ; 
later at an informal reception at the Court 
House, when upwards of eight hundred 
people called to bid the distinguished guests 
welcome ; and lastly at a dinner to the Gover- 
nor and party by Rlr. and Mrs. S. F. Leib at 
their home on the Alameda. 

"It has been the proud privilege of San 
Joseans at different times to welcome within 
the gates of their city the Chief Executives of 
the nation, among them being Hayes, Grant, 
Harrison, McKinley, and Roosevelt. The 
last named President visited this valley on 
May 12, 1903. It was an ideal spring day; 
the weather warm and clear ; the flowers, the 
fields, and the orchards looked their loveliest. 
Multitudes gathered to see and greet their 
Chief, who made several stops within the 
boundaries of the county, and at each place re- 
ceived a generous California welcome. The 
first was at Gilroy, where he made a short 
address, and the next was at San Jose. After 
addressing the thousands of men, women, and 
children assembled around the platform which 
had been erected for the occasiou, and fitting- 
ly decorated with bunting, palms and flowers, 
he went for a drive, accompanied by a mount- 
ed escort of citizens, who included Clem R. 
Arques, Ralph W. Hersey, Sheriff R. J. Lang- 
ford, J. D. Radford, M. E. Dailey, Leo Archer, 
Colonel A. K. Whitton, Thomas McGeog- 
hegan, R. R. Syer, Arthur Langford, J. W. 



Gilkyson, W. S. Clayton, Joseph H. Rucker, 
William A. Bowden, C. H. Geldcrt, Henry 
Lion, and C. T. Crothers. Besides these there 
were a large number of carriages containing 
the members of the President's part)^ the 
reception committee, and the newspaper re- 
presentatives. The route was along the beau- 
tiful and well kept roads, and many were the 
pleasing- incidents that occurred to heighten 
the pleasure of the distinguished guest. On 
Santa Clara Street the ruler of the United 
States halted to greet the pupils of Notre 
Dame College, who were stationed on the 
sidewalk, and to accept a bunch of magnifi- 
cent rosebuds presented on behalf of the 
school by one of San Jose's prettiest girls, 
jMiss Bertrand Cauhape, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Victor Cauhape. After passing along the 
famed Alameda, he was warmly greeted in 
Santa Clara by Rev. Robert E. Kenna, presi- 
dent of Santa Clara College, who with the 
faculty and students of this historic seat of 
learning, had gathered in front of the grand 
old mission cross, while hundreds of school 
children were congregated near by. 

"The Committee that so successfully plan- 
ned and carried out the program which made 
the sojourn of the President so pleasant in- 
cluded : Judge A. L. Rhodes, A. Greeninger, 

Major C. P. Braslan, James R. Lowe, J. vS. 
Gage, C. W. Coe, J. W. Davy, H. Morton, J. 
E. Richards, A. H. Marten, Dr. Wm. Simp- 
son, L Loeb, H. Center, Geo. W. Ryder, R. P. 
Keesling, S. Sampson, W. L. Woodrow, C. J. 
Cornell, T. A. Carroll, Gus Lion, John 
O'Keefe, L. E. Bontz, J. C. Hall, W. S. Rich- 
ards, H. J. Edwards, G. Peirano, yS. N. Rucker, 
Rev. H. C. Meredith, T. S. Montgomery, John 
Corrotto, Frank Stock, J. A. Chase, Father 
Gleason, A. P. Lepesh, W. E. Graham, Paul 
Masson, George B. McKee, D. J. Gairaud, ]. 
R. Welch, T. J. Stone, J. A. Belloh, Sr., DV. 
A. M. Barker, Colonel Philo Hersey, T. J. 
Riley, H. Doerr, Jackson Hatch, W. C. An- 
drews, Sam Boring, A. S. Bacon, W. H. Jen- 
kines, W. G. Alexander, E. J. Bennett, S. B. 
Hunkins, J. E. Brooke, George Keffel, A. E. 
Shumate, Edgar Pomeroy, W. P. Lyon, A. C. 
Hubbard, J. H. Henrv, Avery Porter, Dr. H. 
J. B. Wright, J. H. Campbell, H. Peckham, 
Patrick Murray, L T- Cherrie, George N. Her- 
bert, Charles Kenyon, T. C. Barnett, T. W. 
Hobson, F. W. Moore, and J. R. Patton. The 
next da}r the presidential party was given a 
right royal greeting by President David Starr 
Jordan at the Leland Stanford Jr. University, 
and by the students and residents of Palo Alto 
and Mayfield." 


Passing of the Old Landmarks of San Jose — The Fair Grounds, Live Oak 
Park and Prevost's Gardens — Stories of the Old Court House and the 
County Jail — Crimes and Tragedies of Those Days — Naglee, Hensley 
and Belden Residences. 

The old landmarks of San Jose are fast dis- 
appearing. There are few, very few, of the old 
adobe houses of the '50s, '60s and 70s. The 
old pleasure resorts are gone, but in their 
places are spots better adapted to the large 
and rapidly growing population of the twen- 
tieth century. For years Agricultural Park, 
or the Fair Grounds, furnished entertainment 
for the farmer and the lover of speed perform- 
ance. It was here that General Grant, after 
his trip around the world, was treated to a 
running race against time by Occident, then 
the property of Senator Leland Stanford. The 
park was owned and managed by an agricul- 
tural society organized in 1854. The first of- 
ficers were: L. H. Bascom, president; J. F. 
Kennedy, vice-president; E. P. Reed, record- 
ing secretary; W. S. Letcher, corresponding 
secretary; F. G. Appleton, treasurer; and J. 

B. Allen, ]\Ir. Frost, James Houston, Joseph 
Aram, \^^ R. Bassham, Dr. Langborne and 
Samuel Robinson, managers. No fair w'as 
held by this society, Ijut in 1856 the State Ag- 
ricultural Fair gave an exhibition, at which 
Santa Clara County carried off the honors. 
Prior to establishing the Agricultural Society 
a horticultural societ}^ had been formed and 
the two interests were united in 1857 with the 
election of the following oflicers : president, 
William Daniels : vice-presidents, Coleman 
Younger and Joseph Aram ; secretary, J. C. 
Cobb ; treasurer, R. G. Moody ; directors, L. 
A. Gould and Louis Prevost. A fair was held 
in September and also one in 1858, but the 
difficulties attending these exhibitions made 
it evident that they could not be continued 
under the then system of management. The 
society had no funds, l^ut was obliged to rely 



on voluntary contril)uti(}ns for its premium 
lists. After much discussion it was resolved 
to disincorporate. This action was taken and 
in March, 1859, there was procured the pas- 
sage of an act incorporating the organization 
under the name of the "Santa Clara \^alley 
Agricultural Society" and from this date ran 
its legitimate history. The first officers under 
the charter were William Daniels, president; 
Cary Peebels and Coleman Younger, vice-pre- 
sidents ; C. B. Younger, secretary: R. G. 
Moody, treasurer; Louis Prevost and H. H. 
AVinchell, directors. 

The Fair Grounds on the Alameda were 
purchased from Gen. H.'M. Naglee, for $6,000 
in 1859 and the work of improvement com- 
menced. The tract contained seventy-six 
acres. Trees were planted from 1872 to 1876 
and the grand stand was erected in 1878. Now 
all was serene. The society held yearly fairs, 
paid expenses and the best horses on the 
coast competed at each exhibition. LTp to 
1880, the Society drew an annual appropria- 
tion of $2,000 from the state. In this year 
the Legislature passed an act dividing the 
state into agricultural districts, Santa Clara 
and San IMateo counties forming District No. 
5. When this law went into effect it stopped 
all state aids to the county society. This 
aid was absolutely necessary as the proceeds 
of a fair would not be sufficient to pay good 
premiums and other necessary expenses. 

The society did not want to change its old 
organization to one under the state law, for 
it might jeopardize the title to its real estate, 
which had become very valuable. The only 
way out of the difficulty seemed to be to or- 
ganize a new society under the state law and 
arrange with the old society for the use of its 
grounds. This was accordingly done and for 
several years fairs were held under the aus- 
pices of the Santa Clara and San Mateo Agri- 
cultural Association. The new society was 
formed from members of the old one. But 
soon fair interest waned and debts began to 
accumulate. Finally the directors of the old 
society sold the grounds and Agricultural 
Park ceased to be. In the hands of private 
parties the place was made one of the most 
attractive in the county. Fences were torn 
down, buildings were removed, and streets 
were laid out and paved. Then l)uilding lots 
were sold and today the tract shows scores 
and scores of pretty l>ungalows A\'ith streets 
and sidewalks in keeping with the highest 
metropolitan requirements. Not a trace of 
the old racing track remrLins. 

Live Oak Park and Prevost's Gardens 

In 1919 the last vestige of adornment of 
what was once vSan Jose's most popular plea- 

sure resort disappeared. The last live oak 
tree in the unimproved section of old Live 
Oak Park was leveled and nothing but an ar- 
ray of unsightly stumps remain to show that 
once upon a time great, many-branched and 
spreading oaks furnished shade and beauty to 
one of the pride spots of the Garden City. 
Live Oak in its glory was a place of romance. 
Here, on moonlit nights of the early period, 
were heard the soothing strains of the Span- 
ish lover as he sang and played while his 
dark-eyed sweetheart raptly listened and soft- 
ly sighed. Here, at picnic and dance, the 
bands played and the great platform quivered 
beneath the feet of happy dancers. No rag- 
time, no jazz music in those times. Instead 
there were the old time mazurka, varso- 
vienne, schottische, waltz, lancers, money 
musk and plain quadrille, the last named given 
laughable variety by the go-as-you-please an- 
tics of the irre])ressi1)le "Tucker." 

In the late '60s and throughout the seven- 
ties Live Oak was in the flower of popularity. 
Familv picnics, moonlight dances, and outside 
excursions, mainly from San Francisco, fur- 
nished joyous divertissement for town and 
country. There were tables for eating, a 
large pool near the banks of the Guadalupe for 
boating and other aquatic sports, ice cream 
and other booths, and long, shady walks 
among the giant trees and along the banks 
of the peaceful arroyo. Don Antonio Sunol, 
one of the early Spanish settlers, was the 
owner of the park and after his death the 
Sainsevains took charge of the property. One 
of Don Antonio's grandsons is Paul Sainse- 
vain, the -well-known surveyor and civil en- 

The park, as originally used, extended on 
the north side from the Park Avenue bridge 
to Spencer Avenue and along Spencer Avenue, 
fifty varas deep to within 137^/2 feet of San 
Carlos Street. On the east the property ran 
southerly about 300 feet. The creek was the 
eastern boundary and south and east of the 
park were the extensive grounds of Louis Pre- 
A'ost. He was an enthusiastic gardener and 
to make his place the most attractive spot in 
the suburbs of San Jose, he imported from 
Europe the choicest flowers, iDushes and fruit 
and ornamental trees. The place was known 
as Prevost's Gardens and was open to the pub- 
lic, while for years Prevost kept open house 
in the large mansion in the middle of the gar- 
dens. About forty years ago Prevost went 
into l)ankruptcy and his property was sold by 
the Sheriff, Robert Page, then of the real es- 
tate firm of Rucker & Page, becoming the 
owner of the mansion. A few j-ears later it 
was sold to A. S. Williams, former Ijanker, 
who still occupies it. 



Prevost lost considerable money in at- 
tempting: to successfully establish a silk fac- 
tory. He was the pioneer of Central Califor- 
nia in this industry and while the factory was 
in operation products of his looms were ex- 
hibited and took prizes at the county fairs. 
The factory was located on Delmas Avenue 
near San Salvador Street, but the cocoons 
were raised on a platform above the roof of 
his mansion. The silk worms were imported 
and fed on mulberry leaves. Live Oak Park 
and its attractive neighbor, Prevost's Garden, 
were closed at about the same time. Now, 
where once live oaks flourished and choice 
flowers and shrubbery made beautiful over 
seven acres of ground, are seen up-to-date re- 
sidences and new streets. 

The old Court House is now but a memory. 
It stood at the southeast corner of Second 
and San Fernando Streets. It was purchased 
from A. S. Caldwell for $4,000 and in Decem- 
ber, 1853, was officially declared to be the 
County Court House. The building was af- 
terwards known as the What Cheer House 
and stood until about forty years ago when it 
was torn down to make room for the two- 
story brick building now occupied by the Geo. 
B. McKee Company. 

One of the sensational events of the early 
days was the street duel between Thomas 
Shore and S. J. Crosby. In 1858 Paul Shore 
was killed on Henry W. Scale's ranch, a short 
distance from Mayfield. He had squatted on 
a portion of the ranch land and thereon had 
erected a cabin. Thomas Scale, Henry's 
brother, believing that Shore had no legal 
right to occupy the land, resolved to eject him. 
One day he went to Shore's cabin for the 
purpose of carrying out his resolve. He was 
accompanied by Alexander Robb, a hired man. 
Shore was at home and a wordy dispute arose 
between the two men. While it was going on 
S. J. Crosby, a neighbor, and a friend of Scale, 
came up. He had borrowed a pistol from 
Scale some time before and had hunted up 
Scale, so he said, for the purpose jf returning 
the weapon. Scale took the pistol and in the 
altercation that ensued Shore was shot and 
mortally wounded. The report was after- 
ward circulated that Crosby, who had wit- 
nessed the shooting, had set Scale's dog on the 
wounded man and had stood by urging the 
dog on until Shore had ceased to breathe. 
This report aroused a bitter feeling against 
Crosby. That evening Thomas Scale came to 
San Jose and delivered himself into the custody 
of Sheriff John M. Murphy, stating that he 
had killed a man in self-defense and desired a 
public investigation. The next day word 
came from Mayfield that the settlers were lay- 
ing plans to lynch Crosby. To prevent such 

action Under-Sheriff John R. Wilson was in- 
structed to go down to Mayfield, arrest Cros- ' 
by and bring him to the County Jail. To le- 
galize the proceeding a complaint charging 
Crosby with being an accessory to the killing 
of Shore was made out and placed in Wilson's 
hand. The arrest was easily made. A prelim- 
inary examination followed and Crosby was 

In March, 1859, Thomas Scale and Robb, 
the hired man, were placed on trial in the 
Third District Court, Judge Sam Bell McKee 
presiding. J. A. Moultrie, as district attorney, 
conducted the prosecution and AVilliam T. 
Wallace and C. T. Ryland appeared for the 
defendants. Crosby had been summoned as a 
witness and it was while the case was before 
the Court on Second Street, corner of San Fer- 
nando, that the second' tragedy was staged. 
It was near the noon hour and Crosby was 
walking by Thomas Bodley's stable on San 
Fernando Street, between First and Second, 
when he was hailed from behind by Thomas 
Shore, the brother of Paul. Crosby turned 
and the duel opened. At the opening of the 
engagement Crosby received a mortal wound, 
but for a few minutes was able to keep on his 
feet and use his pistol. His firing was wild 
and none of the bullets reached his adversary. 
But one man, an innocent party, received his 
death wound. The man was L. Posey Fer- 
guson, a miner from Grass Valley, who had 
come to San Jose with a friend who was on 
his way to his Missouri home. Ferguson had 
entered the court room to listen to the pro- 
ceedings. When the duel outside opened, he 
said: "What does that mean?" and rushed 
for the door. He was standing on the steps 
when a bullet entered his breast. He stepped 
back a few paces, then sank on a bench and 
died in a short time. The coroner's jury found 
that the shot had been fired by Samuel J. 

When Crosby saw that he %vas at a disad- 
vantage, he staggered toward the Court 
House, but fell at Bodley's gate. It was ' 
claimed at the time that two or three persons, 
as well as Shore, shot at Crosb)^, who was on 
his knees, trying to cock his pistol, when there 
came the bullet that ended his life. The duel 
over, Thomas Shore mounted a horse and fled 
to the mountains. He was never prosecuted 
for the killing. The cases of Scale and Robb 
were transferred to Alameda. In each case a 
verdict of acquittal was rendered. 

Another old landmark that has disappeared 
was the county jail, located at the southeast 
corner of Third and San Fernando Streets, 
not far from the Court House. The first 
county jail was located on the lot occupied by 
the old State House on Market Street, fronting 



the Plaza, and was erected in the da3's of '49. 
In 1854 a contract was awarded to Marcus 
AVilliams for the erection of a jail buildino^ at 
the southeast corner of Second and San Fer- 
nando Streets. The price was to be $15,000 
and R. B. Buckner was appointed to superin- 
tend the construction. The jail was complet- 
ed Januar}' 2, 1855. It was of brick, with iron 
cells, and was considered a remarkably secure 
place for the confinement of prisoners. It was 
used until 1871. When the new Court House 
on First Street, near St. James, was built, it 
was found necessary to have the county jail 
nearer to the court rooms and Levi Goodrich 
was directed to prepare plans and specifica- 
tions. The plans were submitted and adopted 
and during the next )-ear ( 1870) the jail was 
completed and in use. The brick of the old 
jail was used in the new building. The old 
jail lot was sold for $5,850. 

The killing of Jailer Martin Roohan at the 
old jail was preceded by a tragedy at the 
adobe house of Harry Bee. The date Avas 
Mondaj', July 30, I860, at about four o'clock 
in the morning. There had been a night of 
festivity and during the merrymaking Felipe 
Hernandez, a desperate character, who had 
already been tried for one murder and though 
convicted by one jury was on a second trial 
found not guilty, entered and proceeded to 
make trouble. In a dispute over the owner- 
ship of a guitar, Hernandez shot and killed 
John Bee, the son of the host. On hearing 
the report of a pistol Harry Bee rushed into 
the room and in tr3dng to intercept the flight 
of Hernandez was shot in the leg. Amputa- 
tion was afterward performed. Hernandez es- 
caped, but after srnne months was captured, 
tried and sentenced to death. The account of 
the murder of Roohan is taken from the 
Mercury of October 2, 1862. 

"Felipe Hernandez, a prison confined in the 
count}' jail for murder and sentenced to be 
hanged on Friday last (Oct. 24th), performed 
on the preceding evening one of the most dar- 
" ing deeds of desperation that it Tias ever fallen 
to our lot to reciird. Felipe is a native Mexi- 
can, about thirty years of age, rather fine look- 
ing, with a keen, piercing eye. He is about 
five feet eight inches in height, weighing not 
more than 150 pounds, but evidently possess- 
ing the strength and agility of a tiger. The 
jailer, Martin J. Roohan, was a large, power- 
fully built man, sixty-three years of age, pos- 
sessing immense strength and cool, unflinch- 
ing courage. He had had much exjjerience in 
handling and managing desperadoes and had 
unlimited confidence in his ability and nerve 
for any emergenc}'. 

"On the lower floor of the jail there are 
three large cells, opening into a corridor or 

hall, al^out six feet in width and perhaps thirty 
feet in length. The middle cell, in which 
Felipe was confined, is lined with boiler iron 
and is otherwise made as secure as is deemed 
necessary to restrain the hardest cases. It is 
used exclusivelv for condemned prisoners or 
such as are awaiting trial for capital offenses. 
This cell Felipe occupied alone. 

"On Friday morning (the 24th) while the 
sheriff was in our office attending to some 
business, his deputy, Mr. Chapman, came in 
and informed him that he was unable to get 
into the jail and wondered what had become 
of Roohan. Suspecting that soniething was 
wrong, in company with the sheriff and two 
or three officers, we repaired immediately to 
the jail yard and soon effected an entrance. 
The outer door of the jail was closed, but not 
locked. The door leading to the corridor 
we found open. On passing through into the 
corridor we discovered the jailer lying on the 
floor, stiff in death, surrounded by all the 
ghastly evidences of a terrible struggle. 

"In the other cells there were a number of 
prisoners confined for light offenses, some 
half a dozen in each. The doors of the cells 
are latticed with iron bars, and whatever is 
transpiring in the corridor, may be witnessed 
by the prisoners within. Roohan usually had 
some one of the prisoners to assist him in 
the domestic duties of the jail. At three 
o'clock on Thursday afternoon, as we learn 
from the testimony of the prisoners at the 
coroner's inquest, the jailer and his assistant 
brought in the dinner and placed it on the 
floor of the corridor near the cells. It was 
the custom to feed Felipe first. Mr. Roohan 
unlocked the door and bade his _:ttendant to 
pass in the food. The attendant passed into 
the cell. Felipe, who had freed his hands in 
Slime way, with the quickness of thought 
dashed the man aside, sprang upon and seized 
Roohan by the body, at the same time getting 
possession of a knife which the jailer wore in 
a lielt at his waist. Then commenced the fear- 
ful death struggle, in the presence of the other 
prisoners, who were unable to icnder either 
party the least assistance. The waiter, who 
is an iinbecile old Mexican, shrank with ter- 
ror to the end of the corridor. The jailer car- 
ried a revoh-er at his belt, but Felipe hugged 
him so closely that he was unable to get at 
it. There A'i'ere riveted upon the ankles of 
the prisoner at the time immense iron 
shackles, weighing one hundred pounds, and 
yet the other prisoners testify, they seemed of 
n(j weight to him. He had wound them with 
cloth and strap]X'd them to his limbs in a 
way as to be of as little inc<in\enience as pos- 
silde. AA'ith a knife in one hand at libertj^ and 
with the other firmly grasping the body of his 



Aictim, he A\as a match for anvthiny; human. 
He apphed the knife lirst to the throat of his 
victim, inflicting frightful wounds. This 
brought Roohan to his knees. Struggling to 
his feet he put forth every eft'ort to overpower 
his wily foe. But weakened by the blows al- 
ready inflicted he was unequal to the task. 
Felipe then stabbed him through the heart 
and into the lungs, killing him instantly. 
He then informed the other prisoners, not 
one of whom was armed, that if they gave 
any alarm they would share Roohan's "fate, 
and they knew he would keep his pro- 
mise. The prisoners say he appeared per- 
fectly cool, both at the time of the mur- 
der and afterwards. With the keys in his 
possession, he now had command of the jail. 
Unlocking one of the cells, in which there 
were five men, he thrust in the trembling- 
Mexican waiter and again locked the door. 
Among the prisoners in this cell was a Chileno 
in irons, who had been imprisoned the day be- 
fore for stabbing a man at New Alameda. 
Felipe, after working half an hour, removed 
the irons and released the man, and they both 
together went into Roohan's private room, 
where they found files and old chisels neces- 
sary for their purpose. The task was a long 
and arduous one. The heavy shackles spoken 
of were secured to the ankles with half-inch 
bolts, riveted in the most substantial manner. 
The witnesses testify that it must have been 
two o'clock in the morning when the filing 
and hammering ceased. The desperadoes 
then made their escape, taking with them two 
revolvers and over $800, which Roohan was 
known to have had in his possession." 

Felipe was a desperate, bloody minded man. 
He had been several times tried for capital 
crimes ; once for the killing of Carobine at 
Alviso, for which he received a sentence to 
state prison for life, but was pardoned out by 
Governor Weller. When sentenced to be 
hanged for the murder of John Bee he mani- 
fested supreme unconcern. But later he 
changed his tactics, successfully playing the 
penitent. The jailer frequenly found him on 
his knees, praying, and it was with difficulty 
that he was induced to partake of food. His 
cross was alwa3'S before him and he prayed 
with a perseverance that would have done cre- 
dit to a saint. B}- this means he threw Roo- 
han off his guard. AVhen the sherifif suggest- 
ed the propriety of having some one stajr 
with him on the night preceding the execu- 
tion, Roohan declared that there was not the 
slightest necessity for such a precaution — all 
was serene and Felipe was as gentle as a kit- 
ten. As soon as the facts in the case became 
known to Sheriff Kennedy, every exertion to 
effect the capture of the murderer was made 

and a large reward Avas offered. It was after- 
ward reported that Felipe escaped to Mexicf) 
where he joined a party of revolutionists and 
that on lieing ca|)tured he was shot and 

Another escape from the old county jail 
took place in 186.^. A stage-driver named 
John Marr, alias "Wild Cat," had an alterca- 
tion with anotjier driver, a Frenchman named 
Peter Veuve, at the Washington Hotel, on 
Market Street, on the morning of Tuesday, 
Novemljer 18, 1862, which resulted in the 
death of 'Veuve. It appeared from the testi- 
mony that an old grudge had existed between 
the two men. "Wild Cat" accused Veuve of 
stealing money from Mr. Dutech, the stage 
owner. The Frenchman denied the allegation 
and threatened, on the day of the tragedy, that 
he would have a "Wild Cat" skin before night. 
Both men boarded at the hotel. There was 
trouble at the breakfast table, but they were 
prevented from doing personal violence. They 
then proceeded to the stable to "fight it out." 
r)n the way to the stable Veuve said to Marr, 
"I am unarmed. How is it with you?" Marr 
said, "No," a statement that proved to be 
false, as he shortly drew a knife and cut 
Veuve in the arm and the abdomen, causing 
death in a few hours. Marr was arrested, 
tried, convicted and sentenced to death. The 
sentence was imposed in the winter of 1862- 
63. Pending the carrying out of the death 
penalt}' Marr was placed in a cell at the old 
county jail, having as companion one Abner 
vSmith, who was awaiting death by hanging 
for the murder of a man named Van Cleave 
at Santa Clara. Smith was a large, heavily- 
built man, while Marr was small and thin. At 
the time E. H. Swarthout was the jailer, suc- 
ceeding Roohan, and when he assumed office 
a change was made in the jail arrangements. 
Instead of entering the murderers' cell by 
way of the door, he had a hole cut in. It was 
about waist high, had a cover, and this cover 
was kept closed and locked when not in use. 
The cells were in a long tank with a corridor 
around it. The corridor had only one en- 
trance and that was by a door ooening into 
the jailer's office. One evening a short time 
before supper "Wild Cat" and Smith, who had 
been planning to escape, made read}^ to put 
their plans into execution. The lock of the 
cover was broken, and "Wild Cat," assisted by 
Smith, managed to get through the hole into 
the corridor. Then Smith tried to follow 
"Wild Cat's" example, but on account of his 
size was compelled to give up the attempt. 
He could insert his head and one shoulder, 
but his physical bulk prevented further pro- 
gress. "It's no use," he groaned, "I can't 
make it, so get j'ourself out as quick as 3rou 



can and I'll stay here and take my medicine." 
"I'll have to, I reckon," returned "Wild Cat," 
"but I'm sorry to leave you. If I only had an 
hour in which to work, I could make that 
hole big enough to get you through." As he 
had onh' five minutes at his disposal he bade 
good-bye to Smith, closed the aperture and 
sought concealment at the further end of the 
tank. The jailer appeared on time, careless- 
ly leaving open the door of his office. "Wild 
Cat" was counting on this act and before 
Swarthout reached the cell door to discover 
what had been done, "Wild Cat" had slipped 
around the corner and gained the office. 
When the jailer found that "Wild Cat" had es- 
caped from the cell, he hurried to the office 
and out of the office into the street. The fugi- 
tive was not in sight. That night a search of 
the city was made by city and comity officers, 
but no trace of the missing prisoner could be 
found. On April 2, 1863, "Wild Cat" was ar- 
rested in Stockton and brought back to San 
Jose. But he was never hanged. A petition 
for a new trial on the ground of newly discov- 
ered evidence was granted and eventually the 
sentence was changed from death to impris- 
onment for life. Ten years later the Governor 
issued a pardon and "Wild Cat" returned to 
San Jose. He died here many years ago. 
Smith, for his crime, died on the gallows. 

The last escape from the old jail occurred 
on the morning of February 15th, 1866, and 
was followed by a tragedy. Two Indians, 
under arrest for a murder committed in Santa 
Cruz County, overpowered W. H. Hendricks, 
the jailer, and after a desperate struggle suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the jailer's pistol. They 
then ran out of the jail and into Third Street. 
Hendricks cjuickly secured anothti pistol and 
fpllowed in pursuit. He came up with one of 
the fugitives before he had gone a block and 
fired, wounding his man. A return shot 
pierced Hendricks' brain killing him instantly. 
The murderer ran along 1'hird Street and con- 
cealed himself under an unfinished building, 
A crowd gathered around and a fusillade of 
shots were fired at the crouching murderer. 
He was soon dispatched. The .partner of his 
crime and flight was afterward caught and 
hanged at Santa Cruz, May 21, 1866. 

The killing of William Cooper brought for 
a short time to the old county jail a man 
\vhose act created one of the great sensations 
of San Jiise. The stor}- f)f the killing hinged 
upon the actions of a girl in her teens. In 
the late si.xtics Hlanche I.)ul)nis was a student 
at the San Jose Institute. She \vas a very 
pretty girl, tall, dark, slender and graceful, 
Avith languishing eyes and a sunny smile. She 
had many admirers and there was hardlv a 

day when she was attending school that she 
was not seen walking with one or more of 
them. After she left school for her father's 
ranch on the Monterey Road near the ceme- 
tery male callers reached such numbers that 
Orrin Dubois, the father, grew irritable and 
suspicious. At last the girl's admirers sim- 
mered down to one young man, William 
Cooper, an Englishman. He was about twen- 
tv-five years of age, well-educated and of 
pleasing address. He had been a Union sol- 
dier and had in his possession his discharge 
papers. He had resided in San Jose for about 
six months and being short of money had 
worked at odd times for Dubois, his last en- 
gagement ending January 24, 1868. The evi- 
dence showed that during the last two weeks 
of his stay at the Dubois ranch he had induced 
Blanche to consent to an elopement, promis- 
ing to take her to New York and marry her, 
as under the laws of California he could not 
do so here without the consent of her parents. 
It was claimed that the grandfather of the 
girl was a party to the secret arrangement 
and carried messages from one to the other. 

On Monday afternoon, January 27, Cooper 
called on Dr. Kline, an acquaintance, made a 
confident of him, said he expected trouble, 
as Dubois did not like him, and requested the 
loan of the Doctor's revolver. Kline refused 
to lend the weapon, but Cooper succeeded in 
borrowing a Derringer of Wesley Stevens, 
another acquaintance. In the meantime, Dr. 
Kline, from a sense of duty, communicated his 
knowledge to Police Officer Mitch Bellow and 
advised him to keep a watch on departing 
trains. Bellow immediately notified Dul)ois, 
and Blanche, under severe cross-questioning, 
admitted that Cooper was to come to the 
ranch house on a certain night, after the old 
folks were in bed and asleep, meet her and 
then proceed to carry out the arrangements 
for the elopement. She also said that she had 
agreed to leave the front door partly open and 
also that she had promised to gather all the 
money and jewelry she could lay hands on. 
Thus forewarned, Dul)ois watched for the in- 
truder the great part of Tuesday night. On 
AVednesday he came to town for the purpose 
of taking advice as to what he should do un- 
der the circumstances. He was a,>ised to de- 
fend his ])remises, to treat Cooper as he would 
treat any marauder who should tr}- to enter 
his house with felonious intent. ( )n return- 
ing home, Dul)ois ordered Blanche to keep to 
her room after dark, for he intended to meet 
Cooper and ha^•e it out ^vith the fellow. Night 
came and the hours passed until it was close 
upon midnight. The iiouse was still and Du- 
l)ois at the front door, which had l)een opened 
a few inches, waited, shotgun in hand, for 



Cooper to appear. His vigilance was re- 
warded. At the appointed time Cooper came 
lip the walk, and was about to mount the steps 
to the porch when the door was thrown open 
and the shotgun spoke. P>oth barrels were 
discharged and as Cooper settled down to the 
ground, Dubois closed and locked the door 
and came out again no more that night. Both 
shots had taken effect in the side and stomach. 
Though mortally wounded. Cooper dragged 
himself through the Dubois grounds until he 
reached the home of a rancher named Reeves, 
half a mile away. He died an hour later. The 
next day Dubois drove to town and surren- 
dered himself to the officers. Pending exam- 
ination he was confined for a short time in the 
old jail. The court proceeding resulted in his 
discharge. Blanche married a few years after 
the tragedy and left San Jose never to return. 
Shortly after the killing of Cooper, another 
man slayer was for a short time a cell occu- 
pant at the old jail. The man slain was Harry 
Love, alias "The Black Knight of the Sey- 
ante." He was a man of immense frame and 
of unquestionable bravery. He commanded 
the company that dispersed the notorious rob- 
ber band of Joaquin Murietta, the last fight on 
the San Joaquin plains resulting in Murietta's 
death. Love's wife was a wealthy landowner 
and the family home was near Santa Clara. 
For a number of years she refused to live with 
her husband on account of his cruelty. He 
was, so it was said, in the habit of beating 
her when he could find her alone and unpro- 
tected. It was partly to guard against such 
attacks that she employed Christian Elverson 
to work on the ranch and live in the house. 
Love spent most of his time in Santa Cruz 
County, leading a sort of a hermit's life and 
visiting his wife occasionally. He conceived 
a strong aversion to Elverson, pretending 
jealousy, which was wholly groundless, for 
Mrs. Love at that time was over seventy 
years of age. Finally Love ordered Elverson 
to leave the place, threatening to kill him if 
he stayed on. Mrs. Love earnestly urged him 
to stay and Elverson promised not to leave, 
but prudently armed himself. On the day of 
the shooting — it was in July, 1868 — Mrs. Love 
went to San Jose to transact some business. 
She was accompanied by Elverson. Love, 
who had been staying in San Jose for a week 
or so, saw them together and immediately 
hurried to his wife's house and there armed 
himself with a double-barreled shotgun, a re- 
volver and a bowie knife. A step-daughter 
and a carpenter employed in repairing the 
house were the only persons at home when he 
arrrived there. He went out of the house 
with his weapons, locked the front gate and 

took a ])osition behind the fence to await the 
return of his wife and Elverson, swearing that 
if I{lverson attempted to enter the premises 
he would kill him. The daughter, fearing 
danger to her mother, went into the road and 
when the carriage approached, motioned it 
back. Elverson, misinterpreting the girl's 
gestures, only approached the more rapidly. 
When within about seventy-five yards of the 
gate. Love discharged one barrel of his gun, 
a shot striking Mrs. Love. Elverson at once 
comprehended the situation. Leaping from 
the carriage he drew his revolver, and moved 
rapidly by side steps, upon the enemy, who 
was still crouched behind the fence and pro- 
tected by the gate post. When Elverson had 
come within a short distance of the fence. 
Love discharged the other barrel of his shot 
gun, a number of shots striking Elverson in 
the face and causing the blood to flow freely. 
But perfectly cool and undaunted. Elverson 
kept on his course, exchanging shot for shot 
until a bullet from Love's revolver disabled 
his right arm. Shitting his pistol to his left 
hand he rushed up boldly to the fence and 
sent a bullet through Love's right shoulder. 
Love, having exhausted his shots, immediate- 
ly took to his heels, shouting "murder," with 
Elverson in close pursuit. When near the 
house Elverson overtook Love and felled him 
with a blow from the butt end ul the pistol. 
He was about to finish his work when the 
carpenter interfered. Love died shortly after- 
ward from the effects of an amputation of the 
shattered arm. Elverson was arrested, and 
confined in the old jail pending the prelimin- 
ary examination. At this proceeding the 
judge found that the killing was justifiable 
and Elverson was discharged. 

Old ResidSntial Landmarks 

Another old and very attractive landmark 
was the home place of General Henry M. 
Naglee. It comprised 140 acres and extended 
from Tenth Street to the Coyote on the east 
and from Santa Clara Street to William Street 
on the south. The house was considered in 
early days to be one of the finest in San Jose. 
It occupied a position near the centre of the 
grounds and was surrounded by choice flow- 
ers, shrubbery and ornamental trees. It is 
still standing at the northwest corner of Four- 
teenth and San Fernando Streets. There was 
a perfect forest of trees on that part of the 
grounds not devoted to the culture of grapes. 
From these grapes brandy was made and the 
fame of Naglee's brandy was world wide. The 
General was a veteran of the Civil War. He 
commanded a brigade under McClellan, and 
served with gallantry and ability throughout 



the Peninsular Campaign. He resigned from 
the army shortly after McClellan's removal, 
because he held that his chief had been unjust- 
ly treated. When the avenue was extended 
from the Santa Clara Street bridge through 
East San Jose to the junction with the Mt. 
Hamilton road, General Naglee planted pine 
trees on both sides of the avenue for its en- 
tire distance and otherwise greatly assisted in 
the improvement of the roadway. In honor 
of his services the extension of the avenue was 
called for many years Naglee Avenue. Some 
j'ears after his death, the heirs concluded to 
cut up and sell the property. The business 
was placed in the hands of Thomas S. Mont- 
gomery, now president of the Garden Cit}' 
Bank and Trust Company, and in 1907 the 
work was started. Toda}^ the immense tract 
of land is covered with pretty and costly bun- 
galows, paved streets and sidewalks and love- 
ly gardens, making it one of the finest resi- 
dence spots in Central California. 

Still another old landmark was the Hensley 
property, on North First Street. It extended 
from the Southern Pacific tracks to Empire 
street on the north and from First to Fourth 
on the east. The house was large, roomy 
and built in the old southern st3de, while the 
ornamentation of the grounds made the place 

one of the beauty spots in San Jose. Major 
Hensley was a '49er and died in 1865, highly 
respected for his integrity and public-spirited- 
ness. In 1886 the old home was removed 
and the estate subdivided and placed on 
the market, T. S. Montgomery handling the 
sales. Today there are new streets and hand- 
some residences' where once was one large 
garden and a touch of the primitive. 

In 1887 the old homestead property of 
Tosiah Belden on First Street near Empire 
was purchased by the Hotel Vendome com- 
pany. This sale marked the passing of anoth- 
er old landmark. The property comprised 
eleven acres and was planted as a park. The 
house, or mansion, was one of the few costly 
edifices erected in the early fifties. Josiah 
Belden was a '49er and long before the sale to 
the Vendome company he went east with his 
family, became a New York banker and died 
a multi-millionaire. The Belden property, 
then owned bv C. H. Maddox, was sold for 
$60,000, and a' hotel building, costly $250,000 
was speedily erected. The original board of 
directors of the Vendome companjr were J- B. 
Randal, W. S. Thorne, J. S. Potts, L. Lion, 
C. W. Breyfogle, A. McDonald, T. S. Mont- 
gomery, F. H. Mabury, and G. Lion. 


Newspapers in the Early Days — J. J. Owens' Sad Experience — Chas. M. 
Shortridge — E. A. and J. O. Hayes — W. Frank Stewart — Mark Twain's 
Lecture — The Rise of H. C. Hansbrough — Edwin Markham's Venture — 
Alex P. Murgotten — H. A. De Lacy — The Peril of Major Foote — Elliott 
the Adventurer — Kelly and the Grizzly 

Since the early days San Jose has had many 
newspapers ; each started to fill "a long-felt 
want," and each in its honest, able way, carr}'- 
ing out, as far as was possible, the laudable 
resolve. In 1850 Avas published the State 
Journal. The proprietor was James B. Devoe 
and it was discontinued on the adjournment 
of the legislature in 1851. In January, 1857, 
came the San Jose Daily Argus. It lasted dur- 
ing the senatorial campaign and was used to 
promote tlie candidacy of John C. Fremont. 

The first permanent newspaper of the city 
A\-as the San Jose Weekly Visitor. It was 
started June 20, 1851, by Emerson, Damon 
and Jones. At first it was Whig, but went 
over to the Democracy in October. In Au- 
gust, 1852, its name was changed to the Reg- 

ister and was pulilished l^y Givins George and 
T. C. Enierson with F. B, Murdoch as editor. 
In 185,^ Murdoch obtained control of the paper 
and the name was again changed to the San 
Jose Telegraph. In 1860 the Telegraph went 
into the hands of W. N. Slocum, brother of 
Gen. H. AA'. Slocum, who commanded one 
wing of Sherman's army during the march 
"from Atlanta to the Sea." In 1861 another 
change of name was made when the paper 
passed into the hands of ]. J. Owen and B. H. 

The Daily Mercury was started in connec- 
tion with the weekly paper of that name, but 
was discontinued in 1862. In 1869 J. J. Con- 
ni}', who had come down from Shasta County, 
was admitted into the firm and in August of 



that year the puVilication of the daily was re- 
sumed. Mr. Conniy retired from the firm this 
year. In 1871 Cottle sold out his interest to 
Owen. In IS72, Owen, having purchased the 
Daily Guide, again resumed the publication of 
the Daily Mercury in connection with the 
weekly. Soon after Cottle bought a half in- 
terest in both papers, but again sold to Owen 
in 1874. In 1877 it was incorporated under 
the style of the Mercury Printing and Pub- 
lishing Company, Mr. Owen holding the ma- 
jority'of the stock. In 1884 he sold his inter- 
est to Charles M. Shortridge, proprietor of the 
Daily Times and the name of the paper was 
changed to the Times-Mercury. In 1885 F. A. 
Tavlor entered into negotiations for the pur- 
chase of the paper, but the sale was not con- 
summated. In the meantime the name was 
changed back to the Daily Mercury. At this 
time it absorbed the Daily Republic. In 1878 
Shortridge sold his interest to a local syndi- 
cate, with Clarence M. Wooster as manager. 
Soon afterward the paper became the prop- 
erty of Alfred Holman, present editor of the 
San Francisco Argonaut, and after two years 
of ownership Holman sold to E. A. and J. O. 
Hayes, who have since controlled the paper. 

J. J. Owen was one of the striking figures 
in San Jose journalism. He was a man among 
men, generous, broad-minded and scrupulous- 
ly honest. His editorials were never long nor 
labored, but each went to the root of the cho- 
sen subject in such a graceful, charming way 
as to make the editorial column one always to 
be eagerly read. He was a poet as well asa 
prose writer and in his poems his gentle phil- 
osophy found adequate expression. As a writer 
of pertinent paragraphs and sermonettes he 
was unsurpassed in his day and a volume of 
tabloid essays published in the seventies found 
ready sale. ' Copies may still be found in the 
libraries of old-time residents. 

In Owen's time the "intelligent compositor" 
was conspicuously in evidence. That he sur- 
vived the imprecations showered upon his 
"devoted head" must be accounted for by the 
fact that his head was hard though his sense 
of humor was keen. Once Owen, coming in 
contact with the "I. C," had a rush of blood to 
the head that in the case of a man afflicted 
with hardening of the arteries would have 
caused the formation of a blood clot in his 
brain and consequent paralysis. The instance 
which will be here recorded had its incep- 
tion during the legislative career of the 
veteran editor. It was about fifty years 
ao-o that Owen was elected a member of 
the California Assembly. Nearly all the 
time of the session was taken up in the 
consideration of a prison jute mill scan- 
dal, the board of managers having been 

charged with all sorts of crookedness in the 
management of the mill. Owen presented the 
bill calling fcir an investigation and after its 
adoption a committee was appointed to hear 
the evidence and make a report. During the 
debate Owen's speaking talent was ably and 
courageously displayed. He was among the 
foremost in denouncing the managers and 
when the committee, at the end of the session, 
handed in a report whitewashing the accused 
officials, Owen's indignation knew no bounds. 
He was at white heat over what he termed 
was a travesty of justice when he returned to 
his editorial duties in San Jose. Almost his 
first act on reaching his desk was to write an 
editorial on the jute mill scandal in which he 
expressed in forcible language his opinion of 
the legislators who had given the prison man- 
agers a clean bill of moral health. The article 
was headed "There is no balm in Gilead." 

After writing the editorial Owen went home, 
leaving the proof reading in the hands of the 
foreman of the composing room. Next morn- 
ing he picked up a copy of his paper and pre- 
pared to read what cold type had ma,de of his 
caustic criticism. The first glance at his mas- 
terpiece sent the blood to his head and made 
him rise up on his hind legs and howl, for 
the heading was not "There is no balm in 
Gilead," but "There is no barn in Gilroy." 

As far as the historian can remember Owen 
had but one scrap with an outsider. In the 
earl}^ days personalities were largely indulged 
in. When an oflrending head stuck up the rule 
was to hit it. Perhaps the dearth of local 
news was the cause of editorial bellicoseness, 
but it was not often that a person assailed by 
a newspaper editor would adopt drastic meth- 
ods in dealing with his assailant. But once in 
a while the victim of an editor's attack would 
attempt retaliation by means of personal en- 
counter. Some time in the '70s Owen assailed 
Montgomery Maze, since deceased. Maze was 
a searcher of records and his assistant was 
Mitch Phillips, the capitalist, who died in 
1918. Maze, who was stockily built and very 
pugnacious, met Owen at the northwest cor- 
ner of Santa Clara and Market streets. They 
did not pass the time of day but they did pass 
the lie and then Maze sailed in to make mince 
meat out of the veteran editor. Owen's cane 
parried the initial blow and Maze stopped sur- 
prised but not daunted. He made another 
rush and landed on Owen's nose. Encouraged 
by his success he tried a left hander, missed 
the mark and allowed the cane to accomplish 
its head-aching work. From that time on it 
was cane and fist, the cane doing the gfreater 
punishment. Bystanders interfered when the 
fight was at its hottest. Both combatants 



were good sports and friendly relations were 
soon established. 

\Vhile Charles M. Shortridge was publish- 
ing the Daily Times, a report of the proceed- 
ings of a Democratic County Convention made 
slurring reference to the speech of one of the 
candidates for office. The candidate was a 
Kentuckian Avho possessed a fiery dsposition. 
The report made him see red. He hastened to 
the Thues office and found Shortridge alone. 
With the words, 'T am going to punch your 
head," he made a mad bull rush. The first 
blow tumbled Shortridge from the high stool 
on which he had been sitting. In attempting 
to pursue his advantage the Kentuckian got 
tangled up in the rounds of the stool and while 
he was trying to extricate his long legs Short- 
ridge arose and began to use his fists. -'V 
rough and tumble fight ensued. There was one 
chair in the room and during the struggle it 
was wrecked as was also the stool. Some- 
times the Kentuckian would have the advan- 
tage, sometimes the advantage would be with 
Shortridge. They fought all over the room 
and at l^ist stopped from exhaustion. As they 
lay panting on the floor, with bleeding faces 
and half-closed eyes, a printer looked in. He 
gazed in surprise at the wreck and the pros- 
trate fighters and then said, "An earthquake? 
Strange I didn't feel it when I was outside." 
"It wasn't an earthquake," grunted Short- 
ridge, "It was a Kentucky cyclone." The fight 
did^n'ot settle the dift'erences between the two 
men. The feud remained though there were 
no further warlike demonstrations. 

After a few vears as collector Charles M. 
Shortridge went into the real estate business. 
After a time he succeeded in obtaining suffi- 
cient financial backing to enable him to pur- 
chase the Dailv Times, paying $5,500 for busi- 
ness and plant.' This was in 1883 when he was 
twenty-seven years old. He was, in truth, the 
architect of his own fortunes. Srion after he 
came to California he hired out to the San 
Jose Gas Company as a lamplighter so as to 
obtain money to carr}' him through the puldic 
schools. Having graduated with honor he se- 
cured a position on the Mercury as errand jjoy 
to lie advanced soon to the position of col- 
lector. In 1884 he secured control of the stock 
of the Mercury Printing and Publishing Com- 
pany and in less than two years from the day 
he walked out of the office a poor boy, he 
walked back as a proprietor. He combined 
the Times and Mercury and proceeded to 
make the new journal twice as good as either 
of them Avas beftjre. In the early '''Us he l>e- 
canie the lessee and manager of the San Fran- 
cisco Call, a ])ositii>n he retained for several 
years, i Afterward he studied law, opened an 

office in San Jose, combining this profession 
with that of newspaper proprietor, having res- 
urrected the Daily Times. He gave up pub- 
lishing after an unfortunate experience of a 
vear or so to give his whole attention to the 
law. He was engaged in the practice of his 
profession in Oakland when he died a few 
3^ears ago. 

The semi-weekly Tribune was issued by 
Givins George July 4, 1854. In 1855 it was 
puldished b}'" George & Kendall and in 1859 it 
was sold to George O'Daugherty. In 1862 it 
was suppressed for eight months by order of 
General Wright. In 1863 it was purchased by 
F. P>. Murdoch, who changed the name to the 
Patriot. The paper was a weekly. In 1865 
Murdock commenced the publication of the 
Daily Patriot. In 1875 he sold out to S. J. 
Hinds and J. G. Murdock. In 1876 it was pur- 
chased by the ]\Iurphys and the name changed 
to the San Jose Daily Herald. In 1878 it pur- 
chased and absorbed the San Jose .A.rgus. In 
October, I884, the Herald was bought by a 
joint stock company. H. H. Main was presi- 
dent, W. C. Morrow, secretary, and J. F. 
Thompson, treasurer. Main and Thompson 
are dead. ^Morrow is a resident of San Fran- 
cisco engaged in literary work. As a teacher 
of the art of short stor}' writing he has ac- 
quired a national reputation. While engaged 
in newspaper work he wrote several high- 
class novels and many charming short stories. 
He has a keen, analytical mind and his style 
has the clearness and finish of a master crafts- 
man. He was and is a literary artist, and 
mithing ever leaves his hands that is not pure 
English, charmingly expressed. After he left 
vSan Jose, the Herald was conducted by Main 
and Thompson until it was sold to Charles M. 
Shortridge. In 1900 the i)aper was purchased 
by E. A. and J. O. Hayes and publication was 
continued until it was absorbed by the San 
Jose IMercury. The name of the Mercury was 
then changed to the Mercur)--Herald. The 
FIa3'es brothers are lawyers and mine-owners 
and have at Edenvale, six miles south of San 
Jose, on the ]\Ii>nterey Road, one of the 
costliest and handsomest residences in Cali- 
fornia. The grounds cover many acres 
with a wealth of flowers, shrubbery and 
trees. E. A. Hayes was a member of Con- 
gress for several terms, serving his dis- 
trict with marked ability. J. (J. Haj-es has 
ne\x-r held public office, although he has been 
several times a candidate for governor. ETnder 
tlie progressiAC management of the Hayes 
lirothers the Alercury-Herald has attained the 
largest circulation of any paper, outside of San 
Francisco and Oakland, in Central California. 
It has e\er worked for the best interests of the 



Gommunity and its influence has been far- 
reaching and strong. E. K. Johnston is the 
managing editor and his ability and business 
acumen have In-en marked factors in the pa- 
per's success. 

The San Jose Daily Reporter came into ex- 
istence in 1860. AV. Frank Stewart was the 
publisher. It \\as soon changed to a weekly 
and was discontinued after a few weeks' ex- 
istence. Stewart was a Kentuckian and was 
in Ne\ada when Mark Twain was doing repor- 
torial \\cirk on the Virginia City Enterprise. 
Late in 1866 Mark returned from the Ha- 
waiian Islands and haxing no newspaper en- 
gagement in sight, he wrote a lecture on the 
islands and prepared to make a tour of the 
Pacific Coast for the purpose of putting some 
much-needed money in his pocket. San Jose 
was selected as the place for "tr3'ing it on the 
dog." When Mark landed in town he hunted 
lip Stewart, avIio was then the proprietor of a 
little saloon in a shaky, one-story building on 
a lot on First Street near Fountain Alley. 
Twain found the place and soon enlisted Stew- 
art's enthusiastic cooperation. The saloon 
was a popular loafing place and ]\Iark spent 
much time there listening to Stewart's views 
on his latest fad, "How earthquakes are pro- 
duced." Stewart had a queer theory about 
earthquakes and many lectures on the subject 
were delivered in Music Hall while Stewart 
was a resident of San Jose. In his saloon he 
had an earthquake indicator of his own inven- 
tion, the points of which he explained to the 
Nevada humorist, much to the latter's inter- 
est and amusement. 

Through the good work done by Stewart 
and his friends Mark was enabled to lecture 
to a paying house and he left San Jose pro- 
fuse in expressions of gratitude for the kind- 
ness displayed by his old Nevada friend. A 
few months later Mark was in Buffalo, N. Y., 
doing humorous work for the Express. Clip- 
pings from his writings were made weekly by 
the San Francisco Alta to be eagerly read b}^ 
Alark Twain's many admirers in San Jose. At 
this time no one hailed the arrival of the Alta 
more jovously than Frank Stewart. He was 
heard frequently- to say that ^Mark was des- 
tined to Ijecome one of the great Avriters of the 
age. But one day there came a change. 
Stewart's face grew longer and harder. His 
eiyes flashed with rage and when he found 
'voice to express his feelings it was to pour 
forth the bitterest, most caustic and damna- 
tory language that ever fell from human lips. 
,Mark Twain was an ingrate, a coward and a 
,cur. He was — well, he was everything an 
•.honest man should not be. 

The cause of Stewart's rage was an article 
in the Buffalo I{xpress which said in effect 
that out in San Jose, Calif(jrnia, there lived a 
fellow named Stewart, who had an aged 
mother on wdiom he was depending for sup- 
port, and who passed as the proprietor of a 
ramshackle groggery, where, between drinks, 
he expatiated on earthquakes, a suljject of 
which he knew little and talked much. The 
article further stated that whenever a pig 
came along and scratched his Ijack against the 
front of the building there would ccjme a shake 
that would be promptly registered and as 
promptly telegraphed all over the Pacific 

When his wrath had cooled sufficiently for 
him to use a pen Stewart sat down and wrote 
Mark a letter, which, if it could be found and 
])ublished, would prove one (jf the richest 
things in American literature. He figuratively 
roasted Mark alive. An answer was not ex- 
]:>ected, but it came, nevertheless, in the shape 
of an abject apologv^ Ste^vart, with great 
gusto, read the apolog}' to his friends. Mark, 
in his ktter, disclaimed any intent to slander 
the philosopher and said his only idea was to 
have a little harmless fun. To show that he 
was sincere he asked Stewart to forward a 
IxDok of the philosopher's poems, recently pub- 
lished, promising to review it in a satisfactory 
manner. The book was sent, a flattering re- 
^'iew was given and the breach between Mark 
Twain and Stewart was healed. 

The Daily and AVeekly Courier was started 
in 1865 by Geo. O. Tiff'any. It lasted but a few 

The Santa Clara Argus, as a weekly, com- 
menced publication in 1866. In 1876 the Daily 
.Vrgus was issued and ran until 1878, when it 
was sold to the Herald. W. A. January was 
the editor and proprietor of the Argus. He 
^vas a Kentuckian and a gentleman of the old 
school. There was not a mean bone in that 
tall, slim body of his. Everybody was his 
friend and when he passed away from earth, 
a nonogenarian, San Jose lost a valuable citi- 
zen. Before coming to San Jose he lived in 
Placerville, where he was associated with Dan 
C.ehvicks in the publication of the ^Mountain 
Democrat. It was while he was a newspaper 
publisher in San Jose that he was elected to 
public office. He was a very popular official 
and the Republicans after a time ceased to put 
up any candidate against him. He was county 
treasurer and state treasurer and in his last 
^•ears tax collector of Santa Clara County and 
always the same genial, courteous and faithful 
servant of the public. ; , 



C. Leavitt (Britt) Yates published The Sat- 
urday Advertiser from August 11, 1866 to 
February 19, 1869. 

The Daily Independent was started May 7, 
1870 by a company of printers. It was the first 
paper in San Jose to receive news by tele- 
graph. In December, 1870, it was purchased 
by Norman Porter, who, in turn, sold it to the 
Guide in 1871. 

The Daily Guide was started by Phil Stock- 
ton and H.'C. Hansbrough in February, 1871. 
Hansbrough sold out his interest to Stockton 
that same year. Major Horace S. Foote, who 
wrote "Pen Pictures from the Garden of the 
World," a work that has been largely drawn 
upon in the writing of this history, was the 
editor of the Guide and before the Guide 
started, was the editor of the Independent. 
As a writer he is clever, humorous and inci- 
sive and local journaHsm was the sufferer 
when he dropped the pen to become the finan- 
cial expert of the board of supervisors. In 
January, 1872, Porter took the Guide and sold 
it to J. T- Owen, who merged it into the Daily 

The history of Henry C. Hansbrough of the 
Guide is an interesting one. Before becoming 
a newspaper owner he was a printer and did 
his first work in the Patriot office. After a 
few years' residence in San Jose he went to 
San Francisco. He was a Chronicle compos- 
itor until promoted to the telegraph editor's 
desk. It was while he was a resident of the 
Bay City that the Anti-Chinese agitation 
reached a ferment. Dennis Kearney was 
shouting, "the Chinese must go," and the 
Mongolians and their business allies among 
the whites were in a terror-stricken mood. All 
the while the sentiment in the eastern and 
middle western states was distinctly pro- 
Chinese. To take advantage of the situation 
three enterprising young men — Chester H. 
Hull, city editor of the Chronicle and self- 
styled "The Monumental Liar of America"; 
Sam Davis, the Nevada humorist and brother 
of Robert H. Davis, present managing editor 
of the Frank A. Munsey publications ; and 
H. C. Hansbrough, resolved to procure an ed- 
ucated Chinese and take him east on a lectur- 
ing tour. Hull was to write the speech, Davis 
was to finance the undertaking (it was re- 
ported at the time that he could get $3,000 
from John Mackey, the bonanza king) and 
Hansbrough was to act as business manager. 
But the days passed and no Chinese intelli- 
gent and foxy enough to fill the bill could be 
secured. At this juncture Hull, himself, of- 
fered to do the lecture part by making up as a 
Chinese. Whether the other partners ever se- 
riously considered the offer is not known. 

But there were frequent wranglings which 
ended by a dissolution of copartnership. Da- 
vis returned to the sage brush and Hull went 
back to his desk to perpetrate another of the 
hoaxes which had made him notorious 
throughout the Pacific states. But Hans- 
brough stuck to his guns. He enlisted the in- 
terest and cooperation of Rev. Otis Gibson, 
superintendent of the Methodist Mission in 
San Francisco, and a Chinese interpreter in 
the person of Chan Pak Kwai, was secured. 
The Chinese was good-looking, as sharp as a 
steel trap and had an excellent command of 
the English language. He had lived for a time 
in San Jose and was well known to all the 
court officials. When all arrangements had 
been made and Chan Pak Kwai had been 
properly trained, Hansbrough and his mascot 
left for the east. Lectures were delivered in 
Iowa and Illinois and Chan Pak Kwai was 
feted everywhere by the warm-hearted people 
of the middle west. At last the interest waned 
and manager and performer separated, the 
Chinese to return to San Francisco and Hans- 
brough "to seek fields and pastures new." In 
Devil's Lake, Dakota, he established a news- 
paper and after a time became postmaster and 
interested himself in politics. When Dakota 
was divided to become two states, Hans- 
brough was chosen one of the United States 
Senators for the northern division. He held 
office for eighteen years. 

The Daily Press was published for a few 
weeks during 1882 by J. J. Conmy. 

The Reporter was started by present Under- 
Sheriff Hugh A. DeLacy, in April, 1872. It 
lasted until August. 

The California Agriculturist, Brand & Hol- 
loway, proprietors, came into existence in 
1871. S. H. Herring purchased it in 1874 and 
after running it for a few years sold it to the 
Pacific Rural Press, of San Francisco. 

The Daily Evening Tribune was published 
during the 1872 presidential campaign by 
Clevenger & Armstrong. E. T. Sawyer was 
the editor. The paper opposed Grant and 
supported Greeley. 

The Daily Independent Californian, pub- 
lished by S. H. Herring and Ben Casey, held 
the fort during the local option campaign 
of 1874. 

The Daily Garden City Times was started 
by Edwin Markham, S. H. Herring, Perry- 
man Page and E. T. Sawyer in 1874. It had 
the telegraph dispatches and for a while the 
future looked bright. Markham, who after- 
ward became famous as the author of "The 
Man With the Hoe," "Lincoln and Other 
Poems," "The Shoes of Happiness," and who 
is now an opulent resident of West New 



Brighton, N. Y., was a young man then, whis- 
kerless and thin, black-eyed, eager and im- 
petuous. Herring was the publisher of a 
weekly agricultural paper and an entertaining 
writer on practical subjects. Page was a 
printer who had studied for the ministry. He 
lent the moral support to the undertaking, 
while the other partners furnished the brains — 
such as they were. On the start there was no 
business manager, for it had not occurred to 
these innocents that an attache of that sort 
was necessary for the success of a newspaper 
project. The quartet fondly imagined that the 
mere announcement of the publication would 
be followed by such a rush of business men 
to the of¥ice as would necessitate the employ- 
ment of a score of clerks to attend to their re- 
quirements. Besides, of what use would be a 
business manager — a man to drum up adver- 
tisements for immediate pecuniary needs — 
when an "angel" had been secured, one whose 
purse was large and whose promises were all 
that could be desired. The "angel" was Ben 
Casey, an elderly rancher living on the Los 
Gatos road. He had one hobby and how it 
ruined the prospects of the paper will pres- 
ently appear. 

The Garden City Times was a success from 
the start. ^larkham was the literary editor 
and assisted in the reporting, and his faculty 
of throwing a glamor of romance over the 
most trivial local subject, even though it 
chanced to be the erection of a chicken coop 
or the reception of a watermelon from an ad- 
miring subscriber, gave such interest to the 
local department that his salary was advancea 
after the first week. E. T. Sawyer was the 
city and managing editor and his principal du- 
ties consisted m consigning to the waste bas- 
ket such editorials as m his opinion were not 
in keeping with the conservative policy of the 
paper. These proceedings were looked upon 
as high-handed by Mr. Herring and after a 
week of them he threw up his job in disgust 
and presented his interest in the paper to the 
other partners. 

About this time an advertisement of a sa- 
loon was handed in and inserted. It caught 
the eagle eye of Casey and there came a quick 
and imperative demand for its withdrawal. A 
council of w-ar was held. It was realized by 
the three partners that a crisis had been 
reached. To take out the advertisement 
would mean that in future The Garden City 
Times would not be a paper for all classes, 
but one lined up on the side of temperance at 
a time when the auestion was not being exten- 
sively agitated. The partners were young and 
full of confidence. They felt they could do 
without Casey's money. So the advertise- 

ment stayed and Casey went out. This action 
took place on the second day of the second 
week of publication. The news spread. With- 
in twenty-four hours every man who had a 
bill against the paper presented it with the 
abrupt recjuest for immediate payment. Forced 
to the wall, the partners paid out all the avail- 
able cash, hoping that the worst was over. 
But they were mistaken, for the next move 
came from the printers. They wanted assur- 
ance that they would be paid at the end of the 
week or they would leave in a body. Now 
optimism was followed by pessimism and the 
falling in spirits alTected the tone of the paper. 
Markham, instead of scurrying about town 
with a smiling face, dawdled listlessly in the 
editorial room and used the scissors in turn- 
ing out copy. Former editorials, bracketed 
"by request" at the top were reprinted, while 
Page, in the composing room, resisted a strong 
temptation to swear. The inevitable was ap- 
proaching. Despite a favorable public opin- 
ion, the promises of enthusiastic friends and 
the important fact that the paper had come 
into existence to fill "long felt want," there 
was a conspicuous and lamentable lack of the 
silvery sinews of war. After eleven days of 
experience the partners stopped publication. 
Then they collected all the bills due for adver- 
tising, paid off the printers and walked to St. 
James Park. Seated on a bench in a shady 
spot they divided $27 into three equal parts, 
pocketed each his share and talked of emi- 
grating to the South Sea Islands. 

The Daily and Weekly Advertiser was pub- 
lished by B. H. Cottle from May to December, 
1875. The Weekly Balance Sheet, a commer- 
cial paper, was started by H. S. Foote in Feb- 
ruary, 1876. It was discontinued the next 
year. The California Journal of Education 
was run for four weeks in 1876. George Ham- 
ilton -was the publisher. The Temperance 
Champion was published by A. P. Murgotten 
in 1876. It was discontinued the next year. 

The Pioneer, devoted to the interests of the 
men of '49 and the early '50s, was started by 
A. P. Murgotten in 1876. It was discontinued 
in 1881. Mr. Murgotten was well fitted for the 
task of placing on record the experiences of 
the California pioneers. He came to the coast 
in the early days and for many years lived in 
Placerville, coming to San Jose in 1866 with 
his brother-in-law, W^ A. January, to assist in 
the publication of the Argus. He has the honor 
of being the dean of the newspaper guild of 
California, his experience covering fifty-five 
years, beginning with "devil" and ending with 
editor. He is a fluent, graceful writer, with a 
clean, conscientious sense of duty. He holds 
the belt as correspondent, having been the 



first to represent in San Jose the following San 
Francisco papers: The Alta, Examiner, Chron- 
icle and Call. During the famous Normal 
School investigation he sent to the Call regu- 
lar reports of the proceedings of the legisla- 
tive committee, his copy averaging 5,000 
words daily. As the reports were taken in 
long hand it will be seen that Mr. Murgotten 
had use for CA'ery minute of his time. After 
serving as reporter for the Argus (weekly and 
daily) he started in business for himself, in 
turn publishing the Temperance Champion, 
The Pioneer and a paper devoted to the inter- 
ests of the Elks. It was on The Pioneer that 
his liest, most valuable work was done. The 
paper Avas the first of its kind to be published 
in the state and its great historical value was 
at once recognized and appreciated. In these 
later days Mr. Murgotten is liest known as a 
public-spirited citizen, one alwaj'S to the fore 
when projects for the betterment of social 
conditions are under consideration or are on 
their way to fruition. 

The Heaillight, an evening dail}', was 
started l)y a compau}- of printers in 1879. Its 
name was afterward changed to the Record, 
Ijut after a short time it retired from the field. 

The Daih^ Morning Times first saw the 
light in 1879. The proprietors were S. W. De 
Lacy, F. B. Murdoch, j. G. Murdoch and F. 
W. 'Murdoch. In January, 1880, Mr. DeLacy 
became the sole proprietor. It was a success- 
ful venture. Mr. DeLacy's aim was to present 
a paper. Avhich in its treatment of local events, 
should be equally readable and reliable ; in 
general, the implacable foe of wrong, the in- 
flexilde champion of right, independent at all 
times and always fearless in expression of 
opinion. But while success was his, he con- 
ceived the idea that a daily newspaper founded 
and conducted on the principles of the Times 
would flourish in San Francisco. Accordingly 
on September 6, 1883, he sold his paper to 
C. M. Shortridge and went to San Francisco. 
There in 1884 he joined forces with James H. 
Barry and together they began publication of 
the Daily Evening Star. After a few months 
of battling against odds the Star suspended. 
Mr. De Lacy shortly afterward returned an 
San Jose and after a short experience in jour- 
nalism went tfj Tacoma, Wash., where for 
over twenty years and until his death he 
served as deputy collector of customs. When 
in harness he was in his element v.dien expos- 
ing liical aliuses. He A\'as scrup)u]ously hon- 
est, a loyal friend and a genercjus enemy. Al- 
fred Cridge ^vas editorial writer for De Lacy. 
He \vas a short, riily-poly sort (if man, gentle 
and self-effacing. He re\'eled in hard facts 
and dry statistics and his collection of clip- 

pings overran his large cabinet of pigeon 
lioles. Before his arrival in San Jose he had 
ser\ ed the Go\ernment as a detective. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he was one of the assistants 
of Col. L. C. Baker, through whose agency 
John Wilkes Booth, the slayer of Lincoln, 
was located and killed. 

The Daily Evening News was started and 
did l)usiness during the campaign of 1882. 
AA'. D. Haley was the editor. 

In 1883 H. A. De Lacy, present under 
sherift' of Santa Clara County, established the 
City Item. Its name was changed in 1885 to 
the Evening News, a name it still bears. Mr. 
De Lacy came to California in 1862 and went 
at work as an engineer at the New Almaden 
mines. In 1865 he came to San Jose and was 
engaged for several years in the business of 
carpenter and c(jntractor. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed deputy sheriff and soon developed 
great skill as a detective officer. When his 
term expired he was elected constable of the 
township. In 1872 he published The Reporter, 
but discontinued it in order to devote all his 
time to his official business. In 1874 he was 
for se\eral months the lessee and manager of 
the San Jose C)|)era House. In 1883 he started 
the City Item and the success of the venture 
was so pronounced that he took in the late 
Chas. W\ \A^illiams as a partner. It was a 
strong combination and the effect was imme- 
diateh' apparent. The business rapidly in- 
creased and the paper has been enlarged many 
times during the thirt3'-five years of its exist- 
ence. In the early '90s Air. De Lacy sold out 
his interest, liaving been elected San Jose's 
chief of police. In that office Mr. De Lacy 
made a reccjrd that any man might be proud. 
of. He was both honest and resolute in the 
performance of his duties, and he soon made 
his name a terror to evil doers. At the expira- 
tion of his term he engaged in business, serv- 
ing f(jr seA'eral }-ears as business manager of 
the Daily Mercury. In 1910 he was appointed 
under sheriff, but resigned after three years' 
service. In the 1918 election a new sheriff, 
George L3de, was elected and his first official 
act was to appoint Mr. De Lacy under sheriff, 
a position he still holds. He is considered one 
(if the most com]ietent and reliable officials 
Santa Clara e\er possessed. 

Chas. "\A'. Williams continued as sole pro- 
jirietor (jf the Evening News until 1917, when 
ill-health compelled his retirement from the 
ardu(.)us work of the office. He sold his plant 
and business to H. L. Baggerly, for many 
years sporting editor of the San Francisco 
lUilletin. Mr. Baggerly is a live wire and the 
News, under his management, has more than 
quadrup!e<l in circulation. The editor is R. L. 


P)urg-ess, whose writings ha\e in a few years 
given him a national repntation. 

The Santa Chira A^alley, a monthly journal 
devoted to the horticultural and viticultural 
interests of the community and the exploita- 
tion of the resources of the county, was started 
by Maj. Horace S. Foote in 1884. In 1886 he 
sold out the paper to H. A. Brainerd, who 
added to its name The Pacific Tree and Vine, 
thus enlarging its sphere of usefulness. Brai- 
nerd continued the publication until his death 
about twent}' years ago. 

It was while Major Foote was engaged in 
newspaper work that he had an adventure that 
he will never forget. In the '60s Charley 
Barr, an Englishman, kept a saloon on First 
Street opposite El Dorado. The place was 
patronized largely by Cornishmen from the 
New Almaden and Guadalupe cpiicksilver 
mines. The rear of the saloon was arranged 
like an English tap room with fireplace, man- 
tel, pipes and tobacco and tables for drinking 
and playing cards. The miners used to flock 
in ever}' Saturday afternoon and usually they 
were quiet and inoffensive. But on one Satur- 
day soAiething happened that made them boil 
with rage. The something was a write-up m 
the Independent. The writer was Major Foote 
and he had made a sensation out of a flying 
rumor of a ghostl}- visitation. The rumor ran 
that for some time the old Chapman quicksil- 
ver mine bevond the cemetery had been haunt- 
ed by the ghost of a murdered miner and 
Foote had asserted that on account of the 
ghost's nighth' walks about the mine residents 
on the Monterey Road were afraid to pass the 
mine at night. It was a well-written, creepy 
story and Foote w-as proud of it and his pride 
was at high-water mark when there entered 
his office a delegation of enraged Cornishmen. 
One of them held in his hand a copy of the 
paper containing the story, and when he ad- 
dressed Foote there was blood in his eye. 
Foote noticed that the men were in liquor and 
it seemed to him that they loomed like giants 
in his little office. Then a harsh voice smote 
his ear. "Are you the bloomin' beggar who 
wrote this piece?" Foote gave an affirmative 
answer. "Then," went on the Cornishman, 
making no effort to master his rage, "You 
have insulted the ghost of my father and I'm 
going to do you up." Foote shivered and then 
looked out of the open window with the idea 
of jumping to the sidewalk. But the distance 
appalled him, so he concluded to leave his fate 
in the hands of the irate miners. He had 
heard of the actions of Cornishmen when 
crazed with drink and out for retaliation on 
enemv or enemies, and the thought that he 
mio-ht be seized, thrown to the floor to have 
his'^ribs crushed by hob-nailed boots, was not 

a Comforting one. lUit he got a firm grip on 
his nerves and replied: "You must be mis- 
taken. 1 ha\e not insulted the ghost of your 
father. 1 have ne\'er in my life spoken disre- 
spectfully of a ghost. In fact it is my rule to 
treat ghcjsts with the utmost courtesy. Eet 
me read the article to you. 1 am sure you 
must have mistaken my meaning." "All right," 
grunted the son of the ghost, "Go ahearl." 

Fo(ite braced up, took the jKiper and pre- 
pared tc> make a fight for his life. y\s he read 
he interlarded the storj' with comments com- 
mcndatory both of the ghost's activities and 
of the character of the miner before he became 
a ghost. The reading linished he noted with 
satisfaction that the hands of the son of the 
ghost were no longer clinched but were hang- 
ing quite naturally by his side. "Perhaps," 
said the spokesman for the Cornishman, "I 
was in the wrong, and perhaps you have been 

stringing me. If I thought " here Foote 

broke in quickly. He wished to cement the 
impression the reading had made. "Listen 
further," he said. Then he went on in an ex- 
temporized speech to extol the virtues of the 
men of Cornwall. He expatiated on their hard 
work, their love for their wives and children; 
their honesty and their generosity. As a law- 
yer making a plea for his client he made such 
a plea for himself as aroused generous emo- 
tions in the breasts of his visitors. He wound 
up with an eloquent peroration that quite set- 
tled the business, for the Cornishmen patted 
him on the back, declared he was a gentleman 
and a scholar and invited him over to Charley 
Barr's to drink the health of His Honor, the 

The Scooper, a humorous weekh', came out 
in 1885. The prtiprietors were E. T. Sawver 
and John T. Wallace. Mr. Wallace, who after- 
wards became justice of the peace and held of- 
fice until his death a few years ago, sold out 
his interest to his partner, after a few months' 
experience. The Scooper lived until 1886. 

The Santa Clara Index was started in 1870 
by a company of printers. W. W. Elliott was 
the editor. One day he had an altercation 
with W. G. Wilson, the foreman of the com- 
|)osing room. Office furniture took the place 
of fists and Elliott emerged with a bruised 
head and a Ijroken arm. His life reads like a 
romance. Erratic, brilliant, nervotis, "his own 
"worst enemy," he moved from place to place, 
ne\er satisfied but always optimistic. He was 
a pioneer resident of the state and in the late 
'50s went to Australia. Returning after an ab- 
sence of several v'ears, during ^vhich he was 
sailor, gold prospector, theatrical agent and 
merchant, he enlisted in the L^nion army ana 
rose to the rank <if major. A\'hen the assas- 
sination of Lincoln occurred he was in San 



Francisco and was one of the leaders of the 
mob that \\Tecked several offices of newspa- 
pers that had published wdiat were considered 
disloyal editorials. To escape possible prose- 
cution he fled to Mexico, entered the service 
of Juarez, the famous Mexican general and 
president and was present as a member ot 
Juarez' body guard at the execution of Max- 
imilian. A prominent position under the Mex- 
ican government was offered him, but he had 
become tired of Mexican life and longed for 
the climate and society of California. He re- 
turned to San Francisco in time to take a 
prominent part in the gubernatorial election of 
1867. Henry H. Haight, the Democratic can- 
didate, was elected and Elliott, as a reward 
for his services, was appointed assistant adju- 
tant general of the state. He resigned after 
serving but half his term and came to Santa 
Clara and became one of the partners in the 
publication of the Index. His row with Fore- 
man Wilson terminated his career in Santa 
Clara. Removing to San Jose he spent sev- 
eral years in doing editorial work for the local 

In the early 70s while the State Normal 
School was under construction a scandal arose 
over the work of the contractor, the Legisla- 
ture ordered an investigation, a committee for 
the purpose was appointed and the sessions 
were held in the court house. Before the tak- 
ing of testimony it became necessary to ap- 
point a stenographer. There were but few 
short-hand writers in those days and there- 
fore competition was not lively. One of the 
applicants for the position was Elliott and 
through Icjcal influence he was chosen for the 
position. And now was shown an instance of 
monumental nerve. Elliott knew no more, 
practically or theoretically of the system of 
shorthand writing than an infant in arms. But 
he was a rapid writer, had a system of abbre- 
viated long hand and a memory that was mar- 
velous. He sat in a corner, allowed no one to 
look at his hieroglyphics and succeeded in 
"pulling the wool" over the eyes of the mem- 
bers of the committee and the attorneys pres- 
ent, although more than once he found him- 
self in an exceedingly tight place. He was 
frequently asked during the progress of the 
investigation to read certain portions of the 
testimony and it more than once happened 
that neither his notes nor his memory tallied 
with the facts, which were mainly in the line 
of statistics. But his unblushing assurance 
saved his face and he was permitted to make 
the necessary corrections without receiving 
other than an admonition to be more careful 
in the future. Elliott afterward declared that 
he worked harder to earn the few hundred 

dollars that his position netted him than he 
had at anything before undertaken. He was 
required to transcribe each day the notes he 
had taken during the session. This work was 
done late at night in order that he might have 
as assistants to notes and memory the proof 
sheets of the fairly full reports given by the 
morning paper. 

In 1872 Elliott's roving disposition led 
him first to Stockton, then to Salinas. 
While doing editorial work in the last 
named city, the shooting of Mrs. Nicholson 
by Matt Tarpey, the politician, followed by 
the lynching of Tarpey occurred. Elliott, act- 
ing as correspondent of a San Francisco paper, 
met the mob half way between Salinas and 
Monterey. Tarpey had been taken from the 
Monterey jail and his captors were preparing 
to hang him to a tree when Elliott arrived. At 
Tarpey's request Elliott took down the 
doomed man's last will and testament and 
then saw the mob carry out its work. Shortly 
after this occurrence Elliott was elected city 
marshal of Salinas. At the expiration of his 
term he engaged in the hotel business in Santa 
Rita, but a too strenuous life had undermined 
^vhat had been a strong constitution, and so, 
after a few years he gave up active business 
and resumed the life of a rover. In the early 
'90s he reappeared in San Jose, did a few days' 
work on one of the daily papers and then dis- 
appeared. About a year later he died in the 
vSoldiers Home at Yountville. 

Another editor with a record was Allen P. 
Kelly, who died in Los xAngeles five years 
ago. In the late '70s Kelly was the editor of 
the San Jose Herald, then under the manage- 
ment of genial Nick Bowden, the attorney. In 
1880 he collaborated with E. T. Sawyer in the 
\\riting of ''Loyal Hearts," a military drama, 
founded on incidents of the Civil War. After 
the production of the play at Stockton, the 
late Governor James H. Budd, playing one of 
the principal roles, Kelly went to Virginia 
City and worked under Arthur McEwen until 
called by William Randolph Hearst to do fea- 
ture work for the San Francisco Examiner. 
/\fter distinguishing himself by the rescue of 
imperiled seamen from a rock in the bay, he 
was detailed by Hearst to go south and cap- 
ture a grizzly bear. He was allotted three 
months in which to do the work. Kelly se- 
lected Ventura County as his field of opera- 
tion. At the expiration of three months there 
was no bear in sight and therefore Hearst or- 
dered him to return to San Francisco. But 
Kelly refused to leave the hills. The deal was 
oft' and his salary had stopped, but still he per- 
sisted in scouring the hills for a grizzly. One 
day he entered Hearst's office in San Fran- 



Cisco and said: 'T have corraled mister bear. 
He is at the depot in a cage. He is for sale. 
Will you buy him?" Hearst said he would 
buy the beast if a price could be agreed upon. 
Kelly saw to it that the sum proposed and ac- 
cepted would cover his expenses and leave a 
comfortable sum for his work. The grizzly 
was named Alonarch and for many years was 
one of the attractions at Gulden Gate Park. 

His long outing in the Ventura hills had 
given Kelly a taste for out-door life. He gave 
up newspaper work and entered the service of 
the state. As state forester he made an en- 
viable record and the state was the loser when 
he resigned his position to re-enter the news- 
paper field. For awhile he published a paper 
in Las Vegas, N. M. As it was not a money- 
making proposition he sold out and went "to 
Philadelphia to fill a position on the North 
American. A couple of years before his death 
he returned to California and for awhile was 
editor of a paper published in Imperial Valley. 

The Enterprise, a weekly paper, was pub- 
lished in Mayfield by W. H. Clipperton in 
1869-70. It was afterward removed to Gilroy 
and the name changed to the Gilroy Telegram, 
but was discontinued after a few months. 

The Gilroy Advocate was established at 
Gilroy September 1868 by G. M. Hanson and 
C. F. Macy. In 1869 it went into the hands 
of Kenyon and Knowlton and in 1873 to Mur- 
phy and Knowlton. In the same year H. Cof- 
fin became publisher and was succeeded in 
1875 by H. C. Burckhart. In January 1876, J. 
C. Martin took charge and was succeeded by 
Rev. D. A. Dryden in October of the same 
year. The paper was soon afterwards leased 
to Frank Dryden and J. Vaughn, who con- 
ducted it a few months and then turned it over 
to F. W. Blake, who continued as proprietor 
until his death in 1907, when his son, W. F. 
Blake, took charge. 

The Gilroy Crescent was established in Jan- 
uary, 1888, by R. G. Einfalt. It had a short 

The Gilroy Valley Record was first issued in 
May, 1881, E. S. Harrison, publisher. In 1884 
it went into the hands of B. A. Wardell who 
changed the name to the Gilroy Gazette. 
Other publishers of the paper up to 1919, were 
E. D. Crawford, John C. Milnes, L. C. Kinney 
and R. G. Einfalt. Kirkpatrick and Johnson 
are the present proprietors. 

The Los Gates Weekly Mail was estab- 
lished in 1884 by H. H. Main. After eight 
months' experience Main sold the paper to W. 
P. Hughes. In 1886 Hughes sold to Walker 
and Fellows. Other publishers were D. D. 

liowman, W. S. Walker, A. B. Smith and A. E. 
Falch. In 1918 the Mail was consolidated witli 
the News. The News was started in July, 
1881, l)v W. S. Walker, who afterward sold to 
W. P.. Trantham, C. C. Suydam and G. Web- 
ster. In March, 1886, Welxster sold his inter- 
est to his partners. Afterward Suydam with- 
drew from the firm. Trantham was sole pro- 
prietor when the consolidation of the two 
papers took place. 

In 1885 a weekly jjaper called the Courier 
was published at Mountain View by George 
Wagstatif. It lasted but a few months. 

The Mountain View W^eekly Register com- 
menced publication in April, 1888, with Frank 
Bacon (now a noted eastern actor) and Harr}' 
Johnston. Afterward came The Leader. In 
1904, P. Milton Smith took charge of both 
papers and consolidated them under the name 
of the Register-Leader. 

The Santa Clara Inde.x was established in 
1869 by a syndicate of printers. It lived for 
a few years and was followed by the Santa 
Clara News which had as publishers C. A. 
Gage, F. E. Ellis, Mason & Widney, and H. R. 
Roth. In 1920 Roth sold a half interest to 
Lawrence Lockney. 

The Santa Clara Journal was established by 
N. H. Downing in 1889. He died in Decem- 
ber, 1904, and the paper has since been pub- 
lished by his daughter under the firm name of 
B. & B. Downing. 

The Mayfield News is published by W. F. 
Nichols. It came into existence several years 
after the removal of the Enterprise. 

The Campbell Press is published by Harry 
Smith. It was started by E. C. Hurlbert in 

The Morgan Hill Times was established in 
1898 by G. K. Estes. He sold to H. V. Pillow 
in 1918. 

The Saratoga Star is a recent publication. 
L. C. Dick is the proprietor. 

The Sunnyvale Standard was established in 
1903. W. K. Roberts is the publisher. 

The Palo Alto Times is published by G. F. 
Morell & Co. It has been in e.^cistence for 
twenty-eight years, having been started b}- 
A\\ H. Simpkins. 

The Pacific Poultry Breeder was established 
in San Jose in 1885 by Chas. R. Harker. With 
one exception it is the only paper of its kind 
published in the United States. 

Rajr W. Harden started the Sul^urban Citi- 
zen in 1914. In 1922 it was changed to pocket 
size. It has won success by appealing to the 
between town and rural reader. 


Early Days of the Drama in San Jose — The First Theater — Stark's Disgust — 
Other Theaters and Interesting Reminiscences of Actors, Professional 
and Amateur — A Few of the Old-Time Minstrels. 

Those who are left of the pioneers of San 
Jose, the sturdy, adventurous men and women 
who planted the stakes fur the advanced civili- 
zation of tuda}', look back with pride and 
pleasure to the early days of the drama in San 
Jose. They recall the professional work of 
actors and actresses of world-wide fame, whose 
performances, if given nowadays would awak- 
en the highest interest, and they linger long 
and lovingly over favorite names and plays, 
peerless productions and delightful dramatic 
incidents. Those were the days of stock com- 
panies, in which the actor to win a high place 
in the profession had to study and strive years 
upon years and to appear in such a round of 
characters as to establish a i)erfect claim to 
dramatic versatility and merit. In the mimic 
world of that day lived and flourished Junius 
Brutus Booth, Edwin Forrest, Charlotte Cush- 
man, Edwin Booth, Julia Dean Ha3me, E. L. 
Davenport, James E. Murdoch and James 

To James Stark is due the credit of estab- 
lishing the first theater in San Jose. The year 
\vas 1859 and he was then in the height of his 
fame, having but recently returned, with his 
wife, from a highly successful engagement in 
Australia. Of all the tragedians who came 
after him, but one bore any resemblance to him 
in style, appearance and ability and that one 
was John McCullough. It must in justice be 
said, however, that Stark had the finer intelli- 
gence, and that in the parts calling for deep, 
dramatic insight and the interpretation of the 
subtler shades of human emotion, he excelled 
the genial McCullough, whose forte was not 
exactly in the line of the purely intellectual, 
but in the delineation of the heroic and the 
muscular. Endowed with a splendid physiciue, 
an imposing carriage, a deep, resonant, finely- 
modulated voice and true c(mception of drama- 
tic requirements, added to a rare, personal 
magnetism, Stark compelled attention and won 
the most enthusiastic plaudits for his perform- 
ances. In the summer of 1859 he purchased a 
lot on First Street, opposite the site of the 
present Victory Theater and upon it erected 
vSan Jose's first place of dramatic amusement. 
The building, which was of wood, had an ex- 
cellent stage and all the appliances of the regu- 
lation theaters of those days. The grand open- 
ing took place on the tenth of October and the 

bill was Richelieu with Stark as the "Cardinal 
Duke" and J\Irs. Stark as "Julie de Mortimar." 
The price of admission to all the plays was one 
dollar, both for dress circle and parquet. Each 
program printed by the late C. E. Vates, con- 
tained the announcement, "Children in arms 
not admitted." 

Mrs. Stark was a star, as well as her hus- 
band. Her first husband was J. H. Kirby, the 
tragedian, who died in San Francisco after 
playing an engagement at Maguire's Opera 
House. His great specialty was Richard III, 
and so powerful was his acting in the death 
scene that it became the delight of the gallery 
and perpetuated the well-known request, 
"Wake me up when Kirby dies." 

Belle Devine, the ingenue of Stark's com- 
pany was a great favorite and during her stay 
in San Jose she was the idol of the male 
younger set. After her season at Stark's Thea- 
ter she married George Pauncefote, an English 
act(jr, who in 1866 engineered a remarkable 
polyglot entertainment at the American Thea- 
ter in San Francisco. The play was Othello. 
The title role was enacted by Pauncefote in 
English, "lago" was given in French, "Cassio" 
in Danish and "Roderigo" in Spanish. The 
audience was large but the play only ran one 
night. Afterward Pauncefote went to China 
and never returned. 

Two very popular members of Stark's com- 
pany were Harry Brown, who did the juveniles 
and walking gents ; and Nellie Brown, his wife, 
who was the soubrette. Brown afterward 
joined the stock company at Maguire's Opera 
House, San Francisco, and some years after 
the death of his wife married Mrs. Harry Jack- 
son, an English actress of high reputation, 
whose "Lady Macbeth" was considered one of 
the finest assumptions in the history of the 
American stage. 

In building the theater Stark was financially 
assisted by the late James R. Lowe, Sr. The 
obligation was satisfied out of the proceeds of 
the first "five weeks' performances. During 
these five weeks, though San Jose then had 
less than 5,000 population, the houses were 
large and the interest intense. The same 
patrons would attend the theater night after 
night, so strong and well balanced was the 
company, so meritorious the plays and so at- 
tractive the personality of Stark and his tal- 



ented wife. The leading- man of the conil)ina- 
tion was Walter Hray, who, when his enoatje- 
ment ended, forsook the sock and Iniskin to 
bask in the smiles of Momus. A lew \ears 
later he was known as one of the brijjhtes't and 
niost successfid Kthiopean comedians on the 
Coast. For a time he was associated with Joe 
Mvirphy, then more appreciated as a l)one 
player than a negro minstrel. 

At the conclnsion of the five weeks' season, 
Stark took his company to Sacramento \\-here 
the San Jose success was repeated. Then 
came what tdd San Franciscans will ah\-a_\'s re- 
member — the i)henomenal engagement at J\la- 
guire's Opera Flouse in which Stark appearing 
in his round of Shakespearean characters, was 
hailed as one of the few great interpreters of 
"Hamlet," "Othello," "Macbeth," "Brutus," 
"Richard HF' and "King Lear." 

Fresh from his metropolitan triumphs Stark 
returned to San Jose and for three weeks 
crowded the benches of the theater, easily re- 
peating the success of his opening season. 
Now it was that he determined to make the 
Garden City his permanent place of residence, 
for from the substantial patronage bestowed 
upon him in the past he had acquired the faith 
to believe that the future was filled with 
golden promises. He purchased the propert}^ 
bounded by Second, Julian and Fourth Streets 
and the line of the proposed Western Pacific 
railway and upon it erected a handsome dwell- 
ing. Subsequently he went to Virginia City, 
Nev., to open a theater there and made con- 
siderable money. Seats for the first night sold 
as high as $500 each and the late Senator W^il- 
liam Sharon was credited with ha\'ing paid 
$500 a night for a set of seats for his friends 
for the entire engagement. 

Again returning to San Jose Stark ])egan 
his last series of performances in the theater 
upon which he had builded so many glowing 
hopes. He had advertised a three weeks' sea- 
son, but owing to the scarcity of money which 
prevailed at that time, the attendance dimin- 
ished so that the three weeks were shortened 
to two. On the night of the closing perform- 
ance there was a "beggarly array of empty 
benches." Then the distinguished tragedian 
came forth in his wrath and made a speech to 
the audience in which he reproached the citi- 
zens of San Jose for their lack of appreciation 
of his efforts, closing with the announcement 
that he should never appear in that theater or 
in San Jose again. He was as good as his 
word. He sold his theater property to Judge 
William T. Wallace and his fine residence 
property to Hon. S. O. Houghton. 

Shortly before this there had been differ- 
ences between Stark and his wife, wdiich after 
a time culminated in a divorce. Mrs. Stark re- 

mained single for :i lew \ears and then mar- 
ried Dr. Gray, of New York, who ])ossessed a 
handsome fortune which Ijecame hers when he 
died. Her last husband was Charles i\. 
Thome, Sr., a \eteran actor and manager and 
father of Charles l\. 'Fhorne, Jr., and Fdwin 
Tliorne, the actors. 

Misfortune overtook Stark in his later years. 
I'^or a time he played with Edwin liooth, but 
after a stroke of ])aralysis, was forced to aban- 
don the stage. His fortune was exhausted in 
endeavoring to obtain relief and when in dire 
|)ecuniarv extremit}' he was rememl)ered hy 
his \\'ife of former daws, wIkj sent him a large 
sum of mone}'. Fie died in the East about 
forty years ago. Mrs. 'Fhorne passed away in 
San Francisco in 1898. 

Samuel W. Piercy, who died of small-pox in 
Ijoston in 1882, after having reached the top of 
his profession as an actor, made his first ap- 
pearance on any stage in Stark's Theater in 
1865. The theater was also the scene of the 
debut of John W. Dunne, who became a popu- 
lar actor and manager and is now a resident 
of New York City. 

After Stark's departure the theater, with 
name changed to the San Jose Theater, was 
turned over to traveling companies whose en- 
gagements were few and far between. The 
last performances given within its walls were 
on the 15th and 16th of March, 1867, by Robert 
Fulfopd's San Francisco Dramatic Company. 
The plays were Michael Erie, Don Caesar de 
Bazan and The Lady of Lyons. In Michael 
Erie the principal characters were taken by 
Fulford, Harry Colton, W. M. Martial, E. T. 
Sawyer, Miss Teresa Berrie and Belle De 
Nure. In April, 1867, the theater was con- 
verted into a carriage factory and leased to 
Hunt & Add. Alterations for other classes of 
business were made as the years rolled on. 
The building still stands, but there is nothing 
in its appearance to convey the faintest sug- 
gestion that it once covered the appurtenances 
of a theater. 

From 1867 to 1870 San Jose theater-goers 
had to content themselves with the meager and 
unsatisfactory accommodations of Armory 
Hall on Santa Clara Street, near Third. Rol)- 
ert Fulford did play "Hamlet" there on an im- 
provised stage with a few rickety wings con- 
stituting the entire set of scenery and the 
ghost arrayed in a horse blanket besprinkled 
with small squares of tin to represent a coat 
of mail. W^hen "Hamlet," stepped on the end 
of a floor board which had not been nailed 
down, causing the other end to strike the 
"King of Denmark" and knock him against the 
wing, there was a cjuick collapse of the whole 
stage furniture and an inglorious termination 
of the performance. 



In 1870 Gustav Brohaska, the proprietor of 
Armory Hall, converted the place into a first- 
class theater and named it the San Jose Opera 
House. The opening night was August 18, 
and London Assurance was given in superb 
style by the John T. Raymond Dramatic Com- 
panv. Raymond, than whom a neater low 
comedian never tickled the risibilities of an 
American audience, was "Mark Meddle" and 
his wife, handsome and popular Marie Gordon, 
was "Lady Gay Spanker." Then followed a sea- 
son of prosperity, of fine actors and good 
pliys. At this house appeared such popular 
favorites as John McCuUough, Barton Hill, 
James O'Neill, Robson & Crane, "Billy" Flor- 
ence, Thomas \V. Keene, Lawrence Barrett, 
James Garden, James A. Heme, Harry Cour- 
taine, Joseph Proctor, Joe Murph}-, Sue Robin- 
son, Jennie and Alicia Mandeville, Fay Tem- 
pleton, Elbe Wilton, Mrs. Sophie Edwin, Mrs. 
Judah, Annie Louise Cary, Clara Louise Kel- 
logg and Caroline Richings. Proctor's connec- 
tion lasted several years as he was then man- 
aging a circuit of theaters. He was the crea- 
tor of that wonderful character in melodrama, 
"The Jibbenainosay," for many years the piece 
de resistance of the Bowery. 

H. A. De Lacy was the lessee of the theater 
in 1874 and one of his first attractions was Fay 
Templeton, the charming vocaHst and child 
actress. James A. Heme, whose "Shore 
Acres," netted him a fortune, \\'as a mentber of 
the company. One of his great parts ^vas "Rip 
Van Winkle," declared by David Belasco to 
be superior to the "Rip" of Joseph Jefl^erson. 

It was at this theater that Eleanor Calhoun, 
afterward a popular London actress and at 
present writing the wife of Prince Lazarovich 
of Serbia, made her first appearance on any 
stage in E. T. Sawyer's military drama, 
"Loyal Hearts." The cast was a local one, 
John T. Malone and H. A. De Lacy sustaining 
the leading male roles. Malone, who was dep- 
uty district attorney at the time, afterwards 
adopted the stage as a profession, became an 
eastern star and died while officiating as sec- 
retary of the Players' Club, founded by Edwin 
Booth, in New York City. 

On the morning of July 5, 1881, the Opera 
House was burned to the ground. But San 
Jose was not left without a place of amuse- 
ment, for the California Theater on Second 
Street near San Fernando, had been running 
for several years. 

The California Theater \\'as erected by 
Hayes & Downer in 1878-79 and was formally 
opened on May 12th, 1879, by a company of 
amateurs. The play was "Evadne" and the 
performers were J. J. Owen, editor of the 
Mercury; J. H. Campl^ell, for many years dean 
of the law department of the Santa Clara Uni- 

versity ; Charles F. Macy, who died in Chel- 
sea, Mass., in 1898; Prof. J. G. Kennedy, city 
school superintendent, now with the dead ; 
Charles M. Shortridge, lawyer, newspaper 
publisher and state senator, who passed away 
in 1919, and Miss Mattie Patton, who after- 
ward became the wife of J. J. Owen. She died 
a few years ago. For the occasion a poem 
written by the late S. W. De Lacy, then pro- 
prietor of the Times, was appropriately re- 
cited by Mrs. Ida Benfey, the elocutionist. 

During the few years of its existence, the 
California was managed most of the time by 
the late Chas. J. Martin, who served as mayor 
of the city for three terms. He made many 
notable engagements. It was at this house 
that the famous production of "The Rivals," 
with Joseph Jefiferson and Mrs. John Drew in 
the cast, was given. Edwin Booth, W. E. 
Sheridan, Laurence Barrett, Thomas W. 
Keene, Louis James, Frederic AVarde, W. H. 
Crane, Stuart Robson, John E. Owens, E. S. 
Willard, Joseph G. Grismer, Nat Goodwin, 
Louise Davenport, Minnie Maddern (who 
later became Mrs. Fiske), Ada Cavendish and 
others appeared. 

Like the Opera House the California The- 
ater went up in smoke on the night of July 
2, 1892. In the same fire the buildings on the 
lilock half way to Santa Clara, together with 
the South Methodist Church and other build- 
ings across the street were burned. 

Two months after the destruction of the 
California Theater the Auditorium was doing 
lousiness under the management of Walter 
Morosco, of the San Francisco Grand Opera 
House. The building had formerly been 
known as Horticultural Hall, but was without 
a proper stage or theatrical appointments. 
Some of these necessities were furnished when 
Morosco took charge, others by Chas. P. Hall 
when he came in as Morosco's successor. 

Other lessees of the Auditorium Avith its 
later name, the Garden City Theater, were 
AVebster & Ross, Frank Bacon and a vaude- 
ville combination. During its few years of 
existence there appeared such attractions a^ 
Thomas W. Keene, Ward and James, Robert 
Downing, John W. Dunne and Mary Marble, 
Richard Mansfield, Nat Goodwin, Mme. Mod- 
jeska, James A. Heme; De Wolf Hopper, 
John- Drew, Henry Miller, The Bostonians, 
Herbert Kelsey, Robert Mantell, Maxine El- 
liott, Mrs. Leslie Carter and Fannie Daven- 
port. Fire destroyed the building in 1918. 

The Victory Theater, erected b}^ Senator 
James D. Phelan, was opened to the public on 
tlie evening of February 2, 1899. An audience 
that filled every seat applauded to the echo the 
fine acting of the performers in "The School 
for Scandal," the play selected for the occa- 



sion. Louis Janios, Frederick W'arde, Marry 
Langdoii and Kathr)-n Kidder had the princi- 
pal parts, and the performance as a whole was 
a clean-cut exhibition of high dramatic art. 
Charles P. Hall was the first lessee. He was 
succeeded by F. A. Giesea, wdio was in charge 
until 1918 when M. B. Haas came in as lessee. 
During; the past twenty-two years the Vic- 
tory has presented the cream of the eastern 
dramatic attractions booked iov the Pacific 
Coast. Among them may be named INIaude 
Adams, Billie Burke, ]\Irs. Leslie Carter. Mar- 
garet Anglin, E. A. Sothern, William Faver- 
sham, Otis Skinner, Forbes Robertson, J. E. 
Kellerd, Robert Mantell, David Warfield", Sa- 
rah Bernhardt, Anna Held, Geo. M. Cohan, 
Walker AA'hiteside, Ethel Barrymore, Hilda 
Spong, Henry Miller, Julia Marlowe, Louis 
James, AY. H. Crane, Nat Goodwin, Blanch 
Walsh, Blanche Bates, Annie Russell. AY. H. 
Thompson and several opera companies. 

The Hippodrome, located on South First 
Street, near the corner of San Carlos, was 
erected by the Southern Development Com- 
pany in 1919 and was leased to Marcus Loew, 
a circuit manager. He is represented in San 
Jose by Ackerman & Harris : B. B. Levin is 
the local manager. The theater has been 
used mainly for vaudeville and motion pic- 

The T. & D. Theater, a motion picture 
house, on South First Street, near San An- 
tonio, was built by the Southern Development 
Company in 1913. The lessees are Turner & 
Dahnken and the local manager, A. M. Miller. 
The Lyric Theater, a small amusement 
house for motion pictures, located on North 
Second Street, opposite the Evening News of- 
fice, has as lessee Geo. S. Jones. Louis Lieber 
is the owner of the building. 

The Jose Theater on North Second Street, 
between Santa Clara and San Fernando 
Streets, was built in 1904 by David Jacks, of 
Monterey County. It was first leased by No- 
lan & Blum. After a few years Nolan retired 
and Blum was the lessee until his death in 
1920. Tames Beatty is now in charge. 

The Liberty (motion picture) Theater is 
located on Market Street, between San Fer- 
nando and Post, was built in 1914 by James 
Beatty, the present proprietor. 

The first amateur dramatic company in San 
Jose was organized in the fall of 1865 with the 
"following members : Charles De Lacy, Sam- 
uel W. Piercy, J. A. Leach, Charles A. Cleal, 
Thomas L. Cleal, John E. Pillot, Edgar M. 
Foster, J. F. McMahon, W. D. J. Hambly, 
W. W. "Thomas and E. T. Sawyer, Misses 
Mary Yontz, Jessie Gavitt, Ellen and Clara 
Skinner. In 1866, A. P. Murgotten, Amherst 
J. Hoyt, John W. Dunne, E. M. Skinner, J. W. 

Johnson and A. L. Hart joined the company, 
se\'eral of the 1865 members having removed 
from the city. In the years up to the early 
'80s, the members included H. A. De Lacy, 
I'. E. York, A. S. York, Charles M. Shortridge, 
Frank Bacon, A. \A'. White, Eugene Rosen- 
thal, Chas. W. Williams, S. W. De Lacy, W. 
H. Sarles, W. G. Lorigan, H. C. Hansbrough, 
John T. Malone, Beatrice Lawrey, Mary 
A\'estphal, Louis Lieber, Geo. W. Alexander, 
Chas. E. Howes, Geo. C. Knapp, George Corn- 
stock. James Carson, Henry Beach, Jennie 
Weidman, Eleanor Calhoun, Virginia Cal- 
houn, Holton Webb, A. Majors Jr., W. G. 
Miller, Harrv Botsford. Guy Salisbury, Chas. 
W. Oliver, Clyde Frost, F.' G, Flartman and 
others wdiose names the historian does not re- 
call. Many of the memliers afterwards 
achie^'ed eminence on the professional .stage. 
Sam W. Piercy was one of the foremost actors 
in America when death called him in 1882. He 
came to California in the early '50s and the 
family home for many years was on Julian 
Street near Sixth. He was a student at the 
San Jose Institute when he joined the dra- 
matic club. In the fall of 1866 he left San 
Jose to enter upon the study of law in San 
Francisco. In 1870 he was invited to read the 
Declaration of Independence at the Fourth of 
July celebration. He acquitted himself so well 
that Col. AY. H. L. Barnes, a personal friend, 
advised him to give up law for acting. Tnc 
advice was followed and in November of that 
}'ear he made his debut on the professional 
stage as "lago" to the "Othello" of John Mc- 
Cullough. It was a complete success and Mc- 
Cullough said he had never witnessed a more 
satisfactory first appearance. After a tour of 
the state with Frank AA^ilton's barn-storming 
company, he played with Joe Murphy and 
other stars for a time and then he left for the 
East. For three years he developed his art by 
playing with such stars as Clara Morris, John 
McCullough and Charlottej Thompson. In 
1876 he sailed for London to play the leading 
part in The A^irginians. The press notices 
were so laudatory and his reputation was so 
enhanced that on his return to New York he 
was at once engaged as leading man at the 
Grand Opera House. The next year he joined 
Edwin Booth's company and was with that 
great actor until the manager of Niblo's Gar- 
den ofifered him the position of stock star in 
the company playing regularly at that popular 
place of amusement. His best parts during 
the engagement were "Lagadere" in "The 
Duke's Motto," "Badger" in "The Streets of 
New York" and "Claude Melnotte" in the 
"Lady of L.yons." There followed an offer 
from San Francisco to come and pla)^ the lead- 
ing part in "Diplomac}-." The offer was ac- 



cepted and a prosperous season was the result. 

In 1878 Pierc}' opened the San Jose Opera 
House, as enlarged and improved, presenting 
■■Diplomacy," ■'Craiga Dhiol" and "Othello." 
In the last named play he appeared as "lago" 
to the "Othello" of John T. ^Malonc, a rising 
San Jose actor. In 1881 he rejoined Edwin 
Booth's company and the engagement was 
still on when he was stricken with small pox 
and died. Just before his illness J. H. Haver- 
ly, the well-known manager, was negotiating 
for his appearance as a star. In 1879 Pierc\' 
married the daughter of William Dunphy, the 
cattle king. She died in Philadelphia in 1881, 
leaving one daughter, who is now a resident of 
San Francisco. 

Eleanor Calhoun was a Normal School stu- 
dent in San Jose when she resolved to make 
the stage her profession. This was in the 
late '70s. She was pretty and graceful, had a 
charming manner and an unconquerable am- 
bition to succeed in life. Her father, a nephew 
of John C. Calhoun, the South Carolina ora- 
tor and statesman, was a justice of the peace 
in Fresno County and her mother had removed 
to San Jose for the purpose of giving her 
daughters an education in the educational cen- 
ter of the state. Nellie (she did not call her- 
self Eleanor until after her dei)arture from 
California) displayed remarkable dramatic 
talent at the Normal School and after leaving 
there gave elocutionary recitals in a tour of 
the coast counties. After this experience she 
entered the dramatic school of Mrs. Julia Mel- 
ville Snyder, mother of Emilie Melville, the 
popular actress and vocalist of the '70s and 
'80s. It was while she was studying for the 
stage that she was induced to come to San 
Jose and play the leading female role in E. T. 
Sawyer's military play, "Loyal Hearts." She 
gladly consented and made lier first appear- 
ance on any stage at the San Jose Opera 
House in February, 1880. Hugh A. De Lacy, 
John T. Malone, Louis Lieber, the sign paint- 
er, and Miss Mary Westphal (now Mrs. Judge 
Richards) were in the cast. /Vt the conclusion 
of the week's engagement she was tendered a 
benefit, as her exceptionally fine acting had 
made her a public favorite. The house was 
packed to the doors and the young actress in 
the glow of her success returned to San 
Francisco and arranged to appear at the Cali- 
fornia Theater, then under the management 
of John McCullough. She made her debut on 
the professional stage as '■Juliet" to the 
■■Romeo" of John T. Malone. The critics 
praised her acting and the engagement was 
continued until she had exhausted her small 
repertoire. Soon after the engagement she 
left for the East and for a year played leading 
parts in a stock company which gave per- 

formances in middle eastern and southern 
cities. London next called her and it was not 
long before she had worked herself into a 
leading position in one of the high class thea- 
ters. Under the auspices of Lady Archibald 
Camp1)ell she played "Rosalind" in "As You 
Like It" in an al fresco production, to the 
warm approbation of the large audience as- 
sembled. She was next heard of in Paris, 
where she studied French, attaining such a 
mastery over the language as to give her con- 
fidence to appear before the Paris footlights 
in a French play with the great Coquehn as 
leading support. About a dozen years ago she 
was married to Prince Lazarovich, a claimant 
to the throne of Serbia. After her marriage 
she made several visits to San Jose. A few 
years ago her London and Paris reminiscences 
were published in The Century. Written in a 
chatty style and directed mainly to a recital 
of her social triumphs and of meetings with 
the notables of the day, including Alfred Ten- 
nyson and James Russell Lowell, they made 
interesting reading. One of her sisters (Jes- 
sica) is married and lives in Los Angeles. An- 
other sister, Virginia, was a teacher in the 
Hester school on the Alameda, until she de- 
cided to follow in the footsteps of Eleanor and 
become an actress. Her first appearance on 
any stage was, like her sister's, in "Loyal 
Hearts." The performance was given at the 
California theater on Second Street in 1882. 
In the cast were Frank Bacon, Jennie Weid- 
man (afterward Mrs. Bacon), Louis Lieber, 
Geo. W. Alexander and other local lights. 

John W. Dunne joined the San Jose Ama- 
teur Club in 1866. He was a boy of sixteen 
when he made his first apparance on the stage. 
In preparing for the production of "The Gold- 
en Farmer," no woman could be found willing 
enough to play the part of "Elizabeth," the 
heroine, so Dunne was called in to fill the 
breach. He was a handsome fellow in those 
days, beardless, peachy-cheeked and with a 
voice that was soft, light and clear-almost like 
a woman's. When on bended knees, with 
clasped hands and streaming eyes he besought 
heaven to "save me from a fate far worse than 
death," the audience shivered and appealing 
eyes were cast on the villain, wdio seemed to 
hold the fate of Elizabeth in his hands. And 
that villain, who stood over the shrinking 
heroine, with his six feet of stature, blood-shot 
eyes, gleaming teeth and hands red with gore, 
was none other than that mild-mannered, up- 
right, progressive citizen, Alex. P. Murgotten. 
Dunne's success as an amateur decided his 
destiny. He became a real actor. After play- 
ing all sorts of parts, from utility to leading 
business, he departed for Salt Lake City to ac- 
cept a position in the Mormon Theater. There 



he played for a year or more and then set out 
on a territorial tour, acting as leading support 
to Mrs. Annie Adams, the mother of Maude 
Adams, America's foremost actress. Next he 
associated himself with the elfin star, Patti 
Rosa, soon married her, became her manager 
and until the death of his talented wife played 
in Hoyt's comedies from one end of the coim- 
try to the other. He was next heard of as the 
husband of Mary Marble, a worthy successor 
to Patti Rosa, and engaged in a similar line of 
work. They toured the country until vaude- 
ville became the rage, then went into pocket- 
edition drama and became public favorites. 
He was a San Jose visitor in 1919. 

Frank Bacon is (1922) one of the most tal- 
ented and popular of the great American act- 
ors. He is a former San Josean and the city 
was the scene of his first stage experiences. 
He was in his early twenties when he arrived 
in San Jose. He tried photography, experi- 
mented with newspaper work and drifted into 
other lines of work, but none of them succeed- 
ed in holding his interest. His ambition in 
those early days was to become another John 
^vlcCullough, Edwin Booth or Lawrence Bar- 
rett. He turned up his nose at comedy and so 
when "Loyal Hearts" was produced at the 
California Theater he was rejoiced when he 
was asked to play the part of the Union officer. 
The press notices were commendatory. The 
allusion to his magnificent voice made him 
more than ever determined to become a trage- 
dian. Miss Jennie Weidman, a very talented 
amateur actress, was one of the performers. 
She and Frank became great friends and soon 
friendship resolved itself into love. They 
were married soon after the performance at 
the California. 

It was after Frank left San Jose to try his 
luck on the professional stage that he stum- 
bled upon his proper line of work. The por- 
trayal of a "rube" character on the Alcazar 
stage in San Francisco, gave the critics a 
chance to say all manner of nice words. Frank 
took notice and very soon decided to drop 
"straight" business for "rube" comedy. He 
had everything in his favor. He was a slow 
speaker, had a dry way of saying things, and 
his deep, flexible voice could at will be used to 
evoke either tears or laughter. The years went 
by, his art ripened, the coarse, low comedy 
"rube" was fashioned into the human country- 
man and culmination came in the creation of 
"Lightnin' Bill," a lovable shiftless old coot, 
in many respects a latter-day "Rip Van 
Winkle." The play called "Lightnin' " has 
had a run of three years on Broadway, 
New York, is now (1922) enjoying a phenom- 
enal run in Chicago, and Frank Bacon has been 
acclaimed as one of the finest character actors 

of the century. He has a charming orchard 
home near Mountain View, in Santa Clara 
County, and e\'cry year his vacations are 
spent there. 

John T. Malone, another San Josean, who 
made good as a professional actor, was a grad- 
uate of Santa Clara College. He studied law, 
was admitted to the bar and when the stage 
bee buzzed in his ears he was deputy district 
attorney of Santa Clara County. After ap- 
pearances on the amateur stage he went to 
San Francisco, supported Eleanor Calhoun, 
during her engagement in that city and after- 
ward went east to become a member of Edwin 
Booth's company. After Booth's death he 
took out a company of his own, playing in 
legitimate drama as long as there was any 
demand for it and then gave up the stage to 
accept the position of secretary of the Play- 
ers' Club, New York. He died in New York 
several years ago. 

The late Charles W. Williams, former pro- 
prietor of the Evening News, would have won 
fame and fortune on the stage if he had gone 
from amateur into professional work. He was 
a born comedian and the most talented and 
popular laugh-maker who ever appeared be- 
fore the footlights in San Jose. He came to 
California when a mere boy and for some 
years was a clerk in Cassius Morton's music 
store on First Street. He was a fine piano 
player and his services in the store were very 
valuable. From the store he graduated into 
newspaper work, starting first as business 
manager of Charles M. Shortridge's Times 
and winding up as the proprietor and editor of 
the Evening News. It was after he became a 
newspaper publisher that he dallied with stage 
work. His first appearance was a negro boy 
in "The Octoroon." He made a hit in the part 
and followed up his success by joining Charles 
R. Bacon's New York and San Francisco Min- 
strels, organized for performance in San Jose 
only. He was one of the end men and con- 
vulsed the audience by his inimitable dialect 
specialties. In 1881 he became the manager 
of the California Theater and in April, 1882, 
was the recipient of a complimentary benefit. 
His songs brought many encores. In the 
same year he played an Irish comedy part in 
"Loyal Hearts." The press notices spoke of 
him as one of the great Irish comedians on the 
American stage. Shortly after this appear- 
ance Williams resolved to forsake straight the- 
atricals for operetta and musical comedy. He 
had a fetching singing voice and under his 
management were produced "The Mikado," 
"Olivette," "The Mascot," "Patience," and the 
popular operettas. His "Ko-Ko" in "The 
Mikado" was very artistic and mirth-provok- 
ing and so well pleased with the performance 



was a San Francisco manager that he induced 
Williams to repeat it at the Tivoli. Williams 
consented to go, made a success of the trip, 
but could not be induced to give up newspaper 
for stage work. San Jose suited him and he 
was an actor for the fun of the thing. His 
last appearance as manager and performer 
was about a year before his death, which oc- 
curred in 1917. 

Felix G. (better known as Phil) Hartman 
was one of the early San Jose amateurs. He 
played small parts, sometimes acted as stage 
manager but more often as property man and 
scene shifter. He was easily excited and in 
his excitement would frequently lose his head 
and make the most ridiculous blunders. At 
an entertainment given in Saratoga, Hugh A. 
De Lacy sang "Old Black Joe" in character. 
To give a touch of realism to the song and the 
acting it was arranged that "Joe" should die 
and that the dying should be done to slow 
music and red fire. Phil Hartman was the 
scene shifter and property man, and in the 
hurry of getting his props together he forgot 
to provide himself with the fire powder and its 
accessories. "Never mind, Hughie," he said 
to De Lacy, "I can fake it so the audience 
won't know the difference. I'll go out, get 
some fire crackers, take out the powder and 
light it." De Lacy had his doubts about the 
substitution, for he knew Phil's optimism, dis- 
played on other occasions, had not always 
been vindicated. However, there was nothing 
to do but take chances. Phil secured the pow- 
der, placed it in a tin plate and stood ready in 
the wings to do the lighting. Soon the time 
came for him to act and as De Lac)^ sang the 
last line of the last Averse, Phil lighted his first 
match. The powder wouldn't burn. Then an- 
other match was tried. Same result. De Lacy 
kept on singing, but with one eye on Phil, who 
struck match after match on the seat of his 
trousers, the perspiration meanwhile running 
in streams down his face. De Lacy, hoping 
against hope, sang the last verse over again, 
but no fire was forthcoming. At last Phil 
gave it up in despair.. Turning an agonized 
face on De Lacy, he said in a voice that could 
be heard all over the hall, "Go on and die, 
Hughie, for I can't make the darned fire burn." 
Hughie died in a hurry, for his fingers were 
itching to get at Phil's throat. 

Still later Phil gave a magician's show at 
the San Jose Opera House. As scene shifter 
and handy man for the "Fakir of Vishnu" he 
had learned many of the tricks of that old 
time juggler and illusionist. Phil called him- 
self the "Fakir of Ooloo" and what he ex- 
pected to be his best act was one of levita- 
tion — the suspending in mid-air of a woman 
subject. There were steel rods concealed un- 

der the clothing of the subject and an upright 
rod support was also hidden from view. The 
subject was a heavy woman, while Phil was a 
lightweight. When all was ready Phil made 
his explanatory talk and then l^egan to lift 
the woman to a horizontal position in the air. 
Once in that position two rods would snap 
into place and the suspension would be an 
accomplished fact. But Phil, try as he would, 
could not raise his subject to the horizontal 
line. As he tugged and perspired the machin- 
ery squeaked and the audience roared. He 
made several attempts, letting down his bur- 
den between times in order that he might re- 
cover his breath, and finally gave up in disgust 
and sat upon the floor. The performance 
was as good as a circus and the spectators, 
though the advertised program had not been 
carried out, felt that they had received their 
money's worth and applauded accordingly. 

John T. Raymond was California's star 
comedian. He made several professional trips 
to San Jose and always played to full houses. 
His most popular role was of "Col. Mulberry 
Sellers," taken from Mark Twain's Gilded 
Age. Mark did not like Ra3'mond's interpre- 
tation of the character, claiming that it was a 
gross exaggeration, almost a burlesque, not at 
all like the "Sellers" his brain had conceived. 
But Raymond's audiences liked the interpreta- 
tion and money always flowed in at the box 
office whenever Ra3miond's "Sellers" was the 

Raymond was very fond of practical jokes 
and he played them so often that his fellow 
actors grew to be afraid of him, for they could 
not guess what was hatching in that queer 
brain of his. Such tricks as finding their shoes 
nailed to the floor when they were in a hurry 
to make ready for a performance, or wigs 
grotesquely queered, were always to be ex- 
pected. But there were unexpected variations. 
On one occasion when a lurid melodrama was 
on the boards, there was a scene in which the 
victims of the villain appeared before him. 
The villain was John McCullough, and Ray- 
mond, James A. Heme, Harry Edwards and 
Julia Corcoran, were the victims. All except 
Raymond were in line on the platform. He 
had painted his nose a fiery red and with a 
most serious expression pointed both hands 
at McCullough. The audience roared, then 
hissed and the curtain was rung down. 

When Raymond gave "Col. Sellers" in San 
Jose the actors who had suft'ered from his 
jokes turned the tables on him. The most try- 
ing part of his performance was the eating of 
raw turnips, for he loathed vegetables and 
never ate them except upon compulsion. The 
meml)ers of the company knew this and one 
night they doctored the turnips. Raymond 



ate them, made a wry face but said nothing. 
The next night he called for apples, but when 
it came time for the repast he found he was 
compelled to eat raw onions covered with 
apple skins. 

At another engagement Raymond was play- 
ing "Polydor" to the "Ingomar" of John Mc- 
CuUough. In the striking scene where "Ingo- 
mar" orders the barbarians to seize "Polydor," 
l\.a}'mond came around to the front of the 
stage and instead of dropping in front of "In- 
gomar" and clasping his hands in piteous en- 
treaty, dropped, crawled between McCul- 
lough's legs, dived back and circled round 
"Ingomar," his teeth chattering in terror. Mc- 
Cullough laughed, the audience took the cue 
and the curtain went down amid a general 
roar of laughter. 

Some of the old-time minstrels lived in San 
Jose. One of them, Johnny Tuers, adopted 
the stage as a profession, after he left San Jose. 
Charley Rhoades, Fred Sprung and Ned Buck- 
ley came to San Jose to reside after they had 
g^iven up active work as entertainers. Tuers 
was an end man and flat foot dancer. He was 
the originator of this style of dancing and the 
champion of the Coast. He played in all the 
cities and towns from Los Angeles to Salt 
Lake but most of his time was spent in San 
Francisco. In the late '60s he quarreled with 
a man on Washington Street in that city. 
Pistols were drawn and an innocent bystander, 
James Dowling, a theatrical manager, stopped 
Tuers' bullet and ceased to live. Tuers was 
tried for murder and acquitted. "Billy" Tuers, 
Johnny's brother, stayed in San Jose. He was 
never on the professional stage, but appeared 
many times as an amateur, acting both as end 
man and dancer. In middle life he was stricken 
with blindness and died in Santa Cruz scN'eral 
years ago. 

Charley Rhoades was the pioneer banjo 
player of the state. Not long after the discov- 
ery of gold his banjo was heard on the streets 
of San Francisco and in the northern and east- 
ern mining camps. In the early '60s he joined 
a minstrel company and as end man and banjo 
pla3^er was before the public until his removal 
to San Jose in 1874. He was the reputed au- 
thor of that popular old song, "The Days of 
'49," and up to his retirement it was the favor- 
ite song of his repertory. The style of the 
song is shown in the following verse : 

There was Kentuck Bill, one of the boys, 
Who was always in for a game. 

No matter whether he lost or won 
To him 'twas all the same. 

He'd ante up, he'd pass the l:iuck. 

He'd go a hatfull blind. 
In a game with death Bill lost his breath 

In the days of '49. 

Another verse refers to Reuben Raines, a 
vSacramentan, for whom the late Edward John- 
son, a pioneer millhand of San Jose, some- 
times acted as assistant. Johnson used to 
boast of his connection with the Raines' out- 
fit and would recite with gusto the following 
\erse ; 

There was another chap from New Orleans, 

Big Reuben was his name. 
On the plaza there, in a sardine box, 

He opened a faro game. 
He dealt so fair that a millionaire 

He became in course of time, 
Till death stepped in and called the turn 

In the days of '49. 

Rhoades was a consumptive and after a few 
years' residence in San Jose reinoved to Santa 
Clara, where he died about forty years ago. 

Fred Sprung and Ned Buckley left min- 
strelsy to become ranchers and neighbors. 
Their homes were located on McLaughlin 
Avenue near the Story road. Sprung was a 
bass singer and interlocutor and in the olio 
appeared as a negro impersonator. Before he 
came to California he was a member of a band 
of minstrels organized to give performances 
on the Mississippi river boats. The band was 
a small one, but each member was advertised 
as an artist in his line. On these boats the 
gamblers, always in force before the opening 
of the Civil War, would frequently postpone 
a game to listen to a minstrel performance. 
On these occasions they would pick favorites 
and the performers thus singled out would re- 
ceive donations far in excess of the amounts 
of their salaries. Sprung found it a happy, 
easy life and was sorry when the war put a 
stop to it. Fie died in San Jose about twenty 
years ago. 

Ned Buckley, endman and comedian, did 
not stay all the time on his ranch. He had 
business interests in San Francisco which kept 
him away from San Jose more than half the 
time. Finally he sold his ranch and left San 
Jose for good. 

Other San Joseans who have won honors, 
either on the dramatic stage or in motion pic- 
tures, are Edmund Lowe, Howard Hickman, 
Ed. Jobson, Frank Stevens, George Hernan- 
dez, Vernon Kent and Clarence Geldert. 


Distinguished Visitors to San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley — Bayard 
Taylor's Day Dream — Political Orators — George Francis Train — Henry 
George as a Detective — Bret Harte — Presidents Hayes and Harrison — 
The Ovation to General Grant — Beecher, Ingersoll and the Old-Time 
Orators — Gen. John C. Fremont — Ned Buntline. 

Many distinguished men and Avomen have 
visited Santa Clara County. During tlie '50s 
Gen. Jcihn C. Fremont, David C. Broderick, 
William I\T. Gwin, Gov. Burnett, Bayard Tay- 
lor, J. Ross BroA\'ne and others came to San 
Jose, sometimes on lousiness, sometimes for 
pleasure. Bayard Taylc)r, the famous poet, 
storv vriter and traveler, first visited the \'^al- 
ley in the early '50s. In his "Pictures of Cali- 
fornia" he thus describes what he saw: "How 
shall I describe a landscape so unlike any- 
thing else in the world? With a beauty so 
new and dazzling that all ordinarv compari- 
sons are worthless. A A-alleA' ten miles wide 
through the center of which winds the dry 
bed of a winter stream whose course is marked 
with groups of giant sycamores, their trunks 
gleaming like silver through masses of giant 
foliage. Oyer the lexel floor of this valley 
park-like gro\'es of oaks, whose mingled grace 
and majesty can onh- be given by the pencil; 
in the distance redwoods rising like towers; 
westward a mountain chain nearly 4,000 feet 
in height, showing through the blue haze dark 
green forests on the background of Idazing 
gold. Eastward another mountain chain, full- 
lighted bv the sun, rose color touched with 
violet shadows, shining with marvelous trans- 
parenc}- as if the)' were of glass, behind \\-hich 
shone another sun. Overhead, finally, a sky 
whose blue luster seemed ta fall, mellowed, 
through an intervening A'eil of luminous vapor. 
No words can describe the fire and force of 
the coloring — the daring contrast which the 
difference oi half a tint changed from discord 
into harmony. Here the great artist seems to 
ha\-e taken a ne\\- [talette and painted his cre- 
ations with hues unknown elsewhere. DriA'- 
ing through these enchanting scenes, I in- 
dulged in a day dream. It Avill not 1)e liing, 
I thought, — I ma)- li^•e to see it before my 
prime is o\'er — until San Jose is liut five days' 
journe)' from New ^'ork. Cars, Avhicli shall 
Ijc in fact traA'eling liotels, A\'ill sfieed, on an 
unkno\\m line of rail, from tlic Mississippi to 
the Pacific. Then let nie jjurchase a few acres 
on the lo\\'est slope of these mountains cj\'er- 
looking the Aalley and ^\-ith a distant \'iew of 
the ]")ay ; let me Ijuild a cottage embowered 

in acacia and eucalyptus and the tall spires 
of the Italian cypress; let me lea\e home 
\vhen the Christmas holidays are over and 
enjoy the balmy Januarys and Februarys, the 
heavenly Marches and Aprils, of my remaining 
A-ears here, returning only Avhen May shall 
have lirought beauty to the Atlantic shore. 
There shall my roses outbloom those of Poes- 
tum, there shall my nightingales sing, my or- 
ange Idossoms sweeten the air, my children 
play and my best poem l)e Avritten. I had 
another and a grander dream. C)ne hundred 
years had passed and I saw the valley, not 
as now. only partially tamed, and reveling in 
the Avild magnificence of nature, but from 
riAer l)ed to mountain summit, humming Avith 
human life. I saw the same oaks and syca- 
mores, but their shadows fell on mansions'fair 
as temples, gleaming with their Avhite fronts 
and long colonnades. I saw gardens refreshed 
by gleaming fountains, statues peeping from 
the bloom of laurel bowers; palaces built to 
enshrine the new art which Avill then have 
bhjssomed here; culture, plenty, peace every- 
Avhere. I saw a more beautifid race in pos- 
session of this paradise — a race in Avhich the 
lost symmetry and grace of the Greek Avas 
])artially restored; the rough, harsh features 
of the Oriental type gone ; milder manners, bet- 
ter regulated impulses and a keen appreciation 
of the arts Avhich enrich and embellish life. 
\\'as it only a dream?" 

J. Ross Browne Avas a traveler, who Avrote 
descriptive, semi-humorous accounts of his 
wanderings for Harper's Monthlv. His home 
was m Oakland, but he loved San Jose and 
its people. 

Political Orators. 

The political campaigns of the '70s brought 
many distinguished Eastern and Northern or- 
ators to California. San Jose Avas not slight- 
ed and as spell-binding Avas the main stock 
m trade of the stump speaker, the Califor- 
nian.s received their full share of lofty periods 
and flowery diction. .Vniong the orators Avho 
came to San Jose were Hannibal Hamlin, Vice- 
President under Lincoln; Julius C. Burroughs, 
United States senator and the silver-tontnieci 



orator of INlichig-an; C.eii. W. v"^. ITancock, (^.ar- 
field's opponent in the race for the presidency; 
John A. Bingham, of Ohio, United States sen- 
ator and statesman; Ex-Cio\ernor George L. 
Woods, of Oregon, Thomas Fitch, of Ne\'ada, 
and several others. 

In politics the things done nowadays are any- 
thing hnt on all fonrs with the things done 
forty, fifty and sixty years agi). In the early 
days there \\'as partisanship, |)ure and simple. 
The line-np in e\ ery campaign showed the ad- 
herents of one party in diametrical opposi- 
tion to the adherents of the other. And those 
were the days of whoop-'er-np, of intense en- 
thnsiasm, of excitement, of deep sustained in- 
terest. Street corners were the scenes of ani- 
mated discussion. Often the ready fist shot 
iiut when word of mouth failed to give force 
to the argument. Tkit it Avas all in the play 
and ^^dlen the curtain fell villain and hero shook 
hands and all was ^\•ell as hefore. 

In San lose the ^•erv strenuous political peri- 
od began'in 1865 and ended in 1884. In 1868 
Grant and Seymour were the opposing candi- 
dates. Meetings were held, not in halls, but 
on the street where men could congregate and 
\vhere the best places conld not be occupied 
bv the women, wdio were then non-voters. The 
idea in those days was not to gi^'e a theatrical 
performance to which one must procure a re- 
served seat, but to talk to the people without 
any other accessories than an improvised 
stand, an American flag and a row of tallow 
candles. On one occasion — in 1865 — no stand 
was used, but at the intersection f)f Santa 
Clara and First streets, mounted on a dry 
goods box, the late lamented Thomas H. Laine, 
afterwards law partner of John H. Moore, D. 
M. Delmas, S. F. Leib and W. A. Johnston, 
elociuentlv enunciated the principles of De- 
mocrac)", while the yellow torches on the cor- 
ners flared, their oftensive residuum permeat- 
ing the air. 

George C. Gorham, then a recently defeated 
candidate for governor, afterwards secretary 
- of the United States Senate and author of 
■'The Life of Ed\\'in M. Stanton," \\'as Cali- 
fornia's most remarkable stump speaker. His 
voice was often heard in San Jose. He had 
a most remarkable command of vituperative 
language and a sledge-hammer style possessed 
by no other orator in the State. He was the 
first to advocate upon the stump the "Father- 
hood of God, Brotherhood of Man" principle. 

Citizen George Francis Train was, in his 
time the best-known American and the strang- 
est man in existence. Lie started forty clipper 
ships to California in 1849, organized the 
Credit Mobilier which built the LTnion Pacific 
Railway, constructed thfe first street railway 
in England, organized the French Commune 

in 1870, \vas the business ])artner of kings, 
cpieens and emperors, w;is in jail eleven times, 
and, to wind up, broke the world's aroiind-the- 
world record three times, the first time in 
eighty days, a feat that gave Jules Verne the 
idea for his captivating story. 

In the earh' '70s he came to California on a 
lecturing tour. San Jose was visited and the 
lecture was given in the (')pera House, which 
at the time of opening was cro\vded to the 
doors. The historian will never forget either 
the occasion or the man. His head \vas much 
too large for his short, stuutly-built body, but 
phvsical ayjpearance ^vas forgotten as one 
watched his movements and listened to his 
talk. Active as a cat and charged with dy- 
namic force, he was never still for a moment, 
but mo\'ed from one end of the stage to the 
other, waving his chubln' hands and uttering 
disconnected, chopp)- sentences in a manner 
that compelled interest and admiration. He 
was called a mountebank, a poseur and man 
^'\•ith a screw loose in his np[)er story, Init he 
cared not the snap of a finger for what was 
said about him, but seemed to delight in the 
caustic criticisms that followed him while he 
\\'as in the limelight. 

Before beginning his San Jose lecture he 
said to the audience: "They say I am inco- 
herent and that I wander from my subject. 
Ma3'be these gentle critics of mine are right, 
but I can talk coherently, and I will give you 
something that will be to the point. First, I 
^\'ill present a sample of coherent lecturing 
and, following that, a sample of what they 
call incoherent lecturing. At the finish you 
shall say what style you wish me to use to- 
night." Now came the samples. The coherent 
one was dry and uninteresting and was re- 
ceived in silence. But after the sample of in- 
coherent the applause shook the building. 
When quiet had been restored Train shouted: 
"Now, what will you have?" "Incoherent," 
was the unanimous reply. "All right," Train 
said, "incoherent it shall be." Then the circus 
opened. The lecturer jumped from one sub- 
ject to another, bursts of eloquence were fol- 
lowed by clownish jokes, points at times were 
driven home with force, gems 
of poetry were sandwiched in between lines 
of exquisite prose and at intervals came epi- 
grams charged witli scorn and bitterness, for 
in that distempered brain of his burned the 
fire of genius. Indeed Train was ^\■onderful 
as well as strange, and it was eas)- to under- 
stand why he was such a success as a platform 
lecturer. After leaving California he returned 
to New York, ran as inde]iendent candidate 
for the presidency', defended Victoria AVood- 
hiill by publishing extracts from the Bible, 
an act that landed him in the Tombs ; threw 



away his money, liehaved more extravagantly 
than ever, and then one day closed his lips 
and for fourteen years never spoke to man or 
woman. Every day during this period he 
sat on a bench in Madison Square, feeding the 
birds and petting little children. At last 
speech and activity came back. He made an- 
other around-the-world trip, completing it in 
sixty days, and then settled down to a hum- 
drum existence in the top story of a New 
York hotel. While there he defended his po- 
sition in the following characteristic style: 
"They say I talk as one out of his head. Why 
should I not do so? How can a peanut con- 
vention kno\v about a cocoanut? The pea- 
nuts composing it have never seen a cocoanut. 
They don't know what it is. The peanut con- 
vention considers the cocoanut, deliberates 
wisely and passes a resolution that the cocoa- 
nut is a large peanut. And how can a cocoa- 
nut find out what it is like until it has seen 
another cocoanut like itself? I am a cocoa- 
nut." Train died in 1903, at the age of sev- 
enty-four years. 

Henry George, the formulator and exponent 
of the single-tax theory, wrote "Progress and 
Poverty" while acting as editor of the San 
Francisco Post. In abbreviated form the mat- 
ter was first used as meat for a lecture, and 
after San Francisco had been favored with the 
radical views of the great editor, George came 
to San Jose with his manuscript. Patrick W. 
Murphy, city editor of the Post, was the busi- 
ness manager and the lecture was delivered 
in the San Jose Opera House to a small audi- 
ence. But the expenses were light and no 
monev was lost. George took the situation 
good-naturedly, for he was a jovial, big-hearted 
man, and declared that he was satisfied with 
the sowing of the seed and would serenely 
await the verdict of time. 

While in San Jose, George was the guest 
of J. J. Owen, the veteran editor and philoso- 
pher. On the afternoon preceding the lecture 
George was in Owen's office. Among other 
things they discussed the local sensation, 
which was of absorbing interest to Owen, who 
was an avowed spiritualist. Strange, unac- 
countable manifestations had been re])orted 
from a small, one-story house on Fourth Street 
near St. John. Spooks, no less, so it was 
claimed and generally believed, had repeatedly 
broken windows, thrown stones against the 
building and cut up other queer and devilish 
pranks. The lessee of the house was a well- 
known citizen (now deceased), who was ut- 
terly unable to understand why he, of all men, 
should be singled out for these satanic mani- 
festations. His standing in the community 
was high, he had led an upright life and he 
was not aware that he had any enemies. The 
spooks — admitting that malignant spirits from 

the other world had been at work — had oper- 
ated at all hours, day and night. George 
listened to the story, asked a few questions, 
and then said : "Let's go down to the house 
and investigate. We may stumble upon a 
clew. I don't take any stock in this spook 
business." Owen smiled but did not express 
an)^ opinion. The historian, who was then 
doing reportorial work for Owen, accompanied 
the two editors to the house of mystery. The 
lessee was not at home, but his daughter was 
there. She smiled cynically as she bade the 
trio enter the living room, which fronted on 
the street. It was noticed on entering that 
some of the panes in the two front windows 
were broken. George examined the breaks 
and then addressed himself to the girl, who 
sat, sullen and defiant, near the door opening 
into the kitchen. The door was closed and 
there was no sound to indicate the presence 
of any other person in the house. Owen 
asked if the mother was at home. The girl 
shook her head. She was rather attractive, 
with her black hair and eyes, pale cheeks and 
tip-tilted nose. P>ut her expression registered 
resentment rather than pleasure, over the 
coming of the investigators. Her story tallied 
with that given by her father. The mysteri- 
ous manifestations had occurred at all hours 
of the day and night. She had no theory to 
achance. The stones might have been thrown 
by evil spirits or b}' some human enemy cun- 
ning enough to escape detection. 

After the inquisition Owen and George, with 
this historian at their heels, looked into and 
examined every room in the house. Nothing 
of value as a clew having been discovered, the 
three newspaper men returned to the living 
room, the girl following them. She resumed 
her former seat and listened with an amused 
smile wdiile George and Owen discussed 
spooks, politics and religion. At last George, 
changing the subject, said to Owen: "Have 
you made up your mind?" Owen was about 
to answer ^\hen there came a noise as of the 
shattering of glass. The investigators, quickly 
getting to their feet, saw that another pane 
had Ijeen broken. "AVell," ejaculated George, 
"his spookship is considerate. That show 
was given for our benefit. Thank you. Spooky. 
Maybe" — he smiled at the girl, who sat star- 
ing at the window with her hands concealed 
in her apron — "Maybe this is a case of hoisting 
by one's own petard." AValking over to the 
^^'indo^v, he examined thoroughly pane, sash 
and floor, then opened the front door and 
stepped outside. He was gone but a few mo- 
ments. Returning, he looked at the girl stead- 
ily, accusingly. She stood the scrutiny half 
a minute, then cast down her eyes and fum- 
bled nervously with her hands, still concealed 
under her apron. She did not lift her eyes 



while George was speaking. "Miss ," he 

saiil, gravely, "the stone was thrown from this 
room, therefore — " Me paused and the girl 
burst out: "It's no use trying to fool you. 
How did you hud it <iut?" "F.asy enough. 
The glass broken hv the smash is on the 
ground t>utsi(.le and not in this room." Then 
he added. "\\di)' did ^'(>u do it? You must 
ha\e '"lad some stro)ig reason." "1 had." was 
the low reph'. 1 ler story \\as soon told, Sh'i 
hated the house and had been trying for 
months to induce her father to move to another 
place. Unable to inHuence him, she had hit 
upon the device of scaring him into compli- 
ance. The scheme might have succeeded but 
for Henry George's astuteness. 

The story ended, the girl fell to crying. Her 
father would never forgive her. She had a 
mind to run away and ne\'er come back. Her 
life was ruined, and so forth, and so forth. 
George \\'as kind and sympathetic. His sooth- 
ing words soon dried her tears. There was a 
way out of the tangle and he promised to find 
it before he left town. He was as_good as his 
word. The father was seen and after much 
persuasion agreed to take another house, and 
also ne^■er to reproach his daughter for wdiat 
she had done. That ended the matter. The 
manifestations ceased and Henry George left 
town in a satisfied frame of mind. He had not 
made any money in San Jose, but he had had 
a fine time. 

Bret Harte made several visits to San Jose 
while he was editor of the 0\'erland Monthly. 
One visit lasted several days. It was shortly 
after the publication of his first book of poems, 
"The Lost Galleon." He is remembered as a 
small, dapper, elegantly clothed person, with 
black mustachios and "liurnsides" and a pock- 
marked face. 

Mark Twain was in San Jose a few days 
before his lecture. This was in 1866. His 
controversy with AV. Frank Stewart, the earth- 
quake philosopher, has been referred to in an 
earlier chapter. 

In the Society chapter reference was made 
to the visits to San Jose of Presidents Mc- 
Kinley and Roosevelt." Other Presidents who 
came before them were Hayes, Grant and Har- 
rison. Hayes was in the middle of his term 
when he made the overland trip to California. 
There was not much fuss made over his ar- 
rival, though a large crowd gathered to listen 
to his address, made from the balcony of the 
Auzerais House. He was accompanied by 
Gen. AV. T. Sherman. 

President Harrison's visit was a flying one. 
He alighted from the train at the Market Street 
depot was driven rapidly about town and then 
back to the train. He made one speech, short 
and to the point, like all his public utterances. 


The great ovation was given to Gen. U. S. 
Grant on September 26, 1.S79. In honor of 
the event business houses generally were 
closed, the courts took a half-holiday, and the 
city w;is given an attractive gala-day ajjpear- 
ance. Nearly all the public structures and 
business blocks were profusely and hand- 
somely decorated with flags, shields and fes- 
toonings of red, white and blue, while private 
dwellings along the line of march were simi- 
larly arrayed and bedecked. It was estimated 
at the time that more than 20,000 people, in 
holiday attire, awaited the coming of the man 
who had reflected such honor up(jn his coun- 
try. Military and civic organizatiims took 
part in the parade, the late W. T. Adel acting 
as grand marshal, with Capt. Ira Moore and 
A. P. Murgotten as aids. The former resi- 
dents of Galena, 111., Grant's old home, were 
represented by Judge Chas. G. Thomas, G. J. 
Overshiner, C. O. Rogers, O. C. Wells and C. 
Bellingall. At the depot Mayor Lawrence 
Archer delivered the address of welcome. The 
reception committee consisted of W. D. Tis- 
dale, T. Ellard Beans, Rev. M. S, Levy, Capt. 
C. H. Maddox and J. J. Owen. The torn, tat- 
tered and faded l^attle flag carried by D. C. 
Vestal, as color-bearer of Phil Sheridan Post, 
excited much comment, and its history would 
not be out of place here. It belonged in 1864 
to the Twenty-first Regiment, South Carolina 
Colored Volunteers, commanded by Col. A. G. 
Bennett, afterwards of San Jose, and was the 
first LTnion flag raised in Charleston after that 
city's surrender to and occupation by the Union 
forces. Five color-bearers were shot down 
\vhile carr3-ing it, and every hole in it was 
made by a Confederate bullet. 

General Grant and party, wdiich included 
Mrs. Grant and Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., received 
a pleasant surprise wdien the procession ap- 
proached the Court House. Upon the steps 
and platform were congregated some 500 chil- 
dren, each one tastefully arrayed in white with 
red and blue ornamentations and bearing a 
small flag and a boucjuet of flowers. The gen- 
eral's carriage was driven to the edge of the 
sidewalk and halted. Then the children, un- 
der the direction of Professor Elwood, struck 
up the National anthem, ''America," singing 
the four stanzas with such spirit and feeling 
as made the ^velkin ring. At the close three 
cheers were given to General Grant and then 
came a shower of bouquets thrown at the car- 
riage. After the procession had disbanded the 
general was driven to the Fair Grounds on 
the Alameda, where a running horse race, 
against time, had been arranged for his benefit. 
In the evening a banquet was given at the 
Auzerais House. Mayor Archer presided and 
Col. J. P. Jackson of San Francisco made the 



response for General Grant. The following 
\vere present : 

Ladies — Airs. U. S. Grant. Mrs. Mayor Llry- 
ant (jf San Francisct), Mrs. Mav(.)r Archer, 
Mrs. S. t). Houghton, :\Irs. T. Ellard Beans, 
Mrs. B. D. Mur].hy, .Mrs. C. H. Maddox, Mrs. 
H. W. Seale, Airs. Knox-Goodrich, Mrs. Ira 
Moore, Mrs. G. R. Baker, Mrs. F. E. Spencer, 
Mrs. J. J. Owen, Mrs. Gov. Irwin, Mrs. Cole- 
man Younger, Airs. L A. Aloultrie. Mrs. J. W. 
Cook, Mrs^. \V, T. Adel, Mrs. Johnson, Airs. 

A. L. Rhodes, Airs. J. H. Aloore. 
Gentlemen — L. Archer, AY D. Tisdale, AA'. 

L. Tisdale, T. E. Beans, E. AIcLaughlin, C. T. 
Ryland, T- M. Braley, E. AIcLaughlin, H. H. 
Hoffmann, H. B. Alvord, C. T. Parks, AA\ Erk- 
son, J. J. Burt, L. G. Xesmith, John T. Ala- 
lone, H. L. Cutter, C. C. Stephens. Alartin 
Alurphy, T. AA'. Spring, D. C. A'estal, AY. S. 
Thorne, A. AlcAIahon, AA'. L. Coomlis, L. Ein- 
igan, li. AI. Leonard, J. P. Pierce, AI. Bvrne, 
Ira Moore, R. E. Peckliam, J. AY. Cook, AY. E. 
Ellis, AY. AI. Lovell, S. O." Houghton, C. H. 
Maddox, ,S. AA. Boring, S. A. Clark, Levi Good- 
rich, J. H. Flickinger, L. Lion, D. Belden, B. 

D. Alurphy, P. AA'. Murphy. E. C. Singletary, 

E. P. Reed. James A. Clavton, D. C. Bailev, 
S. E. Leib, Geo. L. AYoods, G. E. Baker, A. 
E. Pomerov, H. AA^ Seale, J. J. Sontheimer, J. 
J. Owen. Allies Hills. N. R" Harris, N. B. Ed- 
wards, J. N. Hammond, J. R. Lowe, S. A. 
Barker, "C. G. Thomas, J. S.Seelv, C. X. Hobbs, 

B. B. Thaver, L. J. Hanchett, J. P. Sargent, 

C. E. White, AY. S". Clark, AA^ilson Hays, J. B. 
Randol, AA-. T. Adel, A. AAHiitton, Coleman 
Younger, AI. J. Ashmore, Jesse D. Carr, J. C. 
Zuck, F. E. Spencer, C. C. Hayward, A. AA^. 
Saxe, A. L. Rhodes, Geo. Rutherford, J. T. 
Alurphy and C. G. Harrison. 

San Francisco — LT. S. Grant, A. J. Bryant, J. 
H. Smith, AY. AY. Dodge, A. M. Scott^ AI. L. 
AIcDonald, J. P. Jackson, E. Danforth, AI. D. 
Bornck, H. Brickwedel, John Wise and Henry 

Lecturers from over the sea who came to 
San Jose were T. P. O'Connor, Michael Davitt 
and Timothy Healey, Irish patriots. From the 
East came Robert G. Ingersoll, Henry AVarcl 
Beecher, Theodore Tilton, Col. E. Z. C. Jud- 
son, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dr. Alary 
AValker, Anna Howard Shaw, Anna Dickinson 
Mrs. Mar_v A. Livermore, Dr. Alary AA^alker 
and Oscar AA'ilde. The lectures oi Beecher 
and Ingersoll were not far apart, l>ut their 
speaking styles ^\•ere as far apart as the 
poles. Beecher was ornate, flowery and 
serious. He was elo(|uent in a lofty way and 
his voice was a volume of musical sound. Fjut 
he never thrilled an audience as Ingersoll 
thrilled it. Ingersoll i)ossessed a personal mag- 
netism more seducti\e than any speaker who 
ever visited San Jose. At his first lecture, 

gi\"en in Alusic Hall on First Street, the front 
Ijench was occupied mainly by ministers of 
the local Protestant churches, gathered there 
out of curiosit}'. Before and after the lecture 
they called Ingersoll a sophist, one who 
touched insignificant errors but failed to sound 
the depths of Christian philosophy as revealed 
in the pages of the Bible. But that night they 
\vere so carried away by the great agnostic's 
([uips and quirks that their laughter, chuckles 
and unconscious movements broke down the 
bench upon which they were sitting, thus cre- 
ating a diversion that greatly amused the lec- 
turer and caused a laughable commotion in 
other parts of the hall. 

Theodore Tilton was stiff, stilted and self- 
conscious. He had a fine command of lan- 
guage, but his mannerisms, his posings and 
his Conceit combined to create an unfavorable 
impression. He came to San Jose just after 
the celebrated trial in Brooklyn of the re- 
nowned Tabernacle preacher, and his notoriety 
— not his fame as a public speaker — had the 
effect of dra^^■ing to his lecture a very large 

Airs. Stanton produced an altogether differ- 
ent impression. She was easy, graceful and 
earnest, spoke without effort and made her 
ijoints without artifice. Anna Howard Shaw 
and Anna Dickinson were polished speakers. 
Aliss Dickinson was the more dramatic. 

Of the Irish lecturers, Flealey and Davitt 
were serious and impassioned. O'Connor (Tay 
Pay) was serious and witty by turns, and his 
talk was therefore more entertaining than that 
of his fellow-workers in the Irish cause. 

In the '80s the annual encampment of the 
National (^irand Army of the Republic was 
held in California. After the session San Jose 
was visited by a large number of delegates, 
the number including Gens. John A. Logan, 
C. S. Fairchild, and George Stoneman. At the 
time Stoneman was Governor of California. 
Before this event Gen. AY. S. Hancock had 
been in San Jose. Of the warriors, Logan, as 
a speaker, was eloquent, impressive and force- 
ful. AA'ith his long hair, once raven-black but 
now streaked with gray, his flashing black eyes 
and handsome features, he made a picture that 
was pleasing to look upon. General Hancock 
was not an orator. He was over six feet in 
height, ponderous and heavy, and moved 
slowly, as if he found it an effort to lift .his 
feet. He spoke haltingl}', but made a good 
impression on account of his transparent hon- 
esty and unaffected manner. 

In later days came Josh Billings, Opie Read, 
James AA'hitcomb Riley, Bill Nye, Geo. AA". 
Cable, Geo. Alfred Townsend, Jack London, 
Joaquin Miller, Airs. Alary Austen, King Kala- 
kaua, of the Hawaiian Islands, Gen. John C. 
Fremont, AA'illiam J. Bryan, Booker AA'ash- 



ingtoii, Thomas 1!. Ivccd, and sc\cra1 iitlicr 
notables \\hose names cannot ]>v recalled. 
Bryan's tirst \isit to San Jose was made in 
\S97, the year after he was defeated for the 
liresidencA' b^■ \\ illiani McKinle\'. Tliere \vas 
cjuite a demonstration when he arrixed xvith 
James 0. Maguire, congressman from the San 
Francisco district. He spoke at the Fair 
Grountls before a large audience and after- 
wards held a reception at the Hotel V'endome. 
General Fremont visited San Jose a few 
years before his death. He was the guest of 
the Santa Clara County Pioneers, and after 
sightseeing in San Jose the General and his 
wife were taken to the Big Trees in Santa 
Cruz County, A\here an old-fashioned enter- 
tainment was provided. 

One whose career was one series of sensa- 
tional adventures and wdrose reputation dur- 
ing the '50s and '60s was world-wide, stayed 
in San Jose for several weeks in 1868. The 
man was Col. E. Z. C. Judson (Ned Buntline), 
who was the originator in the United States 
of the dime novel. He was also the pioneer in 
the writing of lurid fiction. He was a grad- 
uate of the Annapolis Naval Academy and was 
commissioned midshipman for bravery in res- 
cuing a boat's crew from drowning in New 
York harbor. AVhile in the navy he fought 
seven duels. His fellow-middies refused to as- 
sociate themselves with him because he had 
been a common sailor. To enforce their re- 
spect he challenged all of them, thirteen in 
number, to mortal combat. Only seven agreed 
to fight, and he worsted them all in quick suc- 
cession without receiving a scratch himself. 
One of his opponents was afterwards an ad- 
miral in the navy. He was an active partici- 
pant in the Florida (Indian) and Mexican 
wars, and in the Civil War w^as the colonel of 
a regiment of mountaineers. He was a crack 
shot" and in the 70s, in a trial of skill with 
Buffalo Bill, Texas Jack and a number of In- 
dian chiefs, he easily proved his superiority. 

He began to write fiction in the early '40s. 
In 1848 he started a paper in New York in 
order to further the cause of Know-Nothing- 
ism, of which he was an ardent and reckless 
supporter. In that same year he was sentenced 
to one year's confinement in prison as one of 
the leaders in the Astor House riots when the 
adherents of Edwin Forrest, the great Ameri- 
can tragedian, attempted to mob W. C. Mac- 
ready, the English tragedian, as a reprisal for 

iusidts hc;iped n])on ' iMirrest I)y A-lacreafly's 
hjigiish frit'uds wliile h'orresl was lilhng a 
London engagement. He \\'as one of the pio- 
neers in waging \var against the pul)lication 
and circulation of immoral literature. In 1852, 
long 1)efore Anthonv Comstock was in the 
field, he made complaint against an ofl^ending 
|ud4islier. The ]jlace \vas raided l)y the police 
and tons of olijectionable literature were seized 
and Ijurned in City Hall Park. 

Xed Buntline's first serial story a])peared in 
1857, and for over twenty j^ears l^ear and In- 
dian stories, war and sea romances, local nov- 
els — in fact ever)' variety of sensational fiction 
— flmved in constant stream from his pen. In 
1868 he came to California as a teinperance 
lecturer. He had been a hard drinker, but had 
reformed. During his sta}- in San Jose he de- 
livered one of his lectures under the auspices 
of the local Good Templar lodge. Of the com- 
mittee of introduction only one member is 
now living (1922), the veteran lawyer. J. C. 
Black, who afterwards served as district attor- 
ne}' and was special prosecutor in several nota- 
ble criminal cases. 

After leaving San Jose Buntline started east- 
ward, but laid over several months in Laramie, 
Wyo., in order to obtain material for a new 
series of wild west stories. Here he met Buf- 
falo Bill, who had just completed a contract 
to supply buffalo meat for the tracklayers of 
the Kansas Pacific Railway, and whose repu- 
tation then was mainly local. The two men 
became fast friends and a short time after their 
meeting Buntline sent the first Buffalo Bill 
romance to a New York story paper. Other 
stories quickly followed, and within a year 
Buffalo Bill became the most talked-of person- 
age in America. Not content wdth newspaper 
exploitation, Buntline wrote a play called 
"Buffalo Bill, the King of Scouts," and induced 
Bill to appear in the titular role. The first per- 
formance was given in a Western city. Other 
plays starring Buffalo Bill were written, a 
company was formed. Wild Bill and Texas 
Jack becoming members, and a tour of the 
country was made, San Jose being visited in 
1877. After parting with Buffalo Bill, Bunt- 
line resumed his temperance crusade, but still 
kept up his story-writing. A large portion of 
the money he earned was spent in improving 
his country place in Westchester County, New^ 
York. He married late in life and died in 1886. 


Santa Clara County During the Civil War — Many Companies Formed — 
Confederate Sympathizers Take to Robbery — The Fight on the New 
Almaden Road — Excitement Over the Death of Abraham Lincoln. 

Santa Clara County was loyal during the 
Civil War, which opened in 1861. It furnished 
both money and men to the Union cause. 
Many thousands of dollars were contri1)uted 
and placed at the disposal of the Sanitary Com- 
mission, and more volunteer soldiers were ten- 
dered than were required. The majority of 
the volunteers were either retained in the 
state or sent to Arizona and New Mexico. 
There was no draft ever ordered in California 
to secure her proportion of troops, while there 
\\'as always a reserve of ^•olunteers. (jrganized 
under the state laws, more than sufficient for 
any emergency that might arise. California 
was far from the center of government, with 
a long line of exposed seacoast which, in case 
of foreign complications, was subject to attack. 
For this reason it was necessary that the great 
bulk of the population should remain at home 
for self-protection. Many men went to San 
Francisc(.} and citJier cities, not being able to 
enlist at home on account of the filling of the 
quota. Some enlisted in the California Bat- 
talion. Two San Joseans, W. H. Lawrence and 
George W. Lee, joined the battalion and were 
prisoners in Anclersonville. Mr. Lawrence is 
still a resident of the city. ^Ir. I^ee removed 
to Santa Cruz in 1919. (Jther meml)ers from 
Santa Clara County were Abe W'ithrow and 
Warren Wood of Santa Clara, and James 
Hacket of San Jose. 

Of those who enlisted in San Jose, there is 
record of the following : 

San Jose N'olunteers, afterwarrls Company 
C, First Regiment, Infantry. Organized in vSan 
lose, June 21, 1861, as folkjws : J I. A. Gorley, 
captain; John Martin, first lieutenant; D. C. 
Vestal, second lieutenant ; S. C. Thomas, third 
lieutenant; M. Pulaski, first sergeant; J. H. 
Murphy, second sergeant; Edgar Pomeroy, 
third sergeant; T. J. Cuiston, third sergeant; 
John Mulholland, first corporal ; W. M. Owen, 
second corporal ; David Downer, third cor- 
poral ; Randolph Lea\enworth, fourth corporal. 
The celebration of the Fourth of Jul}' in that 
year was marred by a painful accident where- 
j)y Gorle\', Martin and Ed Morton were injured 
while firing a national salute. The company 
was reorganized as veterans at Las Cruces, 
N. M., Novem1)er 29, 1864. During the war 
there were many desperate engagements with 
Indians. Lieutenant Vestal, with his com- 

pany, assisted in the capture of the notorious 
Showalter and his band. The company, while 
in the desert, marched o\'er 2,000 miles. 

Second Regiment, Infantr}' — Organized No- 
\-ember 29, 1861. The Santa Clara County men 
in this regiment were generally credited to 
Mayfield. T. C. Winchell was adjutant; Mont- 
gomery Maze (afterwards a searcher of rec- 
ords in San Jose), was second lieutenant of 
Company A and C. P. Fairfield was first lieu- 
tenant of Company I. 

Third Regiment, Infantr}- — Organized in 
1861. Served in Utah and Colorado. J. C. 
Merrill was captain of Company B. There 
were Santa Clara County men in Companies 
D, E and G. W'illiam J. Colahan, deceased, 
^vas in Company G. 

Eighth Regiment, Infantry — Company C 
was organized in San Jose in 1864. After be- 
ing mustered in, the regiment \vas stationed at 
Fort Point, California. 

First Battalion of Mountaineers — Organized 
in 1862. Served in the mountain campaigns 
against the hostile Indians in California and 
Nevada. George W. Owsley was captain of 
Company B. 

First Ca\alr},' Regiment — Compan}- E organ- 
ized in August, 1861. Served in Arizona, New 
Mexico and Texas. Engaged against the 
Kiowa, Comanche, Navajo and Apache In- 
dians. There were also Santa Clara men in 
Companies I and L of this regiment. 

First Battalion of Native Ca\'alry — Company 
j\ was organized in 1863 by Captain J. R. Pico. 
Ser\ ed in California and Arizona. The bat- 
talion was composed mainly of native Cali- 

In addition to the foregoing troops, the fol- 
lowing organizations were held for state 
service : 

F'irst Regiment, Cavalry — Company E: H. 
M. Le(mard, captain; E. Vandyne, first lieuten- 
ant; D. J. Burnett, second lieutenant; H. C. 
Morrell, Jr., third lieutenant. Sixty men in 
the com]jany, all armed. 

Company I, Burnett Light Horse Guard — J. 
K. Hall, captain; P. Henry, first lieutenant; j. 
Chrisman, senior second lieutenant; A. J. Fow- 
ler, junior second lieutenant. Fifty men in the 
company, all armed. 

Company K, New Almaden Cavalry — L. F. 
Parker, captain; J. P. Dudley, first lieutenant; 



H. H. Curtis, senior second lieutenant; A. V. 
Foster, junior second lieutenant. l'\)rty men 
in the conipan)-, all armed. 

National Ivigiit .Vrtillery — S. ( ). TIon,L;hton, 
captain: C. T. Henley, first lieutenant; jacol) 
W'eiS'ant, junior first lieutenant; N, l'>. Ed- 
wards, senior second lieutenant; F"<l\var(l l^add, 
junior second lieutenant. 

Fifth Regiment, Infantry — .\. Jones Jackson, 
colonel; A. B. Rowley, lieutenant-colonel; J. 
Porter, major; J. O. \\'anzer, adjutant; Chas. 
X. Senter, regimental quartermaster ; A, J. 
Cor}', surgeon. 

Company A, Union Guard — Chas. P. Crit- 
tenden, captain; E. J. Morton, first Heutenant; 
George Evans, senior second lieutenant; N. 
Klein, junior second lieutenant. Sixt)' men. 
armed with rifles. 

Company B, San Jose Zouaves — A. W. 
White, captain; M. Campbell, first lieutenant; 
F. B. Fuller, senior second lieutenant; AV. T. 
Adel, junior second lieutenant. Eighty men, 
armed with rifle muskets. 

Company C. Alviso Rifles — Thatcher F. 
Barnes, captain; John Root, first lieutenant; 
Edward W. Williams, senior second lieuten- 
ant; Charles E. Morrison, junior second lieu- 
tenant. Sixty men, armed with rifle muskets. 

Company E. Gilroy Guards — John H. Ad- 
ams, captain; William O. Barker, first lieuten- 
ant; W^illiam Van Gundy, junior second lieu- 
tenant. Forty men. armed with rifle muskets. 

Company H, Santa Clara Guard — William 
H. Swope, first lieutenant; W. H. Menton, 
senior second lieutenant; A. F. Harlow, junior 
second lieutenant. Sixty men, armed with 
rifle muskets. 

Johnson Guard, unattached — John M. Mur- 
phy, captain ; N. B. Edwards, first lieutenant ; 
J. F. Faulkner, senior second lieutenant ; P. W. 
Riordan, junior second lieutenant. Fifty men, 
armed with muskets. 

In 1864 a company of men, representing the 
Confederate government, was organized for 
the purpose of raising money for the Confed- 
erate cause by robbing stages and banks in 
California. Several recruits were obtained in 
Santa Clara Count}'. In May of that year two 
\A'ells-Fargo stages were stopped near Placer- 
ville by this band, then under the command of 
Ralph Henry, alias Ingraham. He gave a re- 
ceipt for the several hundred pounds of bul- 
lion taken from the stages, stating that he was 
acting for Jefferson Davis. A day or two after 
the robbery Deputy Sherifif Staples of El Do- 
rado Count}' came upon the gang in a house 
in the mountains, and without sufficient assist- 
ance attempted to arrest them. He was killed 
in the attempt. A man named Poole was 
wounded in the fight and captured. The other 
members of the band escaped. The captive 

made a confession, in wdiich he named the 
meml)ers of the .gan.g. 

( )n the night of Thursday, July 14, between 
nine and ten o'clock, three men called at the 
house of a Mr. Hill on the New Almaden road, 
a few miles from San Jose, and asked permis- 
sion to stay overnight, stating that they were 
lookin.g for some friends wdio would pass that 
way. Mr. Hill directed them to an unoccupied 
building close by, sa}nng that if they crjuld put 
tip with such ])r)or accommodation they were 
welcome to the use of it. The three men re- 
mained in the building all night and all the 
next da}-. Thinking that the actions of the 
men were rather suspicious. Hill came to San 
Jfise and told his story to the officers. Sheriff: 
Jfihn H. Adams at once organized a posse, con- 
sisting of Deput}' Sheriff's G. W. Reynolds, 
Fred Morris and j. M. Brownlee, Marshal Pot- 
ter. Constable vScott and Citizens Senter, 
AA'iles, l)Owman and Gould, and proceeded to 
the Hill ranch. The}' arrived at night. The 
building \vas surrounded and Sheriff Adams, 
in a loud Aoice. commanded the three men to 
come out and surrender. But the men, who 
were memliers of the Ingraham gang, had re- 
solved to sell their lives dearly. Rushing out, 
they commenced firing at the officers. During 
the fusillade Jrihn Creal, one of the robbers, 
received three bullet wounds, either of which 
would have caused his death. He was brought 
to vSan Jose and died an hour after his arrival. 
Ab. Gillespie, or Glasby, another of the trio, 
had the handle of his pistol shot awav, his 
clothes were perforated with bullets, but no 
"wound was inflicted. He ^vas soon overpoAv- 
ered and handculTed. John Clendennin, the 
third robber, after firing twice point-blank at 
Sheriff Adams, and receiving a settler. in re- 
turn, jumped over a fence and fled in the di- 
rection of The AVillows, where he was found 
about midnight, in a dving condition, bv Un- 
der Sheriff R. B. Hall and J. R. Lowe. Jr.. of 
another party who had gone in search of the 
fugitive. He ^^'as taken to the county jail and 
died the next day. 

C)ne of the shots from Clendennin's pistol, 
aimed at Sheriff Adams' heart, struck a watch 
in the pocket of his ^'est and then glanced into 
the bod}', inflicting a slight wound. Brownlee 
received two flesh wounds in the leg. Creal 
fired eight shots before he fell and was at- 
tempting to use his pistol after he was down, 
but was prevented from doing so by Deputy 
Sheriff Reynolds. AMien found in The Wil- 
lows, Clendennin had two revolvers and a bag 
of gold dust on his person. It was believed 
that the object of the three men in stationing 
themselves on the New Almaden road was to 
rob the stage as it came along with gold to pay 
the miners on the hill. 



Amither member of the Confederate band 
\\-as Jolnn Grant, who. having- had difficulty 
with Captain Ingraham. determined to play the 
role of a lone high\\'a3'man. In July word 
came that he was in San Juan and would 
shortly pay a visit to a young- woman who 
lived near Forbes' mill, Los Gatos. Under 
Sheriff Flail, accompanied by Charles Potter 
and John Ward, went to Los Gatos and located 
the house ^\-here Grant was staying. He was 
in bed and the arrest was easily accomplished. 
As the officers and their prisoner were prepar- 
ing to leave. Grant, though handcuft'ed, seized 
Hall's ,gun and rushed for the door, Hall after 
him. Grant tried to use the ,gun, but the hand- 
cuffs were in the way and he was seized just 
as he reached the outer door. At the moment 
of the rearrest someone of Hall's party fired 
both barrels of a shotg-un at Grant, severely 
wounding- him. He was brought to San Jose 
and lodged in jail. 

It was during war times that the Methodist 
Church at Berryessa was burned to the ground. 
The act was attributed to one or more mem- 
bers of the Dick Baker gang of Confederates, 
whose operations in aid of the Southern cause 
\vere mainly in the line of horse-stealing. The 
gang was finally scattered, some members go- 
ing to the Southern States, others to Arizona 
and JNIexico. 

When the news of the assassination of Abra- 
ham Lincoln reached San Jose there was at 
first a stillness as if the population had been 
stricken with mental paralysis. Then excite- 
ment grew until it reached fever heat. The 
residents were composed of two elements, the 
northerners and the majority of the western- 
ers who upheld the cause of the Union; and 
the southerners and southwesterners, who 
sympathized with the cause of the Confeder- 
acy. Good, honest, substantial men on each ■ 
side, but divided in opinion by the effect of 
early environment. yVmong the Confederate 
sympathizers were many of vSan Jose's promi- 
nent men. In the country districts the same 
conditions prevailed. While the excitement 
over the death of Lincoln was at its height 
some of the southerners were so indiscreet as 
to publicly express their joy over the death of 
a man who had been pictured to them as a 
human gorilla and a negro lover. The Union 
men were in a majority and whenever an anti- 

L'nion sentiment found utterance the speaker 
was (|uietly ]daced under arrest. Several prom- 
inent citizens were conveyed to Alcatraz 
prison, San Francisco Bay, but their term of 
imjirisonment was short, for after partisan 
bitterness had been partially allayed their re- 
lease was ordered and the}' came back to their 
farms and Inisiness. 

It was while arrests were being made that a 
tall countryman passed the Auzerais Flouse 
shouting, "FInrrah for Jeff." He was promptly 
seized by indignant FTnionists and would have 
Ijeen hustled off to jail if he had not made vig- 
(irous and what seemed to be honest protest. 
"Why, I'm no relD," he declared. 'T didn't 
mean Jeft" Davis when I hurrahed. I meant 
the milkman — George H. Jefferson. I was 
having a bit of fun ; had been taking a few 
drinks and wasn't at m3'self. That's true. 
boys, as true as preaching." His captors looked 
at the smiling face, noted the alcoholic condi- 
tion of the man, and concluded to give him 
the benefit of the doubt. 

A short time before Lincoln's death a num- 
ber of San Jose young men, born in the South 
and filled with the desire to do something for 
the Confederate cause, met in secret and con- 
cocted a scheme to ride into San Jose some 
morning after the stores had opened and there 
were few people about, and rob safes and tills, 
hoping by this daring operation to secure 
enough money to take them out of the state 
and into Confederate territory. The plot had 
been fully arranged and all was ready for the 
raid wdien the news of Lincoln's assassination 
arrived. In the excitement over the event the 
scheme was dropped. The story of it was told 
to the historian years afterwards by one of 
the plotters, a man who stood high in the esti- 
mation of his fellow-citizens. He seemed to 
regard the affair as a joke, though he was 
glad that the robbery had not been attempted. 
He died many years ago and not one of his 
associates is now in the land of the living. 

Times have changed since the days of the 
Civil War. Nowadays veterans of the South- 
ern Confederacy meet, shake hands and ex- 
change reminiscences with the veterans of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. Not only that, 
but their sons and grandsons bunk and fight 
together as Americans. This is as it should be. 


The Fruit Industry of the County— The Largest Prune Producing Section in 
the State — History of the Development — Introduction of the French 
Prune — The First Fruit Cannery — The Vineyards and Olive Orchards — 
When Artesian Water Was First Obtained — Farm Loan Board — Cali- 
fornia Prune and Apricot Growers, Inc. — Some Interesting Statistics. 

Santa Clara County is the l.taiiner fruit- 
producing- count}' of the state. In 1919 there 
were 98,152 acres planted in fruit trees and 
2,850 acres in vines. The total acreage of ce- 
reals, vegetables and berries was 86,695. The 
live stock numbers 62,248; value $1,288,175. It 
is the prune center of America. More prunes 
are grown in this valley than are produced in 
the whole United States outside. In 1919 the 
number of prune trees was 7,652,000. Apricots 
came next with 665.000, peaches third with 
482,000, and cherries fourth with 380,000 trees. 
In 1919 the orchardists of the county received 
about $49,000,000 from the products of their 
trees. This was irrespective of the money 
made b}' the canners and packers. The grow- 
ers might not have obtained high prices had 
it not been for the efforts of the California 
Prune and Apricot Growers, Inc., an organiza- 
tion perfected three years ago for the purpose 
of creating stable prices and protecting the 
orchardists of California. In 1919 it operated 
with 75 per cent of the prune and apricot acre- 
age of the state. In Decerriber of that year a 
campaign to hold, if not increase, its strength 
resulted in the securing of about 80 per cent 
of the acreage. The association occupies a 
large, handsome and commodious building on 
the southeast corner of IMarket and San An- 
tonio Streets, employs a large force of men 
and women and does business every month 
in the year. The officers are : T. S. Mont- 
gomery, president ; W. A. Yerxa, vice-presi- 
dent ; H. G. Coykendall, general manager; H. 
C. Dunlap, secretary and treasurer, and J. T. 
Brooks, manager of Growers' Information Bu- 
reau. T. S. Montgomer3^ H. G. Coykendall, 
W. G. Alexander, H. C. Dunlap and A. Kam- 
merer form the executive committee. The di- 
rectors are AV. A. Yerxa, Princeton ; H. C. 
Dunlap, Yountville ; Mark L. McDonald, 
Santa Rosa; G. C. Alexander, Healdsburg; T. 
S. Montgomery, San Jose ; H. G. Coykendall, 
Cupertino; J. O. Hayes, San Jose; A. Kam- 
merer, San Jose; Nathan Lester, Santa Clara; 
L. E. Mills, Santa Paula; C. G. Hamilton, 
Hemet, and W. J. Fulgham, Visalia. In 1921 
a campaign resulted in giving the association 
control of over 80 per cent of the state acre- 

age lor the next se\en years. All the officers 
were reelected. 

As Santa Clara County is the largest fruit 
district in California, it follows as a matter of 
Course that it is the largest canning and pack- 
ing district in the state. There are (1922) 
thirty packing houses owned and oper- 
ated by the California Prune and Apricot 
Growers, Inc., nine affiliated with that organ- 
ization and eighteen independent packers, 
most of them operating in San Jose. There 
are forty canning factories in the county. 
One of these, the Co-operative plant, is the 
largest in the world. In 1921 it absorbed 
30,000 tons of fruit and employed nearly 1,000 
people. In the busy season of that year the 
combined county payroll reached over two 
million dollars. A number of new canneries 
and factories will be built this year, for the 
business is increasing by leaps and bounds. 
There are se\-eral dehydrating plants in the 
county to take care of grapes, strawberries, 
prunes and other fruits and berries. 

Practically all varieties of fruits and vege- 
tables except the tropical ones can be grown 
successfully in Santa Clara County. The prox- 
imity of the center of population and the ex- 
cellent transportation facilities have been great 
aids in the development of the valley. 

The history of the fruit industry in the 
county is an interesting one. The adaptability 
of the climate and soil for horticultural pur- 
poses became apparent long before the first 
Americans visited the valley. The Fathers 
who planted the Missions, planted orchards 
at the same time, and found a full return for 
all their labor. The fertilit}^ of the soil was 
supplemented by a peculiarity of climate that 
enabled trees to grow many more weeks in the 
year than in other countries, while during the 
season of rest there was no freezing weather 
to chill their sap or delay their progress in the 
spring. The result was that a very few seasons 
brought orchards to a condition of fruitfulness. 
All this was demonstrated by the experience of 
the Fathers at the Missions, but even with this 
experience before them, the early horticultur- 
ists of the valley were astonished by the re- 
sults of their work. 



The Missicm orchard at Santa Clara was the 
only source of fruit suppl)^ to the valley for 
many years. It furnished stock for the few 
orchards that were planted in the early years 
of the American occupation. These plantings 
^\'ere few at first, owino- to the gold excite- 
ment, but when people began to return from 
the mines the plantings became more numer- 
ous. The scarcity of fruit and consequent high 
jirices gave a great stimulus to horticulture. 
Apples imported from San Francisco sold for 
a dollar apiece, and other fruits in proportion. 
The first orchards planted after the Ameri- 
can occupatit)n, with tlie exception of a few 
private trees, were b}' E. W. Case, William 
Daniels and Joseph Aram. Case's orchard 
was about 350 trees and was on propertj^ front- 
ing on the Alviso road. Aram's orchard was 
of twenty acres and was situated where the 
Woolen Mills were afterwards built. Daniels' 
orchard was about one acre and was in the 
northern part of town, on a tract lying be- 
tween Julian and St. James, Market and First 
streets. Part of the trees planted by these 
San Joseans were furnished by a man named 
Ganz and were brought from Ohio. This was 
in 1852. In the succeeding year Case and Aram 
imported more trees from tlie nurserv of 
Charles Hovey. Cambridge, ^Massachusetts. 

One of the popular fall eating apples of Cen- 
tral California is the Skinner seedling. It is 
a San Jose production and originated from 
seeds brought across the plains by the late 
Judge Henry C. Skinner. He was one of the 
pioneer orchardists of the city and one of the 
promoters of the Santa Clara Countv Agricul- 
tural Society. He arrived in San Jose in 1850 
and purchased the family residence of Harry 
l^jee at the northwest corner of lulian and 
Nineteenth (then Fifteenth) streets. The 
grounds were spacious, extending to Coyote 
Creek, and were enlarged bv the purcliase of 
!Tlan^• acres in what is now Fast San Jose. 

In the spring of 1852 Cfjmmodore Stockton, 
who then owned tlie Potreru de Santa Clara 
rancho, which lies between San Jose and 
Santa Clara, imported from Hovey's Massa- 
chusetts nurserv a large numlier of trees for 
the purpose of starting a nurser}-. AMtli tliese 
trees came a professional botanist named vSliel- 
drm, with P. S. Fox and Thomas Fgan as as- 
sistants. Sheldon died on tlic Isthmus and 
Fox took charge of tlie enter])rise, Fgan as- 
sisting. "VA'ith the part}' came also I. F. Ken- 
nedy as salesman and cfjmmercial agent. The 
nursery was estal)lished in April, 1853, and for 
some time "was tine depot for nurserv su])plies 
for tJTe \'alley. The trees ciinsisted of apples, 
Ijeaches, pears, plums, nectarines and apricots. 
A\'ith this importation came also the first 
straAvberries grown in the county. 

In 1854-55 a Frenchman named Lavalle im- 
ported fruit trees and planted them in both 
nursery and orchard form on the property ly- 
ing north and west of Julian Street and owned 
by Peter O. Minor. He planted two acres and 
afterwards removed- the trees to the west side 
of the Coyote on the pro]3erty of the late Ed- 
ward McLaughlin. In 1855-56 he had a very 
large collection of trees in his nursery, which 
he afterwards sold to H. H. Winchell, China 
Smith and W'illiam Smith, and they continued 
the nursery business for some years thereafter. 
L. A. Gould and P. F. Walkins planted three 
orchards and nurseries at Santa Clara at about 
the same time. J. .A.. Ballou, who was at that 
time employed in the Case orchard, and who 
at ninety-fiA^e years of age is still living, says 
that from the 300 trees planted then, about 
800 pounds, mostly apples, were produced. 

During 1856 the State Horticultural Society 
held a fair in San Jose, and from the exhibi- 
tion the reputation of Santa Clara County 
fruit spread and people came hundreds of 
miles to see it. 

In 1853 a Horticultural Society was formed 
in San Jose. The meeting for the organization 
was held on the grounds of Louis Prevost un- 
der a giant live oak tree. There were present 
AVilliam Daniels, Louis Prevost, Louis Pellier, 
I. R. Rontemps, B. S. Fox and E. W. Case. 
Nearly all the old-time fruit growers became 
members. The names of Joseph Aram, R. G. 
Moodv, Davis Divine, L. A. Gould and John 
Llewelling appear in the list. This pioneer 
society afterwards united with the Agricul- 
tural Societv. Roth societies ceased to exist 
manv years ago. 

In 1856 nearly all of these early orchards 
had commenced to bear, and the quality of the 
fruit and the promise of extraordinary produc- 
tion gave these pioneer orchardists an idea of 
the remarkable resources of climate and soil. 
This }-ear stands out prominently as the date 
of the introduction of the French prune to this 
county, and in fact, to this coast. The fruit 
has become a standard and will always remain 
a favorite with orchardists. The history of its 
first importation is as follows: Louis Pellier, 
a A-ine and fruit grower of France, had come to 
California in the winter of 1848-49. After try- 
ing his fortune in the mities he journeved to 
vSan lose in 1850 and purchased a tract of land 
fronting on the west side of San Pedro near 
St. lames Street. The tract was for years 
known as Pellier's Gardens. Here he planted 
a nurserv and orchard and cultivated ilowers 
and plants. His brother, Pierre, had come out 
a year before and was assisting him at his 
work. When Pierre arri\ed he brought with 
him the cuttings of some of the finest varieties 
of grapes, among them the Black Burgundy, 



Chasselas Fontainebleau and Matleleinc. In 
1854 Louis Pellier sent Pierre back to France 
with instructions to go through l'iurgun(,ly and 
other parts of the country and secure the l)est 
varieties of fruit grown in each section. Pierre 
was assisted liy his brother John, and two 
years were spent in gathering stock, ^\'ilen 
they returned tt) San Jose they had cuttings 
of the Petit prune, Gros prune and many va- 
rieties of cherries, pears and pkmis. The i'etit 
prune at first \^■as not very popuhar, Ijut it \vas 
finally brought to the attention of John Rock, 
who recognized its value and soon popular- 
ized it. 

B. S. Fox in 1853 esta1)lished a nurser\' oi 
his own on Milpitas road. He had with him 
Thomas Egan and the acreage was soon in- 
creased to 200 acres. Fox was not only a pio- 
neer fruit gro\\er, Init a man of great scientific 
knowledge. A large orchard was developed 
from the nursery and to his enthusiasm Santa 
Clara County owes much of its early horticul- 
tural development. He died in 1881 and his 
landed property was left to his nephew, R. D. 
Fox, \\ho conducted the nursery successfulh' 
for many years and then became connected 
with the California Nursery at Niles. 

In 1854 came James R. Lowe. He was an 
Englishman by hhth and a professional botan- 
ist. He had been engaged in some of the most 
prominent landscape garden operations of the 
English nobility and had come to the United 
States to superintend some work for New Eng- 
land nurserymen. He came to California at 
the request of Major S. J. Hensley, of San 
Jose. He laid out the famous Hensley grounds 
on North First Street, which up to the time 
they were subdivided into lots contained more 
rare plants than any similar area in the state. 
Mr. Lowe ■>vas in constant communication with 
the superintendent of the Duke of Devonshire's 
gardens, and hardly a mail was received at the 
San Jose postoffice that did not contain some 
rare plant, bulb or cuttings from the Duke's 

J. O. A. Ballon went into the fruit business 
on his own account in 1856. At that time he 
purchased the place on the Milpitas, after- 
\vards occupied liv him as a homestead, and in 
February, 1857, he planted about 500 trees, 
principally apples and pears. In 1858 he added 
1500 more trees. In 1861, he procured from 
Louis Pellier grafts for fifty French prune 
trees. From these grafts he had his first crop 
of prunes in 1867. In 1868 he dried eleven 
tons of fruit for tfie Eastern market. 

The plantings in the celebrated Willo^^■ Glen 
•district were commenced as early as 1868, 
when W. C. Geiger set out a portion of his 
cherry orchard on wdiat is now Willow Street. 
In 1862 C. T. Settle planted an orchard of ap- 

]>Ies and |)ears on what is now tlie northeast 
C(irner of Lincoln and Minnesota avenues. At 
that time this district was covered Ijy a dense 
growth of willows anrl the hiwer portion was 
subject to oxerfiow by the Guadalupe River. 
The onl_\- road was I'd Aljra, since called Lin- 
coln .\venue, and the main central j^ortion of 
the district was owned by Settle, Cottle and 
Zarilla Valencia. Settle was soon followed by 
Royal and Ira Cottle, wdio also planted apples 
and pears. Soon afterwards Miles Hills and 
a Mr. Sampson purchased the Valencia tract 
and subdivided it into ten-acre lots. The first 
experiment was with strawdoerries. The ven- 
ture was so profitable that it created great ex- 
citement and soon everybody in The Willows 
^\'as planting strawberries. The industry flour- 
ished for some years and then came into com- 
petition ^^■ith the strawberr}- growers on the 
lowlands near the Iiay. Here the artesian wells 
gave a great flow and The AVillows people 
could not pump water and successfully com- 
pete with their lowland neighbors. They con- 
^■erted their berry i)atches into orchards. 

C)ne of the earliest orchards of the county 
was that of D. C. Vestal, on Twelfth Street 
near the Berryessa road. It was started in 
1854 and was devoted mainly to apples and 
pears. It was on Vestal's place that the Moor- 
park apricot was first propagated for market. 
George Hobson, who had an orchard and nur- 
sery on the tracts afterwards occupied by L. 
F. Sanderson and now known as Luna Park, 
had two of these trees, but held them in little 
estimation on account of their irregularity in 
ripening. From these trees Vestal procured 
buds. and worked them into a few trees on his 
place, \^^^en the fruit appeared he was so 
greatly pleased with its size and flavor that, 
in 1869, he planted three acres. His experi- 
ments attracted attention and the Moorpark 
came into universal favor. The Vestal tract is 
no longer an orchard. A few 3-ears ago it ^^'as 
subdivided into building lots and but few of 
the old trees remain. 

As there were varieties of fruit which could 
not wholly be taken care of by the canners, a 
company \\'as formed in July, 1874, to meet 
the situation. It was called the "Alden Fruit 
and Vegetable Preserving Company," and the 
projectors were W. H. Leenian, F. C. Lee- 
man, C. T. Settle, Ira Cottle, Roval Cottle, 
Oliver Cottle, S. Newhall, W. AV. Cozzens, R. 
C. Swan, K. D. Berre, A. D. Colton, Miles 
Hills, J. M. Battee, T. B. Keeshng, M. Hale 
and Pedro de Saisset. They purchased an 
Alden evaporator and placed it at the corner 
of the San Salvator Street extension and Jo- 
sefa Street. During the few years of its ex- 
istence the company turned out some good 
fruit, but the machinery was not adapted for 



the work, so the company conchided to retire 
from business, W. W. Cozzens and G. A. and 

C, F. Fleming afterwards tried evaporating, 
witli marked success. The business was dis- 
continued about twenty years ago. 

At tliis time The Willows was the principal 
orchard section of the county. The older 
orchards of Ballon, Tarleton, Aram, Vestal 
and others were north of San Jose and David 
Hobson liad an orchard near Berryessa. The 
orchards of Gould and Walkins were at Santa 
Clara and there were others in other places, 
but The Willows section was nearly all planted 
to fruit and it came to be believed by many 
that this was the onl}- section in the county 
where the fruit industry could be successfully 
conducted. There is a record of one man who 
owned a fine place in Berryessa, who bought 
a tract of ground in The Willows in order to 
have an orchard. That same Berryessa farm 
is now one of the most promising orchard 
places in the valley. 

In 1856 Lyman Burrell planted fruit trees 
and vines in the mountains above Los Gatos. 
This was the first planting in the mountains. 
In 1873 an almond orchard, now absorbed by 
the town of Los Gatos, was planted, and in 
1874 J. F. Kenned}', in the hills east of Los 
Gatos, planted a small orchard. In 1876 W. 

D. Pollard planted twenty acres two miles 
north of Saratoga and the next year the once 
famous O'Banion & Kent orchard was started. 
William Rice planted an orchard in the same 
neighborhood. These men were looked upon 
as fools. It was at first predicted that tlie 
trees would not grow in such dry, thin soil. 
When the trees did grow it was prophesied 
that they would never have Adgor enough to 
bear a paying crop. At six years old they 
yielded about $500 per acre (a large amount 
of money for those times), and then came the 
predictifin that they would die out in a iew 
3'ears. But as time passed and the trees did 
not die, the scofl^ers accepted the facts and l)e- 
gan to plant for themselves. 

The orchard interests of Berryessa are not 
of an early date. Following David Hobson, 
with his small orchard, came J. H. Flickinger 
and the real development of one of the richest 
fruit sections of the state really began. The 
story of the Berryessa development will be 
told in the chapter relating to the prosperous 
towns of the county. 

In 1856 vSylvester Ne\\hall built a nursery 
and planted an orchard in The Willows. In 
1863 John Rock established a small mu'sery 
on land near Alviso. He soon moved to the 
Boots place and in 1865 purchased forty-eight 
acres on the Milpitas road near San Jose and 
planted a nursery of. fruit and ornamental 
trees. In 1879 this place liecame too small for 

his operations, so he piu'chased 138 acres. The 
rapid strides of the California fruit interests 
made such demands on the Santa Clara County 
nurseries that in 1884, Rock, with R. D. Fox 
and several other nurserymen, organized the 
California Nursery Company and purchased 
463 acres near Niles, which were planted in 
trees and garden stock. The nursery, en- 
larged and l)eautified, is still running, though 
John Rock has been dead for many years. 

The San Tomas orchard, a mile southeast of 
Saratoga, was planted b)r T. W. Mitchell in 
the early '80s. In 1880 G. A. Gardner pur- 
chased the tract on the Los Gatos road on the 
northeast corner of what was afterwards called 
"Orchard Homes." Newhall's forty-acre 
prune orchard was planted in 1883, and about 
this time fruit tree planting was carried around 
Campbell's Station and along the Infirmary 
and Grewell roads. The Bradley prune orch- 
ard was planted in 1875. The large plantings 
north and west of Santa Clara, together with 
those of the Doyle, Cupertino and other dis- 
tricts, date from 1880. Following came plant- 
ings in and about Evergreen and along the 
Monterey road. 

There are but few orchards in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of Milpitas, but the hillsides to the 
east have been utilized by Portuguese garden- 
ers for the planting of potatoes, peas, beans 
and other vegetables for the midwinter market. 

It would hardly he possible to give the 
names of the owners and dates of planting of 
all the orchards in the county. Among the 
biographical sketches in this book will be 
found the experiences of very many of the 
county's leading fruit growers, and these 
sketches are intended to fill up the details of 
this general history. 

To wander among the great orchards in 
summer, when e^■ery tree is bending beneath 
its weight of fruit — purple prunes, golden ap- 
ricots and yellow peaches tinted with the 
crimson hues of wine — is to walk in a terres- 
trial paradise like Adam before the Fall. Eves 
there are in plenty, bright-eyed, ruddy-cheeked 
daughters of California, who will tempt you 
to eat your fill of the refreshing fruit, which 
you may do without fear, within reasonable 

As the orchards of the valley increased in 
number and l)earing capacity, the fruit grow- 
ers began to fear that perhaps the crops would 
l^e wasted for the reason that no one had yet 
attempted to preserve thenj for market. But 
the danger was averted liy the enterprise of 
Dr. James M. Dawson, the pioneer fruit can- 
ner and packer of the valley. He put up th6 
first canned fruit for market in 1871. From 
observation of the superior quality of fruit 
grown in the valley, he foresaw the marvelous 



possibilities of tlie cliniatc and soil for fruit 
production as a factor of commerce on the 
Pacific Ci>ast, and he also realizetl that for the 
fruit inclustry to attain any importance it was 
a prime necessity that means should be pro- 
\'ided to prepare and preserve the fruits in the 
immediate \icinity of the orchards. ActiuL'; 
upon these convictions and stimulated by the 
•wise counsel and hearty co-operation of his 
wife, he resohed to start a fruit cannery in 
this valley, .Vn ordinary cooking range was 
purchased and placed in a 12x16 shed kitchen 
in the rear of their residence on the Alameda; 
and on this the fruits were all heated before 
being placed in the cans. The fruits were ob- 
tained from orchards in the neighborhood and 
the season's output, consisted of 350 cans 
The next year the base of operations was 
changed to San Jose, the cannery being lo- 
cated in an orchard at the corner of Si-x- 
teenth (now Twenty-first) and Julian streets. 
AA', N. Stevens, a brother-in-law, was taken in 
as partner. The pack that season was double 
that of the first. 

In 1872 Lendrum & Company, grocers, 
joined the firm and a large building was erect- 
ed on the corner of Fifth and Julian streets, 
in which the pack of that season — nearly 800 
cans — was made, A year or two later the 
business was incorporated under the title of 
the vSan Jose Fruit Packing Company, Dr. 
Dawson being made president. The plant \vas 
enlarged and the pack increased to 25,000 cans 
a year. The business continued until 1878 
when Dr, Dawson disposed of his interest and 

In 1879 Dr. Dawson returned to his place 
on the Alameda and resumed the business in 
a moderate way in a building erected in the 
rear of his residence. The following year he 
took in his son, E. L. Dawson, as an equal 
partner, the firm title being, "The J. M. Daw- 
son Packing Company." The plant was en- 
larged from year to year. In 1883 Dr, Dawson 
retired. He'died in' 1885 and his son contin- 
ued the business. 

Another pioneer packing company, the 
Golden Gate, was incorporated in 1877. Since 
then it has grown to be one of the largest 
fruit packing establishments on the Pacific 
Coast. The plant is on Third and Fourth 
streets, between Julian Street and Hensley 
Avenue. In 1881 the entire works were de- 
stroyed by fire. New and larger buildings im- 
mediately succeeded the old ones and the best 
and most approved machinery was secured. 
Geo. M. Bowman w^as superintendent and 
manager for over twenty years and at his 
death the management was assumed by Elmer 
E. Chase, whose rare business ability was 
exhibited in many improvements and a large- 
ly increased output. In 1917 the packing house 

passed into the hands of the Hunt Bros., who 
own packing houses in several sections of 
Central California, Mr. Chase joining forces 
with the Richmond Company. 

The Los Gatos Fruit Packing Cf)mpany was 
organized in 1882, with fourteen stockholders 
and the following officers : Samuel Temple- 
ton, president ; James E. Gordon, secretary ; 
J. \V. Eyndon, treasurer; Robert Walker and 
Michael Miller, directors. The institution 
commenced work in a building 60x80 feet, 
\vith machinery capable of handling 5000 cases 
in a season. The plant was steadily increased, 
new buildings were erected and every means 
taken to meet the demands of the trade. But 
dull times came, the company became insol- 
vent and in 1888 went out of business. 

During the eighties the fruit industry in- 
creased by leaps and bounds, vineyards, pas- 
ture and grain lands were converted into fruit 
orchards until the county became one vast 
orchard — the largest fruit producing section 
in the world. In 1886 the consumers of fruit 
in the East became convinced that the prunes 
grown in Santa Clara County were superior 
in quality to those grown in France. This su- 
periority is due to two causes : First, because 
the peculiar soil and climate of the county 
induces a thriftier growth, a more perfect ripen- 
ing of the fruit and complete development of 
the sugar; second, because of the method of 
curing practiced here. In France the process 
through which the prunes are carried results 
in cooking the fruit to a greater or less ex- 
tent. This renders it soft and pleasant to 
eat, but when made into sauce it loses much 
of its flavor. In the California process where 
the fruit is cured by exposure to the sun, no 
cooking results and the fruit retains its full 

The present main strawberry section of the 
county lies north of San Jose and Santa Clara, 
toward Milpitas and Alviso, The first per- 
son to go into business in this district was 
Mr, Cary Peebles, who planted a few acres in 
1868 on the place afterward owned by Mr. 
Agnew at Agnew's Station. His success in- 
duced other plantings and in a short time 
the whole belt of country where flowing ar- 
tesian water was available was engaged in 
this industry. In late years strawberry cul- 
ture has been undertaken north of Berryessa 
in other sections of the valley. Large tracts 
of land have been leased by Japanese and 
Chinese and now (1922) the Orientals con- 
trol the bulk of the valley's berry output. 

The following showes the annual orchard 
production of Santa Clara County: Apples, 
10,000 tons; apricots, 25,000 tons; cherries, 
10,000 tons; grapes, 40,000 tons; peaches, 25,- 
000 tons; pears, 18,000 tons; prunes, 60,000 
tons ; plums, 37,700 tons ; almonds, 200 tons ; 



walnuts, 300 tons; berries (strawberries, 
l)lackberries and loganberries), 65,000 chests, 
(_)live industr^' fairh' large, ijroducing both 
ripe pickled olives and olive oil. 

Soil productions — Sugar beets (for refiner- 
ies). 150,000 tons: beans (canning), 500 tons; 
peas (canning), 150 tons; spinach (canning), 
1,000 tons; tomatoes (canning), 60.000 tons; 
potatoes (fall), 1,000 tons; potatoes (early), 
1,500 tons; other vegetables (cabbage, cauli- 
flower, celerjr, artichokes, lettuce, squash, 
corn, onions, etc.), 2,500 tons. 

Annual exportations, domestic and for- 
eign — Canned fruits, berries and vegetaljles, 
100,000 tons; dried fruits, 65,000 tons; green 
fruits, 12,000 tons; garden seeds, 1,000 tons; 
miscellaneous soil products, 2,000 tons. 

Forty per cent of the prunes are sold in 
foreign markets and 60 per cent in domestic 
Tnarkets ; 20 per cent of the canned fruits find 
foreign markets and SO per cent domestic 
markets. The forty canneries in San Jose and 
Santa Clara County put out approximately 
one-third of the entire canned output of Cali- 

The total acreage of orchards of various 
kinds of fruits in Santa Clara County, in 
round numbers, is as follows: Apples, 1,200 
acres ; apricots, 7,000 acres ; cherries, 4,000 
acres ; figs, 40 acres ; olives, 250 acres ; peaches, 
5,000 acres; plums, 11,500 acres; prunes, 80,- 
000 acres, dried ; pears, 3,500 acres ; lemons, 
200 acres ; limes, 10 acres ; oranges, 40 acres ; 
pomelos, 10 acres : grapes, 10,000 acres ; al- 
monds, 400 acres; walnuts, 1,000 acres; total, 
124,150 acres. 

There are 2,850 acres of vineyards in Santa 
Clara County. The acreage has been larger, 
but the rapid growth of the fruit industry 
induced man}^ vineyardists to uproot their 
vines and plant fruit trees. When the Pro- 
hibition law went into effect in 1919 the vine 
growers of the state predicted disaster to their 
lousiness, but tlie result has shown that they 
were mistaken. In 1919 the growers of Santa 
Clara County made more money tlian was 
made by them in any year while there was 
lawful sale for their grapes and wines, the 
demand coming from the East and Europe. 
Now wine grapes are dried by dehydration, 
several plants being in operation Of course 
Prohilaition did not affect the sale of ta1)le 
grapes. These are grown in the foothills 
mostly and are of superior cjuality and size. 

Befcjre the American occupation vines were 
planted here and tliere through the valley 
from cuttings procured from the mission, but 
these plantings could hardly l)e called vine- 
yards. The first planting of any magnitude 
was made by Charles Lefranc at the New 
Almaden vineyard in 1852. In 1857 he mar- 
ried Miss Adele Thee, whose father Etienne 

Thee, owned a half interest in a tract of land 
where the New Almaden vineyard was after- 
wards located. Mr. Lefranc purchased the 
other half in 1851 and afterward came into 
ownership of the whole tract. 

Thee had planted a few mission vines on 
the place liefore Lefranc took charge. The 
area was then increased, finer varieties be- 
ing added. The early importations were in 
1854 and were made through the house of 
Henry Schroeder, wdiose agent in France act- 
ed for Lefranc in securing cuttings. The 
first installment arrived and each succeeding 
season saw additions to the varieties. The 
Verdal w^as introduced into this country by 
]\Irs. Lefranc in 1859. She l^rought the cut- 
tings on horseback from the Canada Raymude 
ranch and they were presented to her by a 
Spanish nobleman who ; had broug'ht them 
from the old country. 

In 1858 Frank Stock planted a vineyard at 
the corner of William and Eighth streets, San 
Jose. He imported valuable German varieties, 
among which were the Johannisberg Ries- 
ling, Franklin Riesling, Tramina, Golden 
Chasselas and Zinfandel. AMien the vineyard 
was discontinued in 1869 Mr. Stock presented 
his vines to Mr. Lefranc, who removed them 
to the New Almaden vineyard. In course of 
time the glut of French wine at San Francisco 
disappeared and there came a demand for 
more. Then Lefranc turned his attention to 
wine making, his first considerable vintage be- 
ing in 1862. He continued his planting until 
he had 131 acres in vineyard. 

Antonio Delmas, like Louis Pellier, was 
an earlv importer of wines, his vineyard be- 
ing on part of what is now Delmas Avenue. 
Pedro Sainsevain also had some good varie- 
ties at an early day. In 1868 Victor Speck- 
ens had a vineyard of choice grapes in full 
bearing. This vineyard afterward went into 
the hands of John Auzerais, of San Jose, who 
planted many new varieties. 

Other plantings of notable varieties were 
made between l868 and 1871. The Stocktons 
planted the Gravelly Hill Vineyard, D. M. 
Harwood planted the Lone Hill Vineyard, 
Frank Richmond in the same neighborhood 
followed suit and Ncirman Porter selected the 
Cupertin<i district for a new vineyard. 

This district, now given over niainl}^ to 
orchards of prunes, apricots and cherries, was 
once famiius for its vineyards. In 1848 Elisha 
Stevens, who was captain of the Murphy party 
in 1844, settled on the ranch, afterward known 
as "Blackberry F'arm," and gave his name to 
Stevens Creek. He planted four acres of Mis- 
sion grapes on the creek bottom. He also 
planted l)lack1)erries and tliis action gave the 
name to Jiis place. Soon after this a Spaniard 



named Novato, who hatl settled in the I'dot- 
hills near Permanente Creek, phmted a few 
euttini^'s from Captain Ste\ens' xineyard. With 
the exception of a few patches here and there 
that was all the planting- done until 1870. Much 
of the soil was thin and covered with chemisal 
anil had no reputation either for fertility or 
endurance. Many grain farmers l')ecame poor 
in trying to make a li\ing there and it was 
considered a pure Avaste of time and money 
to endea\or to obtain a li\ing In' grape cid- 
ture. In 1870 S. R. Williams came into the 
district and took a contract from AVilliam 
Hall to clear the ground and plant 100 acres 
in ^-ines and care for them for three years. 
He did this and as pay received a deed to 
fifty acres of the land. Williams was followed 
by Portal, who set out the Burgundy vine- 
yard and b}" J. F. Thompson who planted 
forty acres adjoining. They were followed by 
Hall, CTardner, \\Tight, Alontgomery, Bubb, 
Farr, Blabon, Hallenbeck, Coomlje and others. 
Nearlv all these plantings were made from 
1880 to 1885. 

Other districts were being developed wdiile 
the Cupertino planting was going on. The 
Union and Los Gatos districts, Evergreen, 
^iladrone and the Collns districts, hills above 
Saratoga and on the eastern side of the valley, 
toward the Mission San Jose had many spots- 
converted into vineyards. Most of the vines 
on the San Francisco and Boyter roads, and 
the foothills near E.vergreen -were planted aft- 
er 1880. 

In 1856 Lyman J. Burrell planted grapes in 
the .Santa Cruz ]\Iountains near the summit. 
He was followed by H. C. Morrell, D. C. Feely 
and many others until the Skyland region be- 
came famous for its fine output of table grapes. 
For years hundreds of tons were annually 
shipped to the East. 

In 1919 there were 23,000 olive trees in 
Santa Clara County. The largest and most 
important olive farm is known at home and 
abroad as the "Quito Olive and Vine Farm." 
It contains eighty-one acres, is eight miles 
from San Jose and is situated on the Quito 
road near its junction with Saratoga Avenue. 
It was formerly a part of the Jose Ramon Ar- 
guello rancho and was used by him as a coun- 
try homestead, and here, in 1865, he planted 
the first of the olives, a small vinej^ard and 
a fruit orchard. His death, in 1876, led to a 
division of the estate and in December, 1882, 
the olive farm passed into the hands of Ed- 
ward E. Goodrich, a graduate of Yale and of 
the Albany Law School. The development of 
the place has been carried on slowly, but 
steadily since that date. A few years passed 
during wdiich time, the entire place was given 
over to olives. The buildings consist of a mill, 

with crusher and press arldition, winery, barn, 
commodious houses f(jr the force of workmen 
and other appurtenances of an up-to-date insti- 
tution. In the process of oil making, Mr. Good- 
rich So im])roved upon the work of the Ital- 
ians that it was not long before his products 
can-ie to lie recognized as superior to any sold 
in the LTnited States. At the great American 
exhibitions he took first prizes, while the sales 
were never able to keep pace with the demand. 
I'esides the profit of the oli^'e farm, the tree 
has certain special attractions. By its almost 
unlimited life an olive orchard is ever increas- 
ing in value. B}- its hardihood it can oc- 
cupy land not adapted to fruit culture and al- 
most valueless for general farm uses. Mr. 
Goodrich died on April 21, 1920. In August, 
1919, he had sold the farm to G. Bruces, wdio 
will continue the manufacture of oil. 

The growing of seeds is carried on exten- 
sivel}- in Santa Clara Count}'. There are sev- 
eral companies engaged in this industry, the 
principal ones being the Braslan Seed Grow- 
ers Company, Inc., the California Seed Grow- 
ers Association, Inc., and the Kimberlin Com- 
pany. The P>raslan Company started business 
in 1Q05, have seed farms covering 400 acres in 
Eden\ale and Gilroy, and for years had large 
g-o^'ernment contracts. The output of gar- 
den seeds is now used mainly by the large 
nurseries and seed distributing establishments 
of the East, Europe and the Orient. The 
warehouse is at Coyote Station, twelve miles 
south of San Jose on the Monterey road and 
the Gilroy line of the Southern Pacific Rail- 
way. C. P. Braslan, who started the business, 
died in 1910, and the company is now a family 
affair, Mrs. Braslan being the principal owner. 
The officers are Dr. E. O. Pieper, president 
and manager: W. E. Evans, secretary and 

The California Association, an ofTshoot of 
the Braslan Company, ^^•as organized in 1912, 
with D. G. Fisher, president; J. W. Edmund- 
son, vice-president, and Miss Mary Williams, 
secretary and treasurer. It has 1,000 acres 
in tw'o farms in Santa Clara County and the 
warehouse is located in San Jose near the old 
narrow gauge depot. The garden seeds har- 
vested find their way to all parts of the world. 

The Kimberlin Company — C. R., L. M. and 
J. L. Kimberlin — controls about 800 acres, the 
farms being in Milpitas and Gilroy. Like the 
other companies, the seeds grown have the 
whole world as a market. 

The citrus fruits ha^'e been cultivated in 
Santa Clara County for a period antedating 
tradition. C)range and lemon trees early 
found place in the Mission orchards and many- 
were brought to the valley by the early im- 
migrants from Mexico. They were common 



in the (Ujoryards and gardens of old Spanish 
homesteads and Ijore alntndant fruit, though 
not of the liest quality. Orange and lemon 
trees of a Ijetter Aariety were, many years 
ago, planted on the grounds of W. S. TvIcMur- 
try and AA'. H. Rogers in Los Gatos. The>' 
grew thriftily and bore well. Christian Field- 
sted. on the eastern foothills, had an orchard 
of oranges and semi-tropical fruits which 
was a source of considerable profit. In 1880 
Har\'ey Wilcox planted si.xteen acres to 
oranges in the hills overlooking Los Gatos. 
At six years of age these trees brought a large 
harvest of beautiful fruit. As a rule citrus 
fruits were not planted for the market, but as 
an ornament and to furnish a home supph^. 
For this reason imblic attention A\-as not called 
to this branch of horticulture until the winter 
of 1886-87. At that time the County Horti- 
cultural Society held a citrus fair, at which 
oranges and lemons were presented for ex- 
hibition from 163 different localities in the 
valley. This exhibition was made, not for 
the purpose of showing citrus culture as a 
leading industry of the valley, but to demon- 
strate to Eastern visitors that Santa Clara 
County possessed a soil and climate suitable 
to the growth of these fruits. But orange 
culture will ne\er become a very important 
branch of the county's horticulture. This will 
not be from lack of adaptability of soil and 
climate, but because it does not pay as well 
as other lines of fruit growing, nor is it so 
sure or capable of being conducted with so 
little expense. But orange and lemon culture 
still continues on a small scale. In all sec- 
tions of San Jose and in many parts of the 
county, particularly in the foothills, may be 
seen liardy and well-bearing orange and lemon 

In aid of the farmers there was organized 
in 1917 the Santa Clara County Farm Loan 
Association as a part of District No. 11, which 
comprises California, Oregon, Nevada and 
Utah. The National Farm Loan Act, under 
which the association operates, has for general 
purposes the lowering and ec[ualization of in- 
terest rates on first mortgage farm loans ; the 
providing of long term loans with the privi- 
lege of repayment in installments through a 
long or short period of years at the borrower's 
option; the assembling of the farm credits of 
the nation to be used as security for money 
to be employed in farm development ; the stim- 
ulating of co-operative action among farmers ; 
the making easier for the landless to get land 
and the provision for safe and sound long- 
term investments for the thrifty. The Fed- 
eral land banks make the loans and issue their 
bonds or debentures to investors. The na- 
tional farm loan associations are organizations 

of borrowers and through them applications 
for loans are made t<i the Federal land banks. 
The rate of interest is five and one-half per 
cent, but a different rate may ])e charged if 
found adA'isable. The secretary-treasurer of 
the local farm association is required to col- 
lect the installments from the borrowers in 
his association and remit them to the Federal 
land bank. Both interest and principal are 
included in the equal annual or semi-annual in- 
stallments throughout the entire period of the 
loan. The farmer wdio borrows is required 
to Iju}' stock of his local association equal to 
fi\'e per cent of his loan. This stock is held 
by the association as collateral security until 
the farmer has paid off his loan. AVith the 
money which the borrower pays for his stock 
the association buys stock in the Federal land 
bank's capital in order that it may make more 
loans. In case of severe losses experienced by 
the local loan association wdiich make it un- 
able to meet its obligations, each borrower is 
personally liable for an amount equal to the 
face value of his stock. If loans are conserva- 
tively made, it is claimed that no loss can 
reasonably occur that would call for this five 
per cent liabilit}'. If the banks make a profit 
they will pay dividends on all stock except 
that held by the government. The Santa Clara 
County Association has for officers : L. Wood- 
ard, president: F. ]\L Righter, vice-president; 
L. P. Edwards, secretary. In the Madrone 
district is another association, with Mrs. S. 
M. Schofield, Woodard, Righter, R, J. Mayne 
and Mrs. Agnes Schroeder as directors. The 
count}' is also well represented by Granges of 
the Patrons of Husbandry. 

In the line of vegetables Santa Clara 
County is in the front rank as a producer. In 
1919 over a million cases of canned tomatoes, 
string beans, peas, cucumbers and other odds 
and ends, aggregating over 250,000 cases, were 
packed, while as for onions, something like 
500 tons were raised. There were also paying 
crops of asparagus, lettuce, beets, cauliflower, 
celery, corn, cabbage, squash, potatoes, etc., 
raised in the sediment soil along the creeks 
and in other favorable localities. 

As for poultry, of all the prizes awarded of 
late years, ninety-five per cent went to Santa 
Clara birds. Including chickens, turkeys, 
geese and ducks, there were 17,220 head. 

Dairying is also carried on extensively. The 
butter output averages 500,000 pounds, and 
over that amount in cheese. The southeastern 
end of the county, around Gilroy and Morgan 
Hill, is well suited to this kind of industry. 
Alfalfa can be readily grown on the level land 
of the valley, -where the water supply is good, 
and as hogs and alfalfa go together, the same 
conditions will apply to both. 



The orchards of the euunty are irrii^ated, 
sometimes from stream (htehes, hut mostly 
from artesian wells. These wells were lirst 
used in the \alley in 1S54, shallow wells and 
water from the creeks sufficini;- for the re- 
quirements of the earlier days. In January, 
1854, when tlie Merritt brothers built their 
l.M'ick house on Fifth Street — it is still stand- 
ing — they commenced boring for a U)\\'er 
stratum of water, seeking a stream that did 
not act as a sewer fcir all the accumulated 
tilth on the ground. The}- struck water at a 
depth of iiftv feet, Init determined to go 
deeper. At eighty feet they tapped a stream 
that came rushing to the surface like the erup- 
tion of a volcano. The hole was six inches in 
diameter and the pressure was sufficient, as 
]\Ir. Hall says in his "History of San Jose," 
to run a sawmill. The success met with in 
this well induced the boring of others. In 
the same month J. S. Shepard had a well sunk 
on his place, three miles from town. This 
well went through muck and clay to a depth 
of seventy-five feet and a stratum of sand. 
Five feet in this sand water was struck and, 
although the pipe rose sixteen feet above the 
surface of the ground, the -water came out of 
the top as though forced by powerful machin- 
ery. During the next month T. Meyers bored 
a 'well and obtained a plentiful supply of 
water. But the greatest -well in the history 
of the county was bored in August of the 
same year by G. A. Dabney, near San Fer- 
nando' Street. Mr, Hall thus describes it: 
"After boring six feet the auger entered a bed 
of clav, through which, a distance of fifty-four 
feet, it penetrated, when the water rushed up 
with a force unknown here in well-boring. It 
flooded the surrounding lands so that it be- 
came a serious question how the water should 
be disposed of. The City Council declared it 
a nuisance and passed an ordinance directing 
Dabnev to stop or control the flow of water, 
and if' not, he should pay a fine of $50 for 
everv day he allowed it thus to run. The 
ordinance had no effect on the dynamical 
properties of the water, nor any on Dabney ; 
for about six weeks it flowed on, rising nine 
feet above the surface of the ground, when 
other .wells bored in that vicinity lessened 
its force and volume. It was a curiosity and 
received visitors daily." 

After this demonstration of the fact that 
artesian water could be had, there was no 
more complaint of the lack of this necessary 
fluid. The old acequm fell into disuse and 
finally disappeared. Wells were sunk in vari- 
ous localities and always with good results, 
but as the wells accumulated the force of 
the flow was somewhat diminished. The first 
irrigating was done on the lower land north 

of town. At one lime the (.'alifornia Invest- 
ment Company, which had ac(juired several 
thousand acres of salt marsh land along the 
sill ire of the bay, attempted t(i reclaim it by 
means of artesian \\'e]ls. The project was to 
build lex'ees around their property to shut 
out the sea, pump out the salt water and re- 
place it with fresh artesian water. They went 
so far as to bore many ^ve11s, l)ut abandoned 
the project, either because it ^vas im])ractica- 
ble or on account of the exjjense. The wells, 
howe\er, were a great source of annoyance to 
the people li\ing in the north. Being allowed 
to flow continually, the water in other wells 
was lowered and many ceased to flow at all. 
The matter became so disastrous that an act 
was passed by the Legislature declaring it a 
.nisdemeanor to permit artesian wells to re- 
train uncapped wdien not in use. After much 
labor this law w-as enforced and the injured 
w-ells recovered their vigor. 

Many attempts ha^•e been made to trace and 
locate the artesian belt, but it is continually- 
being struck outside these locations, and no 
one cares to risk his reputation by saying 
w-here it is not. It was at first thought to lie 
exclusively between San Jose and the bay, 
following the lower levels of the valley. In 
1870 artesian water was supposed to have 
been found in the San Felipe tract southeast 
of Gilroy. But one night a well, windmill and 
tank, house and frame, on the property of Mr, 
Buck disappeared from sight and the longest 
sounding line w-as unable to discover the 
whereabouts of the missing improvements. 
This indicated that the supply was a lake and 
not an ordinarj' stream. In 1887 flowing arte- 
sian w-ater was found at Gilroy and the neigh- 
borhood w-as afterw-ard successfully developed. 
W^ith all these facts understood, there can be 
no doubt that artesian water can be found at 
any point in the valley, not excepting the 
higher grounds near the foothills. 

The Farm Owners and Operators' Associa- 
tion was organized in 1919 for the purpose of 
becoming a part of a state organization. A 
constitution has already been prepared and 
when in operation the various branches in the 
state will become as units. The object of the 
association is to protect the farmers and orch- 
ardists and at the same time promote their in- 
terests. The officers are : J. J. McDonald,, 
chairman; T. D. Landels, vice-chairman; Mary 
P. Richter, secretary: B. T. McCurdy, treas- 
urer. Board of trustees — Robert Britton, Mor- 
gan Hill ; Frank Stevens, Coyote ; Luther Cun- 
ningham, Saratoga ; J. H. Harkness, Morgan 
Hill ; J. H. Fair, San Jose ; lohn Hassler, 
San Jose: A. R. McClay, San Jose; H. F, 
Curry, San Jose; Albert M. Foster, San Jose; 
John W. Shaw, San Jose ; Arthur P. Free- 



man, Lawrence ; A. \V. Greathead, San Jose ; 
T. J. Herndon, CampbeH ; vS. T. Johnson, Cup- 
ertino ; E. K. Clendenning, Campbell ; J. K. 
Durst, Sunnyvale; E. L. Fellow, Santa Clara; 
R. T. Van Orden, Mountain View; Lewis H. 
Britton, Morgan Hill; V. T. McCurdy, Santa 
Clara ; F. C. Willson, Sunnyvale. Although 
organized but three years, the association has 
done considerable work. It has l)een instru- 
mental in equalizing fruit tree assessments. 
It has also materially assisted in the move- 
ment for conser\'ing the water of the valley. 
In 1920 it took up the county season labor 
problem and is now receiving the hearty sup- 
port of the canneries and packing houses. 

The Fruit Growers of California Associa- 
tion, Inc., was organized in 1919 and is a sort 
of detached auxiliary of the California Prune 
and Apricot Growers, Inc. It handles green 
fruit only and sells to canners and ships to 
Eastern buyers. It does for the green fruit 
what the dried fruit operators do for dried 
fruit. R. P. Van Orden of Mountain View is 
president, and J. U. Porter is acting secretary. 
The directors and I. O. Rhodes, C. C. Spauld- 
ing, A. C. Gordon, James Mills, H. N. Schroe- 
der, Herman A. Clark, W. E. Moore, L. E. 
Walker and E. R. Clendenning. Every fruit 
section of the county is represented in the di- 
rectorate. Mr. Bone, who was the first sec- 
retary, was one of the leaders in the organiza- 
tion of the California Prune and Apricot 
Growers, Inc., and for two years was its sec- 

The California Prune and Apricot Growers, 
Inc., have organized growers', packing and 
warehouse associations with plants in Santa 
Clara County as follows: Plant No. 1, Camp- 
bell; No. 2, Morgan Hill; No. 3, Gilroy; No. 4, 
San Jose, Fourth and Lewis streets ; No. 6, 
San Jose ; No. 7, Vasona, Los Gatos ; No. 8, 
Mountain View ; No. 10, San Jose ; No. 11, San 
lose, Cinnebar and Senter streets; No. 13, Los 
Gatos; No. 14, Lincoln Avenue, San Jose. 
They also have plants in \arious sections of 
the state, and the list extended to f(jrty in 1921. 
The following packers of the county are af- 
filiated with the association: Plant No. 14, 
[. W. Chilton c^ Co., San Jose; No. 15, J. B. 
Inderrieden Co., San Jose; No. 16, Pacific 
Fruit Products Co., San Jose; No. 17, Warren 
Dried Fruit Co., San Jose; No. 22, Geo. E. 
Hyde & Co., Cani])l)ell ; No. 37, Warren E. 
Hyde, S. E. Johnson, Cupertino; No. 38, West 
Side Fruit Growers' Association, Cupertino. 
In addition to the above, there will be estab- 
lished at numerous points in the state receiv- 
ing stations. Growers' Packing and Ware- 
housing Association, Inc., has already nego- 
tiated the purchase of several properties nec- 
essary for these plants. 

Contracts for handling fruit have been made 
with the green fruit buyers of the county. The 
independent packers of the county are as fol- 
lows : San Jose — C. H. Anderson, J. K. Arms- 
hy. Castle liros., California Fruit Canners' As- 
sociation, California Packing Corporation 
plants Nos. 50, 51 and 52; Earl Fruit Com- 
pany, Golden Gate Packing Company, J. C. 
Moore, Guggenheim Packing Company, Rich- 
mond-Chase Company, Polak Packing Com- 
pany, Wayne Packing Company. Campbell — 
Ainsley Packing Company. Saratoga — Soro- 
sis Fruit Company. Santa Clara — Block & 
Company. Sunnyvale — J. K. Armsby. 

Following are the fruit and vegetable can- 
neries of Santa Clara County: Alviso — Bay- 
side Canning Compan}-. Campbell — Ainsley 
Canning Company, California Canneries, Geo. 
E. Hyde & Company, Gilroy — H. A. Baker 
Cannery, Felice & Perelli Canning Company. 
Los Gatos — Hunt Brothers. Mayfield — Foon 
Canning Compan}'. Milpitas — California Pack- 
ing Corporation. Mountain View — Concen- 
trated Tomatoes Company, John W. McCar- 
thy, Jr., & Co. Santa Clara — Pratt-Low Pre- 
serving Company. Sunnyvale — California Sup- 
plies Company, Libby, McNeil & I^ibby, Srm- 
nyvale Canneries. San Jose — Alba Canning 
Company, Beechnut Company of California, 
Bisceglia Brothers & Company, California 
Growers' /\ssocation, California Prune and 
Apricot Growers, Inc. ; California Packing Cor- 
poration (two plants), Contadina Canning 
Company, Di Fiore Canning Company, Flick- 
inger & Company, Greco Canning Company, 
Golden Gate Packing Company, Herljert Pack- 
ing Company, Italian Canning Company, J. F. 
Pyle & Son, Richmond-Chase Company, Sal- 
sina Canning Company, San Jose Canning 
Company, Shaw Family, Inc. ; Sunlight Pack- 
ing Company, Wool Canning Company, De- 
hydrating Plant, Spolster & Company; Banks' 

Following are Santa Clara County statistics 
up to Decemljer, 1921 : 

Area, acres... 867,200 

County area, square miles. 1,355 

Numlier of farms and orchards 23,900 

Number of acres assessed 743,822 

Tax Rates 

County ta.K rate (outside incor- 
porated cities) $ 2.15 

San Jose ta.x rate — City, $1.52; 
county (inside cities), $1.72; 
schools, $1.15; total 4.48 

County Assessment 

County real estate $ 31,932,740 

Improvements on same.. 13,169,670 

Imp'ts on property not assessed 

to owners 26,795 



City and town lots.._,_ _ _ 18,4,i6,405 

hnprovements nn same _ 15,5(y).400 

Improvements on propert\- not as- 
sessed to owners __ ___. JO, 800 

Total \alne _ ,^ 79,155,810 

Personal Property 

Inside _ _ __ _____,.$ 4.687,550 

Outside ...__ _..._ _ _ 4,412,495 

Collected liy Assessor, inside 2,713,125 

Collected h_\- Assessor, outsiile. . . . o22,230 

Money and sohent credits, inside.. 281,160 

Money and solvent credits, outside 137,345 

Total personal ..$ 12,553,905 

Total of all non-operative prop. 91,709,715 

Operative Roll 

Real estate $ 2.144,060 

Imjirovements 297,955 

Personal propert^^ mone^^ soKent 

credits ...' ' 6.921 .045 

Total operative property $ 9,363.060 

Grand total of all property 101,072,775 

Exempt Property 

\'eterans, 605 exemjit; value of 

e.xemption $ 533.255 

Collc-e .]f Noire Dame 220,860 

Cnnersity .,1 Santa Clara..... LSs'sSO 

Stanford Cni\ersity __ _, 411,560 

Colle.^e of I'acilic 48,400 

Total exemptions... _ ___...$ 1„?69,955 

Total pro]ierty, non-operative, 

operative and exempt.. 102,442,730 

Property in Road Districts 

Road District Xo. 1 $ 8,295,525 

^^'- - -^ - 4,750,410 

No. 3....... 6.379,905 

No. 4... _. 16,591,460 

No. 5... __ 13,796,950 

Valuation Incorporated Cities 

San Jose __._.$ 27,411,825 

(^ilroy _,... 1.064,225 

Aiorgan Hill _ __.. 284,495 

Santa Clara __.. 2,574,435 

Dos Gatos __ 1,343.470 

Sunn3-\ale 445 795 

Afayfield __.. 4.84,175 

.Mountain View 746,905 

Palo Alto 4,347,675 

Alviso 270,515 


County Government and Good Roads — The Transportation Facilities of the 
Early Days — History of Various Important Road and Railway Enter- 
prises — The Rise and Fall of Toll Roads — Early Modes of Transporta- 
tion — First Telegraph Line. 

There is no better index of the character of 
a people than the nature of the laws and the 
manner in which they are administered. .As 
a rule the California codes cktsely follow the 
codes of Xew York. 1:)Ut in matters of state, 
anfl especially (jf count}", government there 
are many vital differences. .An intelligent ex- 
amination will show that all the best experi- 
ence of the older states has been end.iodied in 
the California legislati\'e laws, for hither came, 
in the early days, some of the lirightest minds 
in the legal profession at a time when the 
law-s were ready to be made on the most ap- 
proved plans. It is harrl to budge an estab- 
lished s\-stem of government, even wdien its 
defects are apparent. California, therefore, 
having few laws and no prejudices in early 
days, was ready to profit b}' all that had been 

learned in the older communities. 

Down to 1879. the state had mo\-ed along 
under the constitution of 1863. l^ut the grow- 
ing power of certain strong corporations and 
the large influx of Chinese brought aliout a 
re^•olution in ])olitics. The working classes 
asserted themsehes and in 1879 a new con- 
stitution was adojjted that radically changed 
not only many of the A'ital principles of the 
laws. Init at the same time provided great 
clianges in the legislative branches of the gov- 
ernment. Some of these changes w^ent into 
elifect by the terms of the constitution (such 
as the abolition of District. County and Pro- 
bate courts and the establishment in their 
]dace of the Superior Court). Init others, par- 
tictdarly those go^•erning county and munici- 
pay le.gislative bodies, recpiired action b_\- the 
Legislature. Such actiijn \\'as soon taken, but 
working under the new constitution was an 


ex]ieriinental lousiness, and the acts passed for schonl houses are handsome, well-built and 

thiise purposes were declared by the Supreme commodious structures, with up-to-date ap- 

Ciiurt to he uncdnstitutional. It -was not un- pointments. 

til 1SS3 that a law i)roviding for a uniform At tlie head of the administrative depart- 

sy^tem of county o-,,vernment was passed that mgnt of the county government stands the 

stood the test nf the courts. Since then, sev- board of supervisors. "The county is divided 

eral amendments, relating ])rincipally to into five districts on the basis of' population. 

County officers and tlieir remuneration, have Hence it follows that some districts are much 

been jiassed, hut tlie general system of gov- larger in area than others; some are wholly 

ernment has m.t l)een impaired in the valley; others partly in the mountains'; 

.\s the constitution rec|uires that all laws some inchule the cities of the county, wliich 

shall lie unifr)rm in their operation, and as ha\'e separate governments of their o\\'n and 

special legislation nf all kinds is prohil^ited, manage their own roads, schools and taxes, 

a general s}-stem of county go\'ernment is while others h'dvc tu lie adjusted and managed 

provided; Init as some counties are mi;)re in the most s1<illful and intelligent manner so 

densel\' populated than others, and as there- that common justice is done and a uniformity 

fore tliere had to lie a variation in the number of pulilic interest preser\'ed. The system, 

i:if count\' officers, the counties \vere di\'ided tlierefore, is far more complicated than the 

into classes, according to ]iopuhition, the only uninfo)-med are aware of. 

material difference in the laws for tlie various 'n^g l|.,ai-d is composed of five mendiers, one 
classes lieing tlie nnndier of ofiicers provided . f,-,„i, ^..^r]-, district, the districts electing their 
for, the law for the administration of the ,,\vn mendiers. These elections are so regu- 
county affairs in all the counties being the latd that at least two of the members on any 
same. This plan greatly simplified matters in elected board shall already ha\-e been in office 
many ways, especially in the determination by two vears, thus securing'a constant quantity 
the higher courts of vexatious problems that , ,f cx'iierience. This is a xerr important fea'- 
occasionally arise. Nearly every problem of ture. .\ board comjiosed entirely of new mem- 
consequence has already been determined, so ],e,-s nn'o-ht easily get into trouble through 
that now the Inisiness of all the counties pro- n^istakes. The <luties of the board are intri- 
ceeds on estalihshed lines. ^-^^^. \^ ,„j,,^t establish school districts, fix 

The judicial branch of the county go\'ern- boundaries and ]iro\-ide money; it must take 

iiient is the Suiierior Court. Santa Clara care of the roads, fix the ta.x rate, care for 

County, according to class, is provided with ;uid maintain the county l^uildings, almshouse 

three judges. They divide the work between and infirinar\- ; |iro\dde for the inspection of 

themseh'es, handling jirobate, civil and crim- orcliards, for the care of the county sick, infirm 

inal cases. The officers of the Superir)r Court and ]ioor ; make iirovision for every need of 

are the county clerk, sheriff and district at- the count}", fill \acancies in county offices, de- 

tornev. These. i')f cc]urse, and es]iecialh' the clare the result of county elections, make ap- 

clerk. ha\'e multifarious duties ai)art from tliCise propriations for \'arious humanitarian and 

appertaining to the court. Santa Clara County other ])urposes, sit as a board of equalization, 

is Republican in politics, but in county elec- and perform such other duties as liefit the 

tions politics cuts small figure, so that the guardian of the county's welfare. The mainte- 

offices are diA'ided Ijetween the Republicans nance and estalilishment of good roads is one 

and the Democrats. In 1920 the Republicans of the most important of the board's duties, 

held the sherifl^'s, the surveyor's, the treasur- and it may lie said without fear of contradic- 

er's, the superintendent of schools' and the tit)n that in no count}- of the state has this 

coroner's offices, while the Democrats held work lieen more satisfactorily carried out. 

the offices of clerk, tax collector, assessor, dis- The preliminaries for road work are entrusted 

trict attorney and auditor. All the officers to the count}- sur\-eyor. During the incum- 

hold four years, except the judges, who hold bencv of vSurveyor Irving Ryder ('se\'en years) 

si-x A'ears. ninety-eight miles of paved roads have been 

The board oi supervisors takes care of the completed and in 1922 contracts were let for 

finances of the county schools. The county sixteen additional miles. Before his time the 

superintendent is Miss'Agnes E. Howe and the county had lint twenty-two miles of completed 

following are the members of the county board paved roads. This does not include the state 

of education : Francis Gallimore, Santa Clara ; highway of about seventy-five miles, which 

I E. Hancock (president), San jose; Robert runs from Palo Alto on the northwest side of, Los <',atos; W. P. Cramsie, San the bay to San Jose and on to the southern end 

jose: Agnes F. Howe (secretary ) , San Jose, of the count}- at Sargent's Station ; and from a 

There are ninetv-one schools and .TSO teachers short distance ])eyond Milpitas on the north to 

in the count}-, exclusive of San Jose. The San Jose and on to Los Gatos. The beginning 


(if Uie yoocl roails iiu)\ enu'ut canu' with tlic llieiicc lo the ri.L;ht of Lucencia Hij^'uera's 

advent of the aiitonuibile. At hrst the super- raiicli throii.^h the Mission (jf San Jose to the 

\isors made experiments in road paxini;-, but conut\- line, where the road crosses the Ar- 

all pro\ed failures until the present concrete ro)ii 1 )elma)'a at Sunol's ranch, 

system was tried. Nearly all the roads in the "Second -.Mso a road commencing at the 

county are paved with concrete. Other ma- Citv of San fose, at Inrst or Alonterey Street, 

terial, oil macadam, is used on some of the and runnim;- where the road now runs to San 

orchard roads and excellently answers all pur- )uan, untd it reaches the county line, 

poses. Durino- the fiscal year 1919-1')20 the " ■•'phi,-,i_Also a road commencint,^ at the 

road and hrulKe improvements of the county ^'■^^. ,,f ^^.„^ j,,^^._ .^^ ^,^„t^^ (^'i^ra Street, and 

cost $.-182,000. runnin,i,f where the present road no\v runs, to 

The history of road building in Santa Clara tdie Mission of Santa Clara, and from thence, 

County shows that the matter of furnishing by the left-hand road, to the old Indian village, 

easy and con\enient means of communication thence b}- Pmsard's to S. Ivobles', and from 

between the ditTerent sections of the county thence to \\'here the jiresent road runs to the 

has been an important cpiestion liefore the cl^unt^■ line. 

count}' go\-ernment since its organization. The "l-'ourth — .Also a road commencing at the 

demand for good roads has been met, almost City of San Jose, at vSanta Clara Street, and 

before it ^\•as expressed, and the result of this tn run where the present road now runs, to 

policy, long continued with a liberal spirit, is Santa Cruz, through Fernandez' ranch, by 

seen in the liroad, smooth, \\'ell-kept paved Jones' mill to the count)' line." 'J'he Jones' 

highways reaching to e\'ery part of the valle>', niill referred to is the |)resent town of Los 

winding through the orchards, among the foot- C,atf)S. 

hills and e.xtending ci\'er the mountains. These 'Jdie third sjiecihcation in the order above 
roads are watered during the summer months, set forth refers to the road to San Francisco, 
making them always comfortaljle for tra\-el. S. Jvobles' ranch being the present town of 
liefore the Americans came into possession Mountain \'iew. The rtjad includes the Ala- 
in Santa Clara Countv, there \vere practicallv meda, famous in song and story. This avenue 
no roads. Travel was chiefl^' performed on was laid out by the Fathers of the Mission of 
horseliack, and for this a narrow trail was suf- Santa Clara. The trees were planted by 
ticient. A\'here the ox-carts ran there were Father Catala, the work being performed by 
tracks a little wider, but thev had no legal ex- the Indians under his instruction. There were 
istence as roads. There being no fences and originally three rows of trees, one on each 
the countrv being used mainlv for grazing, side and one in the center. The ground was 
there was no necessitv for the warning to moist and full of adobe, which, when wet, 
"keep oti the grass," and in going from' one made traveling troublesome. Ditches were 
point to the other, the route was generallv an made for the purpose of drainage, but they 
air-line, except where intervening water but impA'fectly accomplished their object, 
courses' compelled the traveler to seek an easy The shade of the trees excluded the sunshine 
ford or crossing, or where opposing hills re- and prevented e\-aporation. While during the 
quired a circuit to be made. Even when summer months the Alame_da was a ^ most 
wagons first came into use, this system was charming drive, for four or five mr.nths m the 
kept up, and in the ^yinter time,' when the year it was almost impassable for vehicles, 
ground was wet and soft, the wagon tracks Travelers passing between Santa Clara and 
ran parallel to each other to such an extent San Jose were compelled to seek the side of 
that it was a common saving that the road the road and often make a circuit of four or 
from San Jose to San Francisco was three five miles. After dark it was not unusual for 
miles wide" With the Americans came a dif- people to lose their way and be compelled to 
ferent system. About the first order made by pass the night m the open air. 
the county government after its organization lo meet this trouble the county government 
was in refer^ence to public roads. The order opened another road by way of wdrat is now 
is of interest, as it established the first high- known as Lnion Avenue^back 5; ^he Fair 
ways in the county. It was made bv the Court Grounds, now Hanchett Paik. This d d not 
of Sessions on Tuly 6. 1850, and is as follows: entirely obviate the ditticulties, and m 186^ a 
"It IS ordered by the court that the follow- franchise was granted to a company called 
in^ roads be, and' they are hereby declared "The Alameda Turnpike Company, granting 
, . , •.i-;._ 1 f„^ +1,^ rr„,,-.)-,r r,-f it the nrivi eye ot collectm" toll on tlie Ala- 

pull highways within and for the County of it the privilege of collecting toll on the Ala- 

Q f, rur. to wit- meda, the company to keep the road in good 

^'"ptrst^A road commencing at the City of condition for travel. This company erected 

San lose and running where the present road gates, but owing to the nature o the soil 

now runs bv lames Murphy's, and from eould never make the road good m all its parts 


at all seasons. Many complaints were made road and park, a tax was provided for all prob- 
and finally, in 1868. the county purchased the erty in the city and all property lying within 
franchise of the company and declared the three-cpiarters of a mile on each side of the 
road free. The i)rice paid by the county was proposed avenue. This tax was to be ten cents 
$17.7,^7.50. In 1870 the report went abroad on the hundred dollars for the first year and 
that the road occupied more grcwmd than be- hye cents per year for the next three years, to 
longed to it, and that several feet on the south be levied by the city and county as other taxes 
side was government land and subject to pre- are levied and collected. With this money 
emption. ( )ne night a gang of squatters car- the road was constructed and trees planted, 
ried lumber out on the road and enclosed strips At the end of four years, when the special tax 
of land on the south side, and in the morning expired, the road was kept up from the road 
many of the residents found themselves shut fund of the road districts, in which the avenue 
off from the highway. The squatters, how- was situated until 1878, when an act was 
e\er, had nothing but their labor for their passed by the Legislature authorizing the 
])ains, as they were compelled to abandon their bf)ard of supervisors to pay these expenses 
claims unconditionally. To ])re\ ent a recur- from the current expense fund. Today all the 
rence of this dispute an Act of Congress was roads leading to the park entrance are main- 
])rocured in 1871 granting the county a right- tained by the county, while the roads inside 
of-way for the road, 115 feet wide and defining the park are kept up by the city, which also 
its location. Accurate official sur\eys were pays for the improvement and maintenance of 
made and granite monuments placed so that the park. 

the exact lines should always be preserved. Saratoga Avenue was created at the same 
The final location was made in 1873. After session of the Legislature, and in the same 
this date extraordinary efforts were made to manner as Santa Clara Avenue, except that the 
keep the road m repair and maintain its ^^.-^ provided that the road should be 100 feet 
beauty. These efforts were measurably - sue- ^..jde and that the special tax should be levied 
cessful. One of the greatest obstacles m the ^nd collected by the trustees of the town of 
way of improvement was the shade cast by g^nta Clara. The commissioners began work, 
the center row of trees, and propositions for i^id out and opened the road, but some of the 
their removal were made from time to time, outside property owners protested against pay- 
But each proposition was met by a remon- -^^^ ^i^g ^^^ q-[^g objection was that it was an 
strance from the people, who looked upon the unconstitutional assessment, inasmuch as it 
gnarled willows as a link connecting the past ,,,^^5 ^^ |,g ig^ied and collected by officers not 
with the present, and although many of the elected for the purpose. The ccairts decided 
trees had died and others were m advanced ^he objection to be valid and the road went 
stages of decay, they were retained. Finally, j^j^ t]-,g hj^^ds of the county government as a 
in 1887, a proposition was made to construct |,i,blic highway, and all improvements were 
an electric railr.,ad along the center of the paid for from the road fund of the district. In 
highway. In view of this improvement the ..pj^e ,-,f ^i-,g f^ct that there was no special reve- 
people consented to iiart with the trees, and in ,^^^g^ ^i^g hicrhwav has been thoroughly im- 
the same year they were removed. Since then proved and now 'it is one of the finest paved 
the avenue from San Jose to Santa Clara has ,-oads in the county 

been paved with concrete thu.s f..rming a link hi' early days there seemed to be an impres- 

in the long c(mcrete-paved road Irom San Jose ,;,,„ that' the'best way to improve the county 

to San Francisco. roads was to grant franchises for toll com- 

Santa Clara Avenue, or Alum Rock Avenue, panics, who were to keep the roads in repair 

as it is generally called, is the beautiful avenue in consideration of the jirivilege of collecting 

from San Jose to the , Mum Rock Si)rings m tolls. The argument used was' that the people 

the canyon of the I'enetencia, east of town, wlio used the roads ought to ])ay the expense 

The original road was established by the ,,f maintaining them. Acting on this proposi- 

l.oard of supervisors in June, 1866. In 1872 tion, many such franchises were granted, some 

an act was passed by the Legislature authoriz- l,v the board of supervisors and' some by the 

ing the city of San Jose to survey and improve Legislature. The tollgate on the Alameda was 

a road to be known as "Santa Clara Avenue," the outgrowth r.f this idea. 

running from the eastern limits of the city to In 1861 the San jose and .Vlviso Turnpike 

the city reservation in the eastern foothills. Company secured a franchise to erect gates 

The act provided for a board of commissioners and collect tolls on the road fr(-)ni San Jo'se to 

to be appointed by the governor, with power Alviso. In 186,^ the franchise was purchased 

to sui)erintend the work (.f construction and by the county for $5,000 and the road declared 

select a tract of 400 acres in the canyon for a a public highway. In 1867 the Saratoga and 

puldic park. To construct and improve the Rescadero Turnpike Company received a fran- 



chise l\ir a toll road o\cr the ninuiitains tnmi 
Saratnt;"a. In 1S80 the franchise was pur- 
chased by the county fur $5,000 and the name 
changetl to the "Contjress Sprins^s" roatl. Tlie 
Ciih'ov and A\ atsonxille mad ^\■as a toll roa<l 
in early da)s, hut was declared a puhlic hi,L;h- 
way in 1874. 

The Santa Ornz road fi'oni Los ('.atos <iver 
the mountains was a toll road under a fran- 
chise from the state up to 1S7S, wdien it \vas 
declared a piuMic hii:;iiwa\' h\- the hoard of su- 
per\dsors. The compan}- resisteil the action 
of the hoard and attempted to maintain its 
.gates. This caused considerahle excitement 
and threatened serious trouble. The teamsters 
went in a liody and tore the gate down. The 
company fought the matter in the courts and 
lost. The ]iurehase of the I'acheco Pass road 
wiped out the last toll road in the count}'. 

The mcist prciminent. if not the most impu- 
lar, highway in the county is the Mount Ham- 
iltcm road, or Lick A^'enuc. It has a world- 
wide fame for the reason that it leads to the 
great Lick ( )l)ser^■ator^• and because it is one 
cif the best mc>untain roads in the world. In 
September. 1875. James Lick addressed the 
iioard of supervisors, saying that he ^\•ould 
locate his observatory on Mount Hamilton if 
the cotmty would construct a first-class road 
to the summit, and if the county had not sufli- 
cient funds on hand to accomplish the task he 
would advance the money and take the coun- 
ty's bonds for the same. The ]iroposition was 
accepted and on October 4, 1875. a preliminary 
survey was ordered. The committee on sur- 
^■ev reported that the construction of the road. 
including bridges, would costs $43,385. Mr. 
Lick then deposited $25,000 in the Commercial 
& Savings Bank as a guarant}- that he would 
stand by his proposition. A. T. Herrmann 
was appointed engineer for the work and on 
February 8, 1876, the contract for construction 
was let to E. L. Derby. Up to this time the 
w-ork had gone on with great expedition, but 
now, the people ha\-ing had time to talk the 
matter over, considerable doubt was expressed 
as to the advisability of the enterprise. It 
was argued that the county might .go to great 
expense in building the road and. that in the 
end Mr. Lick might change his mind in regard 
to the location of the observatory. In that 
event the county would have a very expensive 
road that would be of very little practical use. 
The majority of the board had very little 
doubt of Mr. Lick's good faith, but in order to 
satisfy the popular demand they arranged mat- 
ters so that Mr. Lick deposited a further sum 
of $25,000, subject to warrants drawn for the 
construction of the road, and agreed to take 
county bonds therefor, payable wdien the ob- 
servatory was completed on the mountain. 

Wdien this point was settled an oppositou was 
dcNcKiped from another source. VV. N. h ur- 
long. as chairman of the board, refused to sign 
the contract with IJerb)', but finally consented 
under ])rotest. The ])r(]test claime<l that there 
was no authorit\' of law f(ir building the road 
in this manner, as the statute re(pured all 
nionc)' IcN'ied in distidct to be ex- 
pended in the district pa\'ing the same : that 
there was no law compelliirg the count}' at 
large to |)ay for a road, and that the county 
had no authority to enter into a contract with 
i\lr. Lick to ad\';ince the mone\'. The l")oard, 
to satisf}' the former ol)jcction, jiassed a reso- 
lution that the Legislature would be asked to 
])ass an act authorizing the countv to issue 
bonds to the amount 'of $120,000,' of which 
$50,000 should h<i ap|)lied to the indeljtedness 
of the several road districts in the count}', and 
the lialance used to i)ay the warrants dra\vn 
for the construction of the ])ro])osed road. 
Thus this difficult}' was disposed of. There 
\\'ere numer(}us minor obstacles to contend 
with which caused much troulde and vexation 
to the promoters of the enterprise, l)ut they 
were finally disposed of. Up to May 21. 1876, 
the sum of $45,115.34 had Ijeen ]niid on Derby's 
contract. In the meantime there was .great 
dissatisfaction with Derb}''s o])erations, and he 
had been compelled to assign his contract to 
his bondsmen, wdio had established a trust for 
their protection, drawing the money on the 
contract and paying the contractor's verified 
liills. This dissatisfaction caused the board to 
ajipoint a coi'nmittee to iuA'estigate the work. 
The report showed grave misconduct by the 
contractor. In September the contract was de- 
clared forfeited and on CJctober 5, 1876, the 
board authorized its committee to go on 'with 
the work. This the committee did, employing 
^lessrs. Drinkwater and Swall as superintend- 
ents. C)n Januar}' 9, 1877, the Lick board of 
trustees and the supervisors made an official in- 
spection of the road, and afterwards the trus- 
tees declared officially that the work had been 
done in a satisfactor}' manner and that the road 
met all of Mr. Lick's requirements. The in- 
spection was a general holiday throughout the 
count's', there being about 5,000 visitors to the 
summit of the mountain on that day. On Jan- 
uary 13, 1877, the road was declared to be fully 
completed, the total cost being $73,458.88. Of 
this amount $27,339.87 was in outstanding war- 
rants against the general road fund. An act 
was passed in the Legislature of 1878 authoriz- 
ing the board of supervisors to issue bonds to 
pav these warrants and accrued interest, the 
bonds to bear no interest, and to be payable 
when the observatory was ]>ractically com- 
pleted. The gentlemen composing the board of 
supervisors during the time the Mount Hamil- 



ton road was in course of construction were: 
1S~3 — W. N. Furlong, chairman: J. M. Battee, 
I. W. Boulware, A. Chew, Abram'King, H. M. 
Leonard, William Paul. 1876— H. M. Leonard, 
chairman; S. F. Ayer, J. M. Battee, A, Chew. 
A\'. N. Furlong, Abram King, AV. H. Rogers. 
1877-78 — Same as in 1876, with the exception 
that J. M. Battee was chairman. 

L'nder Mexican rule the transportation of 
])assengers was almost exclusivelv on horse- 
back. Women and children would occasionally 
take passage for short distances in the rude 
carts of that time, but journeys generally, 
\vhether long or short, were performed in the 
saddle. As the foreigners came in thev adopted 
the same custom, for the reason there was no 
other means of conveyance. When affairs be- 
came settled after the Mexican war and the 
countr)- began to lie settled by immigrants 
from the states, other methods of transporta- 
tion for passengers and freight were looked for. 
Boats to ply bet\\"een San Francisco and Alviso 
were secured and connection with them from 
San Jose was made with wagons. The cost 
for each passenger for this trip was thirty-five 

In April, 1850, Messrs. Ackley and Morrison 
put on a line of stages to run through to San 
Francisco, and in the same spring John W. 
Whisinan put on a line to run to San ]nst;. 
Trips were made tri-weekly l.:)y each line, thus 
g'i\-ing a daih' stage each waA'. The fare was 
thirt\'-two dollars and the scliedule time was 
nine hours. In September of that year Hall & 
Crandall jnirchased Whisman's route. The 
ro<ads liecame so Ijad in the winter that the 
stages were withdrawn and tra\el to San Fran- 
cisco went by way of Alviso. 

Two stcaml)! lats, the ff m. Robinson and 
A'ptc Star, furnished the \\'ater trans]j(jrtatioii. 
This \\'as a great improvement o\'er the old 
mustang r("iute, but was not quite satisfactory 
to the i^eople of the pueblo. Early in January, 
1851, a meeting was called for the purpose of 
taking steps toward l^uilding a railroad to San 
Francisco. The meeting was largely attended 
and very enthusiastic. At this time the road to 
Santa Clara along the Alameda was impass- 
able, and t(j reach that town from San Jose a 
circuit of about six miles was recjuired, while 
fjassengers to San Francisco Avere compelled to 
work their passage for about half the distance. 
Under these circumstances it is not surprising 
that the meeting should unanimously declare 
in faA'or of the railroad. Resolutions t(j this 
effect were adopted and books opened for suIj- 
scriptions to the capital stock. Some subscrip- 
tions were made and W. J. Lewis was ap- 
pointed to make the survey and estimate of 
cost. The survey was completed in December 
and the estimate presented. The total cost to 

put the road into operation amounted to $1,- 
539,126.17. These figures seemed to have a 
depressing eft'ect on the railroad enthusiasm of 
the people, for no more was heard of the matter 
for several years. 

In July, 1851, the stage fare to San Francisco 
was reduced to ten dollars and to Monterey to 
twenty-five dollars. In March, 1852,. Messrs. 
Reed and Kendall organized an express to run 
between San Jose and San Francisco by way 
of iVlviso. On April 11, 1853, the boiler of the 
Jenny Lind, a steamer on the Alviso route, ex- 
ploded with disastrous effect. She had left 
Alviso with 150 passengers, among them many . 
prominent citizens of San Jose. When about 
opposite of wdiat is now Redwood City the ex- 
])li)sion occurred, killing many and wounding 
others. Among those killed were J. D. Hoppe, 
Charles AVhite and Bernard Murphy of San 
Jose. This accident spread a gloom over the 
community. A jjublic meeting was called in 
San Jose and resolutions expressing sympathy 
with the afflicted were adopted. 

In October, 1853, the first telegraph line, con- 
necting San Francisco with San Jose, was built. 
It was a great mystery to the native popula- 
tion, some of whom thought the Americans 
had all turned Catholics and were erecting in- 
nuinera1)le crosses as a testimony of their faith. 
The establishment of telegraphic communica- 
tion revived the desire for a railroad, but no 
effective steps were taken except an ordinance 
])assed 1)y the common council granting St. 
lames Park for depot grounds. In 1856 an om- 
nilnis line was estal:)lishetl 1)ctween San Jose 
and Santa Clara l)y the Crandall brothers, and 
in 1857 a weekly express to Sonora was put on 
1)y W. FI. FIo}-. The growth of business in 
San Jose and the de\-clopinent of the surround- 
ing country f)rought the railroad question 
again to the front in 1859. A meeting was held 
in Feljruar}- to discuss the question of building 
a short line to iVlviscj to connect with fast 
lioats at that port. Estimates were made and 
Ijooks were opened, Init liefore anything was 
done in a ])ractical \vay another [)ro])osition 
was made and the work oi promotion was sus- 

A company- had Ijeen organized in San Fran- 
cisco to Ijuild a railroad to San Jose Ada San 
Mateo and Redwood City. This company 
wanted Santa Clara County to take $200,000 
worth of the st(_ick of the enterprise. It was 
found impossible to raise this amount Ijy in- 
di\idual suljscriptions, ami in 1861 an act was 
secured from the Legislature authorizing the 
count}', through the lioard of supervisors, to 
subscril)e for this amount of stock, provided 
that the people, at a regularly called election, 
should endorse the measure. The election re- 
sulted in a majority of 722 favorable to the 



project. No time was lost and on May 23 the 
supervisors made the subscription and ordered 
the issuance of bonds for the payment of the 
same. These bonds bore interest at the rate 
of seven per cent per annum and were pay- 
able in fifteen years. The work of l)uildinf,^ the 
road commenceil immediately and on January 
16, 1864, the road was completed and formally 
opened with a grand excursion from San iM'an- 
cisco and way towns to San Jose. There was 
great rejoicing when the first train arri\ed. 
Flags were hoisted and everybod}- took a 

The county no^^• had a railroad, Init it also 
had an indebtedness of $200,000, on which it 
was pa}'ing a large interest. The question ^vas 
soon mooted as to whether it \\'ould not be 
good policy to sell the railroad stock owned 
1iv the county and ap])ly the proceeds toward 
paying this de1)t. As the stock Avas paving no 
di\"idends, an aflirmati\-e conclusion was soon 
reached. The Legislature was appealed to and 
in April, 1864, an act Avas passed authorizing 
the count}- to sell the stock and to apply the 
proceeds to the redemption of county bonds. 
In November, 1864, R. G. Lathrop offered to 
bu}- the stock and pay $200,000 in currenc}'. 
As these were Civil War times, the currency- 
would be ecpiivalent to $170,000 in gold. The 
proposal, howe\'er, \\'as accepted, but Ivathrop 
neglected to make his ofifer good and that ^vas 
an end of the transaction. In February, 1865, 
C. B. Polliemus. Peter Donahue and H. JM. 
Newhall, directors of the railroad compan)', of- 
fered to buy the stock for $200,000, paying in 
either currency or in the lionds of the count}' 
issued to pa}- for the stock when the counts- 
had sul^scribed fiir it. An agreement svas 
made, but having the default of Lathroj) in 
mind, the suijers'isors exacted from the |)ur- 
chasers a bond for the fulfillment of the con- 
tract. As there was no compliance with the 
contract, the board lost patience and in 1867 
suit was instituted. This brought offers of 
compromise and pending negotiations the suit 
was dropped. Nothing came of the negotia- 
tions and 1869 another suit was instituted. In 
the interval Polhemus had disposed of his in- 
terest in the railroad. ?vlayne, his successor, 
made another proposition — the company would 
pay $100,000 in money for the stock and would 
extend the line from San Jose to Gilro}-. The 
proposition was accepted and its terms com- 
plied with. In 1869 the Gilroy road was built. 

In 1863 the Western Pacific Company was 
constructing that portion of the transcontinen- 
tal railroad lying between Sacramento and 
C^akland, and offered, if the county would sub- 
scribe $150,000 to its capital stock, to con- 
struct a branch from Niles to San Jose, thus 
placing the city on the through overland line. 

< )n .\pril 14, 186,\ an act was passed authoriz- 
ing the county to make this sul.)Scrii>tion and 
the election in confirmation resulted in a fa\or- 
able majority of 522 votes. The stock was si4d 
to David Colton for $120,000 in February, 1872. 
The agents who negotiated the sale were paid 
$9,000, thus leaving a net loss to the county of 
$,^9,000. The Western Pacific afterwards be- 
came a part of the Southern Pacific system. 

As the county to the north of San Jose be- 
gan to develop fruit culture, especially straw- 
berries, blackberries, etc., a more convenient 
and rapid means of transportation to San Fran- 
cisco was desired l^y the growers. The two 
railroads already constructed just skirted the 
liorder of this district, and shippers were com- 
pelled to haul their fruit to San Jose, Santa 
Clara or Rlilpitas to get it on the cars. Ar- 
rived in San Francisco it had to be hauled (m 
trucks for a long distance frrim depot to mar- 
ket, and this bruised and injured the fruit to 
the great loss of the producer. This caused 
the matter of a narrow-gauge railroad to con- 
nect with fast boats at AU'iso to be re\-i\-ed. 
In 1870 a meeting was held and subscription 
books opened. Strenuous efforts were made to 
get the stock taken. Chief among the pnnnot- 
ers of the scheme were John G. Bray, S. A. 
I'dshop and Gary Peebels. Pending the floating 
of the stock a fast boat was put on the line 
lietween Alvis(3 and San Francisco and the 
fruit growers hauled to the Alviso wharf in- 
stead of shipping by rail. Little progress with 
the iiroject was made. Finally, in 1876, a new- 
company was formed, called "The South Pa- 
cific Coast Railroad Compan}-," Avith .V. E. 
Davis as its president. This company asked 
no favors. It had money for everything it 
needed, including the right-of-way. It built 
the road and in April, 1878, the first train came 
into San Jose, and in May the road opened for 
business. An extension of the line to Santa 
Cruz follow-ed. It was completed after much 
time and labor spent in tunneling the moun- 
tains. The road did a prospermis business from 
the start. In 1887 it sold out to the Southern 
Pacific Company. In 1886 a narrow-gauge 
branch from Campbell to the NeAV Almaden 
mine was constructed. Later it was taken 
o\-er and standardized by the Southern Pacific. 
In the same year the Southern Pacific built a 
line to the same point, connecting with the 
trunk line at Hillsdale. 

In 1885 a railroad to run from IMurphy's on 
the Southern Pacific line to Saratoga was pro- 
jected and several miles were constructed. No 
further progress has ever been made, partly on 
account of the lack of money and partly by 
the construction of other lines and by the elec- 
tric system of railways which reaches every 
jx'iint of importance in the valley. 


The Southern I'acific has greath- extended takes in Irvington. Warm Springs, Milpitas 
its lines since it took cner the original railway and the l>erryessa district. Then it proceeds 
from San [use ti) San Francisco. It has ex- around the southerly limits of San Jose, cuts 
tended the coast line to Los Angeles, where through the Willows district in a \\-esterl3' di- 
ce mnectinn is made with the Eastern states, rection and after curving toward the north 
thus jdacing San Jose on two transcontinental ends in a main freight terminus at Hush and 
lines. It has increased its orchard service bv AA'ilson Streets on the Alameda. Construc- 
Innlding a line from Mavfield to Los Altos and tion of the San Jose branch was started in 
from Los Altos along the foothill region to Los l'-''^, was halted by the European war and 
Gatos via ^lonte Wsta (near Cupertino), Ouito started again in 1920. The mam passenger 
Olive Farm and AYasona Junction. Therefore station is in East San Jose and yards for 
the .-.rchardists of the valley have easy access switching, storage, round house facilities, fuel 
to railway transportation. ' ' ^^'^'^ "'^ter .su])ply stations, turntable, track 

The AVestern l\acif^c Railroad Company's scales and repair tracks are located on William 
branch from Niles to San Jose was completed Street. 'Jdiere are several spurs built for the 
in the spring of 1922. The main line extends benefit of orchardists. The coming of this 
from San Francisco to Salt Lake Citv and railroad induced the Remillard Brick Com- 
passes through Niles. The San Jose branch pany to reopen its \\'orks in East San Jose. 


The Public Buildings of the County — Many Locations of the County Court 
House — Changes Made by the Legislature — Futile Attempt to Regain 
the State Capital — The County Hospital and Almshouse. 

The count)- buildings toda}- are models of The old state house ha\'ing been f)urned. the 
beaut\', size and convenience. The e\'olution court htnise ^\■as removed to the adobe liuild- 
frcim the primiti\"e structures of the earl\- da}-s ing on I^ightston Street, o^^'ned b}' F^'rank 
is l)oth remarkable and interesting. For Li.ghtston, and the ofTicers again began to look 
some time after the Americans took ])osses- about for a ])erniaiient location. I^evi (iciod- 
siim cif affairs the ol<l Juzgado on Alarket rich \\as apjxiinted as architect and directed 
Street, San Jose, "was used as a court house. to jjresent plans and specifications, the idea 
If was poorl_v arranged for such a iuir])ose being to rebuild on the old lot on Market 
and in 1850, better though tem|)orary fpiarters Plaza. The ])lans ^\•ere drawn and the clerk 
were secured in a building on First Street o|)- was directed to call for l)ids, Init before an)-- 
posite Fountain Alley. Another change, to thing further was done i\. S. Caldwell oft'ered 
the ISclla L^nion building, where the Auzerais to sell the county the lot and building at the 
flouse now stands, was soon made and court southeast corner of Second and San Fernando 
was held here until 1^51 when the rdd state Streets. A committee was appointed and re- 
house on Market I'laza was purchased from ported that the building, with a little altera- 
the city, the selection ha\ing been made l>y tion, could be made suitable for a court house. 
Judge Redman. The building seems to ha\e and the purchase was made. The i;)rice paid 
been looked upon by the jjeople as common was $4000. In December, 18.X'?, this building 
])ro]ierty and tlie\' were accustomed to hold ^\■as officialh' declared to l>e the county court 
all sorts of meetings and entertainments there. house, the same order setting a])art the south 
This was considered 1)}' the couiUv gcA'ern- room on the lo\\-er lloor as the district court 
ment as an infringement of its dignit_\' and in room. The county sold the state house t)ut- 
Juh', 1852, the sheriff' was ordered to "take side lot to a Mr. Piriggs for $500, reserving the 
charge of the court house and allow no right to use the jail thereon until a new jail 
dances, shows or balls to be held therein." This could be built. The county occupied its ne\\' 
order elicited such a cry of indignation from fpiarters for si.xteen years ^^•hen it became ne- 
the ])eople that within two days after its issu- cessary to ha\'e enlarged accommodations. ;\n 
ance, it was modified so as to allow the use of order was made offering $100 for the best 
the building as an assemldy hall and place of i)lan for a new court house. 

amusement, but the sheriff' \\-as instructed to Pending this matter the clerk was author- 
collect for such uses a siifticient amount to ized to negcitiate with the San b'se Common 
pay the fees of a janitor and watchman. Council for the temporary use of the second 

inST()R>' OF SANTA C'l.ARA Cnl'N'lA' 


st(ir_\' of tho city hall mi Market Street lAr a 
court room. This resulted iu a two \ ears' 
lease, iu returu fur \\'hich the eouuty ya\e the 
city the use of a portit)U of the lot at the cor- 
uer of San lu-rnaudo and Second Streets. The 
exehantre was effected in .Vu^ust, 1860. In 
the latter part of this year Levi ('■nodrich |)re- 
sented i^lans for a ne\\- Imilding. The jdans 
were adopted and he recei\ed the ]iremiuni of 
$100 ottered therefor. in March, 1861, the 
board of supervisors asked lion. A. L. Rhodes, 
state senator, to procure the passage of an 
act by the Legislature authorizing the county 
to issue 1)nnds to jtav for the building. They 
also directed I\lr. Goodrich to prej^are work- 
ing" drawings. 

The lease of the city hall expired in 186^. 
At that time ]Martin Murphy was finishing his 
1)rick building on ]\larket Street — the pni- 
pert\' now mainU' occupied hv Hart's depart- 
ment store. He offered to rent to the county 
the ujiper floor of these buildings for $1^'0 per 
month and finish them m a manner suitalile 
for use as county offices, the large hall at the 
corner of ^Market and El Dorado Streets to lie 
used as a court room. The count;.- acce])ted 
the offer and took a five years' lease, A\ith the 
prixilege of renewal. This was the last loca- 
tion of the court house prior to the construc- 
tion of the present liuilding. 

Two vears elapsed before anything was 
done toward the erection of a new court 
house. During that time there grew up a sen- 
timent that the old lot at the corner of Second 
and San Fernando Streets was not a suitable 
location and the supervisors were urged to 
purchase another lot. There was some oppo- 
sition to this suggestion and heated debates 
were held over it at the Ijoard meetings. Two 
of the supervisors, ?\Iessrs. (Juinby and Yates, 
were opposed to buying another lot and wdien 
a resolution to change the location was adopt- 
ed, voted in the negative. Among the sites 
offered to the board was the one now occu- 
pied by the court house. It \vas owned by AV. 
H. Hall, wdio offered to sell it to the county 
for $5000. The title having been found valid, 
the purchase was consummated. The original 
tract was 137j/ feet front on First Street by 
275 feet deep. Afterward more frontage was 

Work on the court house was pushed as 
rapidly as possible and on January 1, 1868, the 
county officers took possession. Originall}' 
there was but one court room, the ceiling- of 
wdiich extended to the roof. In 1879 a floor 
was laid, cutting this apartment into two 
rooms as they now are. Another room, which 
had been used for a county office, was made 
over into a third court room, the new consti- 
tution, just adopted, having provided for three 

Su]ierior C'ourts for Santa Clara County. The 
cost of the building was about $200 000.' Wdien 
coni])]eted it was the finest court house in 
California. It is of the Roman-Corinthian or- 
der of architecture and overlociks vSt. |ames 
Park, whose luxuriance lends ])leasure to the 
eye. Its foun<lation is of the utmost dural)il- 
ity, the walls resting on a substructure (jf con- 
crete to a dei)lli of six feet and of a like num- 
l)er of feet in thickness. Ponderous brick 
arches support the lo\ver floor, Avhile all the 
walls are of the same material, the basement 
ones Ix-ing four feet in thickness and the 
u])per ones twentv-one inches. Aboxe the 
liasement the building has two stories and its 
dimensicnis are in frontage, 100 feet; in depth, 
including the portico, 140 feet. The height t(j 
the cornices fifty-six feet, and it is 150 feet 
to the top of the dome, the least diameter of 
w hich is seventeen and the greatest fifty feet. 
Its portico, a magnificent specimen of eolumn- 
ated facade, showing in its fine proportions, 
richness, strength and lieauty. is se\'enty-si.\; 
feet in length, the height of the columns Ix-- 
ing thirt\-eig'ht and the diameter four feet. 
The windows, wdiich are of the finest French 
plate glass, are each surmounted with pedi- 
ments, those on the lower story being arched. 
Each window frame is made of highly orna- 
mented cast iron, the wdnole weighing, with 
iron shutters, about ,^600 pounds. The roof is 
covered with zinc. The tower, from which a 
magnificent view of the city and valley can 
be obtained, finds light from eleven elliptical 
windows, surmounted with an iron railing 
forty-two inches in height, and is reached by 
a staircase with 172 steps. There are three 
landings, so as to- make the ascent compara- 
ti\ely easy. This noble structure is di^•ided 
into rooms, one fitted up for the board of sup- 
er\'isors and the remainder ai)portii>ned to 
those of the county officers wht) do not ha\'e 
rooms in the Hall of Records building adjoin- 
ing on the north. The courts are finely ap- 
pointed, that of Department 1 being of noble 
proportions, sixty-fi^'e by forty-eight feet. 
The entire exterior of the structure is of imi- 
tation stone. The main entrance is gained 
liy an ascent of thirteen granite steps, and 
here, high overhead, stands out in bold relief 
the motto, ','Justicia Dedicata." 

No sooner was this splendid building com- 
pleted than an overpowering sense of magni- 
ficence seized upon the board of supervisors, 
for they made strenuous efforts to make their 
court house the headcpiarters of the State Leg- 
islature, the removal of which from Sacra- 
mento to some more central position then be- 
ing seriously considered. What more natural 
than that the first capital of the state shoidd 
try to regain its lost honors. (Jn February 4, 


1868, the minutes of the l.)()ard shuwed the connections. The inner face of all the walls 

following ; are whitewashed. 

"Resolved, That in the event of the General The Hall of Records, adjoining the Court 

.Vssemhly of the State of California determin- House at the north and connected with it by 

ing to remo\e the State Capital to the Countv a wide covered corridor was erected in 1892 

of Santa Clara, the lioard of Supervisors c,i ^it a cost of $200,000. The overcrowded con- 

the said Countv of Santa Clara tender to the dition of the Court House rendered the addi- 

state, the free' and entire use of the Court tion necessary. It is two stories in height. 

House of said Countv for state purposes, un- ''"t is solidly built of granite on lines snnilar 

til such time as a Capitol building mav be t" that of the Court House. It is used for of- 

erected in said County, provided" that' the fi^'es of the county clerk, county treasurer, 

Capitol building shall lie erected in five vears " county auditor, county surveyor, county re- 

The next dav another motion, as follows, c-.rder, county superintendent ot_^schools and 

was carried: ■'Resolved, That the Honoralde ^'"^"ta Clara County The bu.ldmg 

the Members of the Legislature an<l attaches ^^•''^■^ occupied m January, 189o. 

thereof, one and all, are herebv invited to in- 'T'he Hall of Justice is located on the south- 

spect for themselves its eligibil'itv as a seat of <^a-'^t corner of .Market and St. James streets, 

government for this state," prior' to anv final ''-"^ck of the Hall of Records. It was ready for 

action touching that subject matter; and the occupancy when the earthquake of April 18, 

hospitalities of the citv and countv will lie 1906 wrecked it. The material used m the 

cordially extended to 'them." These orders construction was stone from Goodrich's 

were re'scinded June 1 ,t 1872 (piarrv, near San lose, and the earthquake 

A new countv jail was l,uilt in tlie rear of I"'.";'"! ^hat it was not of sufficient stabilit.v to 

theConrt House m 1871. The plans of Levi "'thstand the shock. In the reconstruction 

Goodrich for a brick structure were adopted. --stronger material was used and m 1908 the 

The cost was aliout $60,000. The mam prison, "ork was completed. The building is occu- 

120x42 feet an.l 21 feet high, is built on a solid b'^'l ^y the countv assessor, county tax col- 

, ■ , ,- , ,- -^1 -i 4. ^11 lector, horticultural commissioner, countv li- 

lirick loundation witli o'ranite water tallies. , , ,. ,„ . ^. , ^, 

/|M ,, lo ■ 1 ii ■ 1 t 1 ■ , -ii i)rar^', probation office, lustice ot the peace, 

iiistables and house of detention. 

'idle walls are 18 inches thick, of brick with 
four-inch iron liars running through the cen- 
ter, four and a half inches apart and riveted ''''i^' ^^st organized eff.irt to care for the in- 
firmly together, extending around the entire digent sick was made m 1854, when a com- 
building.' Through the central part of the mittee from the common council met a com- 
building are two" rows of cells, which are mittee from the board of sujjervisors and 
built in the same sulistantial manner as the agreed to act m concert m the matter. By 
main walls, being covered overhead with tlie terms of this agreement the county was 
solid arches of heavv iron work an<l masonrv. to bear two-thirds of the expense an.l the city 
A large corridor extends completelv around one-third. All affairs concerning indigent sick 
these cells and a commodious pa.ssage be- "■^'''e to be managed l)y a joint committee 
tween them. Adj(.ming the rows of cells, composed of each lioard. The council, h<iw- 
but shut off from them bv a heavv wall is t-ver, refused to confirm the action of its com- 
what is called the "murderers' tanks." They mittee, alleging that they were able to take 
are two m number \vith a corridor around ^'''ire of their indigent sick. (Jn this the su- 
them. The entire roof of the jail is of solid pervisors a]. pointed George Peck, R. G. 
sheet ir(m, strongly anchored dt.wn to the -Moody and M illiam Daniels as a relief com- 
substantial wall with massive couplings. On mittee or board of health. During this year 
too of the plate of the roof is a laver .^f lirick, the county received $869.4o as its share of the 
finished over with asphaltum. 'The jailer's ^tate relief fund. 

apartment adjoins the main building on the '''lie next year, 1855, a county physician 
front and is fortv-two feet square and three ^^'=^^ appointed and the city agreed to ])ay $50 
stories high, with <,rnainented fronts on the 1'^''' '"""th maintenance and me.lical 
south and east. This section also contains attendance. About the same time the old 
kitchen, store room, office and the heating '^f^'>' Pi-'.'P^'rty ^vas rente.l tor a hospital the 
rr^, , ) .1 ■ 1 i • cit\- i")a\-ini;- a monthh^ rent of tort\- dollars, 
system. The second and thirfl stones are , ■^,' - , ,■ ^i ' ^i ' ,. i 
•^ . , , . , , fill 1, 1 ln-i\ovember ol the same \-ear the county ad- 
divided into large an< cointor able cells, and ,,,.,^,,^,1 f,,, pro,.osals for a h,,use and lot for 
it IS m this part of the jail that the women ii,,sp,tal ]nirposes. In respomse to this call 
jjrisoners are confined. 1 he whole prison is the Alerntt brothers ofl-'ered to sell the old 
well-lighted by ample windows and skylights, Sutter house for $5,500. This house was situ- 
well secured. The cells are furnished with ated to the northeast of the city and to it was 
cast iron sinks and water closets with sewer attached twenty-five acres of ground, 'idie of- 


tor was accepted and the Cdunty occupied the ino- a(l<htiiiiis and improvements have been 
premises until Kehruary, 1S56, when the own- made. The a\eratje numher of patients (hir- 
ers fadino- to make a o,,od deed to the prop- ino- l«)p) was about 200. The main hospital 
erty, the contract for the ])urchase was re- has five wards and is rejdete with every sani- 
scinded. The county then advertised for pro- t;iry requirement. Outside are the tubercu- 
posals for takino- eare of the indif,>-ent sick. losis hospital. Old Ladies' Home, with thirtv- 
The lirst contract was let to Dr. G. I!. Crane, seven inmates; Old Men's Home, isolati()n 
who ao-reed to maintain the patients and fur- hospital, and ])est house, and residences for 
msh medical and surgical attendance for the eighteen nurses and the superintendent, 
$4,(S00 per year, the nundier of patients not to Pr. 13. R. AA'ilson. Edward Halsey is the sec- 
lie more than se\-en a day, or if in excess of retary. 

that number, to be paid at that rate. For sev- Up to 1883 there was no almshouse in 
eral years the patients were taken eare of m Santa Clara County. Invalids in destitute 
this manner. circumstances were cared for at the county 
In 1860 the necessity for a hospital liuildin,^^ liospital, while the indigent who were not in- 
liecame very apparent and a committee to se- valids were cared for by allowances by the 
leet a site was appointed. Many offers were board of supervisors. These allowances were 
made but the proposal of lliram Cahill was of money, provisions, clothing, fuel, etc., as 
accepted. His tract contained twehe acres of each case might demand. Fctr many years the 
land, situated on the south side of South Street, destitute children were cared for b^- the La- 
just west of Los Gatos Creek. The jirice paid dies' ].^)enevolent Society, this society recei\-- 
was $4,000. The buildings on the tract \vere re- ing from the board a monthly allowance of a 
paired and enlargetl and a pest hmise was built certain amount per capita. Each super\'isor 
near the creek on the south. These premises exercised a su])erA-ision o\'er the destitute of 
were occupied until 1871. Before this time, in his district and all allowances were made on 
1868, the hospital became tot) small to accom- his recommendation. 

modate all the patients. The city had gro\^•n The expense necessaril)- incurred by this 

much larger and there Avas considerable o1)- s}'stem of affording relief began to be very 

jection to the location of the institution sn burdensome and in 1883 steps were taken to 

near the city limits. An effort \\as made to establish a county farm. In March of that 

secure another location, but it Avas three years A-ear a committee was appointed to examine 

liefore a new site was chosen. The board the matter and the report was in favor of es- 

hnally purchased of John S. Conncir 114 acres taldishing an almshouse. The present site — 

of land on one of the roads to Los Gatos, on the Oakland road, half a mile south of 

three and one-half miles from San Jose. The Alilpitas — \vas selected. A tract of 100 acres 

price paid was $12,400. In 1875 the contract Avas purchased from James VjOjA for $25,000. 

for the building was awarded to A\'. (_). MreA'- The tract contained the present main liuilding, 

fogle for $14,633.70. Messrs. Lenzen and (lash wdiich had been erected as a residence some 

were the architects. Before this, the old ^-ears before by John O'Toole at an expense 

luiildings from the old grounds had been re- of $21,000. Now nearly all aid to destitute 

moved to the r\Q\\- site and the old premises jiersons is extended through this institution, 

cut up into lots and sold for $4,518.64. In Persons not residents of the county are not 

1884 eight)'-one acres of the new tract were aided at all, but are returned to the counties 

Sold to different parties, leaving thirty-three Axdrere the_v belong. For several years indi- 

acres to the present grounds. Afterward more gent women were cared for here, but wdien an 

land was bought so that now the tract con- < )ld Ladies' Home was built at the county hos- 

tains thirty-eight and one-half acres. The pital thev were removed to the new location, 

money accruing from the 1884 sales amounted The superintendent is James Carson and the 

to $14,727.71, being $2,327.71 more than the number of patients (1920) is 198. Those who 

cost of the entire tract. Since the removal of are able to w^ork are emplo3'ed about the 

the hospital to its present location many build- grounds, mainly in gardening. 


The Resources and Attractions of San Jose, the Garden Cty of CaHfornia — 
Soil, Climate, Productions and Opportunity — What a Man From the 
East Learned From an Old Resident. 

"San Jose? In CalitVirnia? Xever heard of lation of 800 or 1,000 — will hardly afford tlie 

tlie place. Must l:ie some old Spanish village, facilities wlTicl: are essential to the well-lieing 

eh? Pnelilo — that's it, ]")iie1ilo. r\-e read Span- of m}' family." 

!sh history and when I was a youngster I "l^gt me tell vou something aliout San lose 

had a lot of Spanish lingo at my tongue's end. and its environs. Perhaps I mav be al^le to 

I ^never heard^ of but one San Jose on the furnish facts that will suit all your require- 

Western Continent and that is J-^an Jose de ments." 

Costa Rica. Perhaps y,,u were not referring ..j ^^,^^^,1 ,,g pleased to hear vou," The man 

to California and vour San Jose is the Costa f,.,,,,, ^^^^ j^^^^^ l,o-hted a cigar, then sinking 

Rican city. No? Then where is .vour San Jose j„ ,^j^ ^.j^^^jj. ^y^;^^,i f^^ the promised expo.sition, 

and what d,, they raise there, coiTee or pump- ■■y,,^, ^p^^j^.^ ^-,f Spanish villages," began the 

old resident," and that reminds me that San 

The speaker was a man from the Kast, who Jose was once a Spanish pueblo, where all 

had C(nne to California in search of a home the houses were of adol)e, where the seat of 

and also a field for the profitable investment education and religious enlightenment was in 

of tlie money lie had saved after years of toil the Mission and where wild cattle roamed the 

in the cold, cheerless communities of New valley and a tJola- jar nientc ])cople lived lives 

England. The scene was the reading room of of ease and dreamed not of the time when 

one of San Francisco's palatial hotels and the fair and stateh' homes should dot the lands 

person addressed was an old resident of San .riven over to the chapparal and the wild mus- 

Jose, who had been introduced t.i the East- tard, and the busy hum of industr_v indicative 

erner by a mutual friend. of an advanced civilization should be heard in 

"San Jose is of right the fourth city in the ]"ilaces where happy feet kept time to the se- 

state and is located in the heart of the rich- ducti^•e strains of the Spanisli guitar, or where 

est valley in the A\'orlfl : distance from San the matador and j^icador imperiled their li\'es 

Francisco, forty-eight miles. It is — " f<ir lo\'e or ,gold, San Jose \vas settled in 17R7 

"Hold on, hold on," was the quick inter- as the result of an exploration made at the 

ruption. "Let me get my breath — you cjuite instance of the Spanish authorities in 1769. 

took it away by your surprising announcement. Until 1830 no Americans had ever penetrat- 

I am a tenderfoot, it is true, but I thought ed California. In that year they began to ar- 

I had California sized u]) prett}- well before ri\'e so that when the discovery of gold was 

1 Ixaight 111}- ticket in Ijoston. 1 knew there made San Jose was practically dominated bv 

were a large number of towns and ^■illages the American population. In February, 1848, 

where they dig for gold, Init I had formed the United vStates, by treat\-, acquired title to 

the idea that the only two cities worth men- California and the first Legislature held its 

tioning were .San Francisco and Los Angeles, first session in .San lose, \vhich for a short 

As San PTancisco is hardly the place for a time was the capital of the state. Had ,gen- 

hciiue, I had concluded to go to Los ,-Vngeles." eral and not sectional interests been consult- 

"Ha\'e you bought }()ur ticket?" "No," was ed, it would be the capital today; 1nit liy a 

the reply. "Then before you do so let me series of bargains, governed solely by selfish 

suggest that you take a trip to San Jose, ^'ou considerations, the capital was removed first 

are looking for a place suitable for a resi- to one point and then another until it reached 

dence. San Jose offers the best inducements Sacramento to staA', In 184^ — the year the 

of an}' community in the state of California. Argonauts came from all ]>arts of the world — 

^'ou have money to iiu'est — in\'est it in the San Jose, as now, was the paradise of the 

Santa Clara Valley," homeseeker, its location, climate and other at- 

"But I am very particular, I ha\e a family, tractions combining to make it the most fa- 
children not yet grown up. There are many vored city in the state. Seekers for the gold, 
things to be considered and I am afraid, my which was to be found in the mountainous 
good friend that a country town or city — counties to the north and east left their fami- 
for I have heard that out here in the West a lies in San Jose, well knowing that wdiile they 
town becomes a city when it can show a popu- delved for the yellow metal their loved ones 



were surri)utule(l h_\' all the cnntlitinns calcu- 
lated to make life wiirth li\in>;-. And if life 
were worth livint;- in San J use and the Santa 
Clara A'alle}' in 184*:^ wdiat nuist lie said of 
the advantages wliich it possesses today? Then 
the valley, outside of the puehlo, was practic- 
ally an unhrt)ken plain where the wild cattle 
roamed at will. Today is presented a trans- 
formation that would hardly he looked for out- 
side of an Arabian romance. The late Judge 
Belden, in a graphic and lieautifully worded 
picture of the ^•alley in the vicinity of San 
Jose, thus set forth some of the attractions; 

" 'To the A'isitor approaching San Jose, 
through the upper end of the Santa Clara Val- 
ley, each mile traversed ushers in some de- 
lightful surprise, introduces a new climate. If 
his advent be from the north, the hills of ver- 
dure wdiich encircle the bay recede on either 
hand and assume a softer contour and a rich- 
er garb. The narrow roadway that skirts the 
salt marsh has widened to a broad and fer- 
tile valley that stretches as far as the eye can 
reach in luxuriant fields of grass and grain and 
miles upon miles of thrifty orchards. Border- 
ing this verdant plain, in hues and splendors 
all their own, come the hills and into the re- 
cesses of these hills creep the little valleys 
and as they steal away hi their festal robes 
they whisper of beauties beyond and as yet 
unseen. In full keeping with the transformed 
landscape is the change of climate. The harsh, 
chill winds that pour in through the Golden 
Gate, and sweep over the peninsula, have abat- 
ed their rough work as they spread over 
the valley, and, softened as they mingle with 
the currents of the south, met as a zephyr in 
the widening plain. 

" 'If the approach to San Jose be from the 
south, the traveler, wearied with the desert 
and its hot, dry air, is conscious of a sud- 
den change. The sterile desert has become 
a fruitful plain and the air that comes as balm 
to the parched lungs is cool and soft and 
moist with the tempered lireath of the sea. 
If it be spring or early summer, miles upon 
mile stretches the verdant plain ; over it 
troops sunshine and shadow ; across it ripples 
the waves. Summer but changes the hue and 
heaps the plains Avith abundant harvest of 
grain, vegetables and fruit, while the first rain 
brings again the verdure and the beauty of 
spring. "An ocean of beauty," exclaims the 
charmed beholder.' " 

"From that very pretty description I infer 
that your climate is not to he sneezed at." 

"We are proud of our climate," replied the 
old resident, "and with reason. There are all 
sorts of climate in California but it is general- 
ly conceded by those who have traveled the 
state over and are not afraid to express an 

honest opinion, tliat the climate of San Jose 
and the Sant;i Clara Valley is unsurj)assed in 
mildness and sahibrity. It is all owing to 
topographical situation. With moderately high 
mountains rising on the east and west and 
closing in on the south, the valley is pro- 
tected from the fog and winds that in cer- 
tain seasons envelop more exposed sections 
in less faNored locations. Protected from ex- 
tremes of heat and cold by the sheltering arms 
<if the mountains, the hottest days of summer 
are never oppressive on account of the cool 
breezes that sweep in from the bay. Climat- 
ically considered, San Jose and the Santa Clara 
Valley is open to no objection." 

"Your climate I admit is all right, but what 
about resources?" 

"The valley is one of varied resources and 
San Jose, as the county seat, enjoys the major 
part of the benefit derived from the orchards, 
grain fields and berry and vegetable sections. 
The shipping facilities are unexcelled. In the 
first place San Jose is the terminal point and 
therefore growers are not compelled to send 
their products to a great distance at local 
rates in order to reap the benefits that always 
accrue by reason of the rates ofl^ered at ter- 
minal points." 

The man from the East was becoming vastly 
interested. His cigar had gone out and his 
eyes w^ere fixed intently on the face of the old 
resident. "What kinds of fruit do you raise?" 
as asked, and on the moment out came his 

"Prunes, apricots, cherries, pears, apples, 
peaches, quinces, olives, nectarines, plums, 
limes, lemons and oranges." "Oranges?" "Yes, 
oranges in the section we call the warm belt, 
l)ut our prunes, apricots and peaches give such 
lietter returns that we do not count on citrus 
fruits, leaving that line to the southern coun- 
ties. Prunes take the lead and San Jose han- 
dles about all of them. There are twenty-three 
packing houses and twenty-four canneries in 
San Jose alone : outside there are fifteen pack- 
ing houses and about the same number of 
canneries. The number in city and country 
will increase I)efore the year is out. 

"Gee Whiz!" ejaculated the man from the 
East, "San Jose must handle hundreds of tons 
of fruit each year." 

"Hundreds of tons? Thousands of tons 
would hit the mark. In the shipment of dried 
fruit San Jose's contribution is about half of 
that of the whole state." 

"How about marketing?" was the next in- 
quir}' as the Inisiness sense of the man from 
the East came to the fore. 

'AVe are e.xceptionallv fa\-ored," was the re- 
pl\-, "in haA'ing an organization allied with the 
packers which controls more than eighty per- 



cent of the prune and apricot output of the 
entire state. It is called 'The California Prune 
and A])ricot Growers, Inc.' It came into ex- 
istence in 1916 and its growth has been such 
that it now owns forty packing houses, has 
alliances with man)- packers and costly ex- 
tensions and impro\'ements have been mapped 
out for the near future. By the rules which 
govern its conduct it is able to prevent 
troublesome fluctuations and the expensive in- 
terventions of middlemen and bring security 
and good prices to the orchardists. It is a 
coml^ine in which the interests of producer, 
liuyer and consumer are equital^ly adjusted." 

"That's good. I like that. And now another 
question. What are fruit lands in the vicinity 
of San Jose worth?" 

"On account of the large profits, prices have 
gone up during the past ten )-ears. Suitable 
lands with bearing trees sell all the way from 
$800 to $1500 per acre. On some of these lands, 
planted to prunes and apricots, the profits per 
acre, in 1919, ranged from $500 to $1,000. So ' 
you see the prices are not high when profits 
are considered. ,-\s an instance of money I 
^vill cite one case. A San Franciscan in the 
spring of 1919 bought a twentv-acre bearing 
prune orchard for '$,TO,000. Tlie fall of that 
}-ear bniught him a profit of $15,000 on his 
fruit. So you see half the A'alue of his prop- 
erty was paid for in one year." 

The man from tlie East looked at his \vatch. 
"t find I lia\'e >'et more than an hour at my 
disposal," he said. 

"Then I will talk rapidly," replied the old 
resident, "though I could put in a week and 
not exhaust the su1)ject. 

"The soil in and about San Jose offers the 
prime rec|uisites ioT the raising of all kinds 
(if vegetables and small berries. This with a 
climate equally suited, a ready market in San 
Jose and a still larger one in San Francisco, 
makes the business of production a most prof- 
itable one and gives employment to a large 
number of people. The seed output will more 
than double the amount of other garden prod- 
ucts. One of the seed farms located near San 
Jose is the largest in the world. In the future 
another soil industry may be added — flax cul- 
ture. Statistics show that it is very profitable 
and in tine opinion of experts the climate and 
soil of the valley meet every requirement. 

"While San Jose is noted as a horticultural 
center its industries along the line of manu- 
factures are not unimportant. There are 
many luml)ering manufactories in the city and 
viciriit}'. 'J'here are flour mills, iron and l)rass 
foundries, tanneries, carriage factories, mar- 
1de works, cigar factories — but stay, it is l)et- 
ter to give you a list ])repared l>y the Chandier 
of Commerce, so you see what San Jose can 

l.Hiast of: Acme Sheet Metal Manufactory, 
Anderson-Barngrover Mfg. Co., manufactures 
fruit and canning machiner_v; T. D. Anderson, 
awning and tent makers; Banks Corporation, 
manufactures Banks' Evaporator ; Bean Spray 
Pump Co., manufactures pumps, gas and trac- 
tion engines; Beech Nut Co., jams and pre- 
serves ; E. Benone, Ravioli and Noodle Mfg. 
Co. ; Harry Bobbitt, California Wall Paper 
Mills ; Braslan Seed Growers Co. ; Burns ^vlat- 
tress Co.; Bvron Jackson Iron A\'orks, cen- 
trifugal and turl)ine pumi)s ; California Seed 
Growers' Association; Campl)ell iK: Biidlong 
r\Iachine Works, pumps and engines ; Chase 
Lumljer Co.; Christian Mfg. Co., harvester 
teeth ; Cowell Lime and Cement Co. ; Delmas 
Paper Co. ; Eagle Bod}' Mfg- Co., auto body 
builders and repairers; Farmers' Grain and 
Poultry Supply Co. ; Finnett-McEwen Co., 
tractors; Fisk Rubber Co.; Garden City Glass 
Co.; Garden City Potter}-; Garden City Ruli- 
ber Works; Garden City Implement and Ve- 
hicle Co. ; Glenwood Lumber Co. ; James 
Graham Mfg. Co., stoves and ranges ; Hart's 
Auto Signal Tail Light Co. ; Hubbard & Car- 
niichael, lumber and mill work; Kimberlin 
Seed Co.; Knapp Plow AA'orks ; San Jose Bot- 
tling Co. ; San lose AVire Strapping Co. : 
Aloenning & HarA-ard. pumps and engines; 
IMussos Outing iv Equipment Co.; I'acific Gas 
cS; Electric Co. ; Pacific Mfg. Co. ; Pacific Shin- 
gle and Box Co.; Peterson-Kartschoke Brick 
Co. ; Pioneer Rubber Co. ; National Axle 
Mfg. Co.; San Jose Broom Factory; San Jose 
Fk)ur Co. ; San Jose Marble & Granite Works; 
San Jose Foundry ; San Jose Lun-ilter ^'ard ; 
San Jose Paper Mills; Ravenna Paste Co.; 
Schuh & Vertin, granite and marlde works; 
Security Cold Storage Co. ; Sperry Flour Co. : 
X'acuum System OH Refining Co.; San Jose 
Implement Co.; Marvel Compound Co., boiler, 
gas engine and radiator compounds; Pitch 
Pump & Supply Company, Smith Manufac- 
turing Company, and several others. Besides 
tliese four Building and Loan Associations, 
eighteen dairies and creameries, eight whole- 
sale flour and grain houses, nineteen l)utcher 
shops, over one hundred grocers, five sani- 
tariums and hospitals, a telephone company 
with over 14,000 subscribers, and t)ther lines 
of Inisiness. ()ne drawl^ack to the proper de- 
A'elopn-ient of manufacturing industries was 
the lack of cheap fuel, but a factor of the 
greatest nnportance \vas furnished in 1901 
when the Standard Electrical Power Com- 
])an}-, with plant at Blue Lakes, put up poles 
and wires in Santa Clara County and fur- 
nished 15,000 hf>rsepow-er for every purpose 
for which it could l)e used." 

"Tell me more aljout San Jose, itself. I 
want the details." 



"San Jose," said the old resident, with tj^-lis- 
tening eyes, "is the garden spot of California, 
the Oueen City of the Pacific Coast. It is 
lieautifully situatctl in the center of the \aU 
lev, snrroinnled by the richest frnit growing 
section in the world, and having within its 
boundaries all the elements conduci\e to a 
happy existence. I ha\e told you of the cli- 
mate, you know something respecting the re- 
sources of the C(.mtiguous territor\', and "N'ou 
will therefore understand that trade must nat- 
urally gra\itate to the cit)- by reason of its 
location with outl}'ing sections. The con- 
stancy and certaint}' of trade enal)Ies the 
farmers and orchardists to ])ay cash for su])- 
plies and in turn insures the pros|)erit\- of the 
merchants. But the fruit industrv and the 
manufacturing concerns form 1)ut X\\i> factors 
in promoting commercial healthfulness. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars flow in annuallv 
from the educational and cither public institu- 
tions situated in San Jose and its near vicinitv'. 

"It is one of the most beautiful residence 
cities in the state on account of its charming- 
situation, ^ulri^ aled climate, Ijeautiful land- 
scape, educational facilities, accessiljilit)- to 
the great metropolis <")f the coast, and to the 
intelligence, refinement and enterprise of its 
people. H is connected ^^•ith San Francisco 
with three lines of steam railroads, one line, a 
transcontinental one, running from San Fran- 
cisco and San Jose along the coast to i^os An- 
geles and thence East. There are also elec- 
tric lines running to Palo Alto on the north, 
Los Altos, Cupertino and Saratoga on the 
west and Los Gatcjs and Campbell on the 
south. In the near future the electric cars will 
convey passengers from San Jose to San Fran- 
cisco. A new transcontinental line, started in 
1917 and finished in 1922, is the AVestern Pa- 
cific. A Ijranch line was built from Niles." 

"How al)out auto stages? Do you have 
them ? 

"Of course." replied the old resident, se- 
renely, "for we're up to date in San Jose. 
There are hourly auto stages to San Fran- 
cisco, Oakland, Stockton, Sacramento, Gilroy, 
Los Gates, Saratoga and other points. In 
fact }-ou can get an auto to take you any- 
where in the state. And talking about autos — 
I will inform you that San Jose is the pride 
of the automobilists of California, for it has 
more roads, better roads, more Ijeautiful 
spots — ^•alley or mountain — more orchard 
avenues than any other section of the state. 
The state highway runs through San Jose 
with branches to Santa Cruz, Gilroy and other 
towns in the county. Besides there are hun- 
dreds of miles of paved roads paid for b}- the 
board of supervisors acting for the county." 

The man from the l{ast made a movement 
in the direction of his watch pocket, Init it 
was not comideted. Some restraining influ- 
ence was at w(jrk. Presently he said: "You 
s])eak of educational facilities. A city or town 
may ha\ e climate to burn, the scenic Ijeauties 
that ]ioets ra\'e a1)out, l)ut unless it ))ossesses 
a full measure of the best of civilizing influ- 
ences it fails <jf l)eing the 'one and altogether 
Irjx'cly spot' to me." 

The old resident listened comidacently. "I 
think I can satisfy you," he replied, "for one 
of tile strongest appeals that San Jose makes 
to the seekers of homes is that it is the center 
of the finest system of educatiiJii to be found 
on the r\acific Coast. In the city itself are the 
public schofils from primary t<"i high, and 
many academies and pri\-ate schools. The 
high school building, or buildings, for there 
are many of them, cover acres of ground, and 
with the improvements mapped out for this 
}-ear — athletic grounds, new structures and an 
increased equipment — makes the cost upwards 
of one million dollars. The school has the 
highest uni\-ersity rating and the course of 
study emljraces almost every department of 
cftlture from the rudiments of learning up to 
the arts, sciences and classics. The grammar 
schools, nine in number, are comparatively 
new, are l)uilt in the mission form with spa- 
cious grounds, up-to-date sanitary conditions 
and all the apjdiances of first-class metropoli- 
tan institutions. And there are in the city com- 
mercial schools, church schools, and schools of 
painting, industrial arts and metaDhysics. In 
vSan Jose is located the State Teachers" 
College, with an eflicient corps of instruct- 
ors for the education of teachers: the College 
iif Notre Dame, one of the leading Catholic 
institutions of learning and morals in the 
United States, devoted particularly to the 
training of young girls: and the St. Joseph's 
school fcir boys. T\vo miles from the heart of 
the city at College Park is the College of the 
Pacific, the leading Methodist College of the 
Pacific Coast, with a Conservatorv of Music 
attached; at Santa Clara, three miles distant, 
is the University of Santa Clara, founded bv 
the Fathers of the Society of Jesus and hav- 
ing commercial, law, scientific and classical 
courses, and with a reputation that extends to 
e\ery part of the United States. Palo Alto, 
nineteen miles distant, about half an hour's 
ride from San Jose, boasts of the Leland Stan- 
ford Jr. University. It is designed in this 
uni\'ersit}' to represent the crown and out- 
come of the new education, specialized, how- 
ever., on the highest planes in utilitarian di- 
rections. This uni\-ersity is really an asset of 
San Jose and as such I speak of it. 



"It might l)e well fur you to kiinw that San 
Jose is a city of churches, every denomination 
of importance beintj represented. The cost of 
the l)uildint;s, which in their ornateness add 
much to the l)eaut\- of the city, rans^e from 
$5,000 to $200,000. ' In the line of charitable 
institutions there is the sanitarium built by 
the donation of the late Judge M. P. O'Con- 
nor and conducted l)y the Sisters of Charity; 
the Pratt Home for old ladies, the Sheltering 
Arms, and the Orphans' Home, conducted by 
the Ladies' Benevolent Society. Resides there 
are many other organizations, like the Good 
Cheer Club and the Elks which care for the 
sick and distressed." 

"How about pulilic buildings?" asked the 
Easterner. "Do they match the other things 
you have been talking about?" 

"The}- do and they present much that is 
architecturally beautiful and substantial. The 
Court House, Hall of Records, Hall of Justice, 
Cit)' Hall and Postoffice cost one million and 
a half dollars in the aggregate, and each struc- 
ture is massive and imposing. The Carnegie 
Library, built by a donation from Andrew 
Carnegie, is a handsome structure, located in 
one corner of Normal Square, and answers the 
public needs. The business houses of San 
Jose are large, well built and attractive struc- 
tures. There are two skyscrapers — the First 
National Bank building, nine stories, and the 
Garden Citv Bank and Trust Company build- 
ing, seven stories. The residences, as a rule, 
are in the bungalow style, costing from $2,000 
to $75,000. Some of the suburban residences 
are veritable palaces and they stand as mon- 
uments of art and beauty in the midst of lu.x- 
uriant gardens and thrifty orchards. Speak- 
ing of gardens, San Jose has well been called 
the Garden City of California. Flowers grow 
sti easily and al^undantly that e\ery residence 
has its flower garden and every month in the 
year some \-arieties are in bloom. There is no 
snow and the frosts are so light that only the 
most delicate plants are affected. There is no 
time in the winter when the ground may not 
be worked, so that under what are semi-tropical 
conditions the growth of flowers has every- 
thing in its favor. The facility with \\-hich the 
flowers are grown add much to the beauty of 
the public parks, of which there are four, 
ranging in size from three to thirty acres. 

"Are there anv health resorts in the neigh- 
borhood of San Jose, any drives or — " 

"Enough to beat the band," was the expres- 
sive response. "The city owns a natural park 
known as Alum Rock, which is one of the most 
picturescpie and inviting spots in the state. 
It is biit se\-en miles distant, covers an. area 
of about 1,000 acres, is under control of the 
city government, and is reached by three fine 

driveways and an electric railway. There are 
bath houses, plunges, a restaurant, swimming 
tank, esplanade, a concrete dam for the water 
supph', beautiful park-like enclosures for flow- 
ers, and lovely walks in every direction. The 
fame of the mineral waters has spread far and 
wide. There are other mineral springs not 
far from San Jt>se, and the fact that they are 
located far above the sea level and with most 
attractive natural surroundings make them 
sought after by both the invalid and the tour- 
ist. The roads about San Jose are among the 
best in the state, for the reason that they are 
not only kept in first class condition the year 
round but are sprinkled continuously from the 
end of one wet season to the beginning of an- 
other. This w(jrk is done under an energetic 
and up-to-date board of supervisors. 

"While there are charming drives through 
the orchard districts, to the quicksilver mines 
at New Almaden, to Los Gatos and Saratoga 
in the western foothills, to the Big Basin, the 
great redwood park in the Santa Cruz Moun- 
tains : to Alviso and Milpitas near San Fran- 
cisco Bay, along the far-famed Alameda to the 
town of Santa Clara and in other directions 
where the natural prospect is inviting to the 
eye, the one most favored by tourists is the 
dri\-e to the Lick Observatory on the summit 
of Mt. Hamilton." 

"I have heard of the Observatory," inter- 
posed the man from the East, "but I never 
connected San ]c)se with it." 

"It is San Jose's greatest auxiliary attrac- 
tion, though the Big Basin is running as a 
close second. The road that leads to the Ob- 
servatory is twenty-seven miles from San Jose 
and was built at the expense of the taxpayers. 
It is conceded to be the finest mountain road 
in the world and cost upwards of $75,000. It 
was upon the condition that Santa Clara 
County should l)uild the road that James Lick, 
millionaire philanthropist, agreed to construct 
the (Jbservatory and equip it with the finest 
astronomical appliances in the world. The 
important discoveries that have been made 
since the astronomers began their work have 
gi\-en the Obser^•ator^- a W(jrld-wide fame. 
The beautiful scenery of the Coast Range is 
seen at its best on the road to the summit, and 
the drive up the. mountain is as much an at- 
traction as a look at the hea\ens through the 
great thirty-si-x inch glass." 

"If tourists should ^■isit v^an jose for a 
trip to the (Jbservatory \\-hat accommoda- 
tions would they find?" 

"As good as can be found anvwdierc. There 
are twenty-se\'en hotels, liesides dozens of 
lodging houses. The finest hotels, metropoli- 
tan in ever}' respect, with electric lights, heat- 
in.g plants, elevators and the finest of service 

niSTC)R\- ()!■ SANTA CI.ARA COUN'J^Y 161 

arc the W-ndonie. Hotel .Moul.';Diiicry and '-iw vers, and tliat tluTc are over 100 auto sales- 
Hotel St. janios," i';""is, .^ara-es and service stations: that over 

"Vou ha\e spoken about the climate, scenic 1-,000 automobiles are (jwned in San Jose and 

and other attractimis. IbiNC ) on a system of ''^ least hall that number by residents of out- 

se\vera!;-e. and how docs it operate?" ■'^i'lc' districts; that there arc fraternal orders 

"San Jose has a system, a perfect one, and ,t;">'il"i'<^' I'csides clubs for men and clubs for 

it operates to the satisfaction of the entire """icn, the latter for social culture, educa- 

communit\-. The citv, vou must understand, tional and literary advancement, and in the in- 

is located' on ;i plain 'which slopes .gently '^Tc'st (.f morality; that there are six banks, 

toward the bay. The problem of drainage, ^^'y'hcient police force and fire department, a 

therefore, which has in sections less favor- V}^''^'<~' library, fine, costly buildings for the 

ably situated involved great expense, \\as in ' .^'^^ ''^- '"i*' "^ ■ ^\'. C. A,, Protestant, and 

San Jose easily solved. The fall is about ten \| " , ^[' \" Catholic; a Humane Societv, 

feet to the mile, enough to insure a rapid flow '^' ^^fli^~<'^l Society, J'ioneers Society, six thea- 

of water and there are now over sixty miles ^"^'"^ (three of them motion picture houses), 

of main and branch sewers. The principal '"'''n}' concert and lecture halls, a system of 

drainwav is built of brick and is five feet in ''"'''^' delivery that reaches every part of the 

diameter." county, thus insuring a daily delivery of mail 

"Where do }-ou get your water supply?" 

iy earners; that the total valuation of all 

-V 4 ' ■ 11 1 j: ii 1 1 uoperty in the citv amounts to $'6^Ufi(^(V 

I'rom artesian wells and from the lakes .,, ! ,, ' , ,. - '"'"'"'iis lo ^„u,^o-i-,ouu , 

1 i -i i- 1 1 ■ 1 ■ ii in;a tne population within the leo-al bonndn 

and streams situated high up in the moun- ,.;>,;, mnno , \ icj,ai uounaa- 

'pi 1-11 1 ■ lies IS over 40,000 and that it would be at 

tarns. The supply is ample and can be in- i,.„^. a; nnn ■{ <-\ i , , "'J"iu "e at 

11 1 , fni least 0:1,000 it the suburban districts rea h- -i 

creased whenever occasion demands. I he ,^^^f „; Vi ■. r i'^ohls, iedu_\ a 

pressure to the hydrants from the water '^'^ \ ' "' '° i""' '""''' '^'''' business 

brought in pipes from the hills is fifty-five ' "^ o^l ]t ""''' ^■^"'-~"""'' "'^''^^ admitted as a 
pounds to the square inch." 

"How about taxes?" ■^'"*^ -^■"." t'lrough?" "Nearly. Have vou 

"Not high. L'p to May, 1920, the citv rate ''*"-^' questions to ask?" "You seem to have 

was$1.19.'"Of this eighty-five cents was for the '^'^-'^t everything worth having down your 

support of the city government, fifteen cents "''*>': '^"^ ^ """1^' ^'''n J"se will be found lack- 

for the school department, and nineteen cents "''f^'" '^"« respect. ' 

for the payment of principal and interest on ^he man from the East paused and with a 

bonded indebtedness of $659,400. In i\lay, ["^'"^ which said, "I've got you, now," waited 

1920, at the regular city election, it was voted ''"' ^he old resident to speak. 

to increase the tax rate to thirty-five cents, the "If we haven't got it, it isn't worth having." 

increase to last for three years only, t(j .gi\e "f do not agree with you. I like relaxation, 

the city a chance to recover from the loss (jf 'All \\-ork and no plav' makes Jack a d'ull bov.' 

liquor licenses due to the wiping out of the I require outdcior exercise with some ni'ce 

saloons through Prohibition. . ozone thrown in to give me a healthy- ccdor 

"In conclusion," sadi the old resident, "1 and take the kinks out of my muscles." 
will sa}- that we are working under a com- "Ah. I see. You want a baseball or a cy- 
mission form of go\'ernment, Avith a cit)- man- clers' clul). We have both in San lose. \Ve 
ager as its principal officer; that we have a ha\e the automobile as well and as for hunt- 
Chamber of Commerce, a live, progressive in,g and fishing, no county in the interior of 
body of representative men; a Merchants As- the state oilers better inducements." 
sociation, the Rotary, Pi(ms, Ci^dc A\'elfare, "They are all right, but you haven't o-ot 
a Commercial Clul"), a Progressive Business \\diat I want and that's a golf club." 
.Men's Associatifjn, ( )ne Hundred Per Cent The old resident's face fairly beamed: 
Club and the Commercial Club for placing San "Haven't got a golf club? Why.' man alive, 
Jose in large letters on the map ; that the \ve'\e got the best golf club in Central Cali- 
streets of San Jose are lighted by electricit}- ; fornia," 
that car lines operated by electricity traverse "You can't mean it." 

the city in every direction and extend to out- "I do. It was organized about twentv" years 

lying towns; that fifty-nine railway trains ago, has as fine links as an\- one could \vish, 

leave the cit}- daily: that the city has two with an ornate club house, replete with every 

daily newspapers, the Mercury (morning) and up-to-date conyenience and costing alxnit 

the Nezvs (evening) furnishing the news of $20,000. The links are located on rising 

the world by Associated Press and United ground at the foot of the eastern hills about 

Press dispatches; that all trades and profes- four miles from the city. A prettier location 

sions are represented — there are forty. fi^■e could not be found. The club house has an 

dentists, seventy-seven physicians and eighty outlook that takes in the whole valle\-. It goes 


^\■ith(lut saying that the chib is cf)m])osed of hshing- of a real port of entry for vessels. It 

men and women who represent the best in was the intention, through G(5vernment aid, 

societ\- and business." to dredge the slougli, make it passable for 

"AA'hat are }-our [irospects for the future?" transportation craft and thus provide San 

"They are ^ er}- bright. Money is easil}- Jose with water as well as railway transporta- 

ol)tainable and in a business ^vay San Jose is tion for her products. The war sto]3ped the 

prosperous. Its various res<iurces and utili- project, but Sunnyvale, nine miles from San 

ties combine to make it so. The Chamber of Jose, has taken it up and a port, near the San 

Commerce is rloing wonders in the way of [ose line, will soon he in ojieration. vSo you 

promoting business acti\ity, fostering im- ^^^e that in 1*^22 the Citv of San Jose oflfers a 

provements and paving the way for all enter- fjj-^^. ^(.p] f, ir the in\'estment of money." 
prises looking to the citv's advancement along ..^^.^jj^ climate, production, opportunity, 

the best lines. Sexen miles north of San Jose p, p.. .•^-J, " 

is the port of ;\h'iso, situated on a slough ' " -^ i i i ^t t,;- 

which empties into San Francisco P.av. Be- ^^^ man from the East now looke.l at h.s 

fore the European war the citv bought'a strip ^vatch. " I he Los .\ngeles tram has gone, 

of land extending along the'Alvis'^o road to he said.^ "Well?';^ "There s the tram for San 

Alviso and more'land suitable for the estab- Jose. I'll take it." 


Additional Events in the History of San Jose— The Advent of Street Cars and 
Other Metropolitan Advantages — The Crimes of the Seventies, Eighties 
and Nineties — A New Form of Government. 

An act to incorporate the city of San Jose which were jjaid for in 1865, thus leaving the 

was passed by the Legislature, Alarch 27. city out of debt. 

]R50. by which it \\-as directed that the city A new charter was adopted in 1857. Under 

government should consist of a mayor and the new s}'Stem the government of the city 

seven c(]Uncilmen, \vhi:) were designated a was \ ested in five trustees, a treasurer, a 

"body politic and corporate" under the name clerk and assessor, and a collector, 

of "the Mayor and Common Council " This j,.j 1353 gambling was licensed, $500 for 

name was retained until the city adopted the ^^^.^-^ table. 

c.mmission form of government ,11 l<n6. The ,pj^^. Democratic partv in San fose was or- 

first city tax was levied July 11, 8d0 and was ^^^^-^^^^^ ;,, 5^33^ y^^. _,^; ^ ^p^ncer was prcsi- 

l,,r one per cent_(,n the assessed value <,t all -j^.^^^^ j^^,^^^ ^j^ yiurphy and Samuel Morrison, 

I)ror)ert^' 1 he first council AOted tnemselx'es - • . lo^f li r. i- i- 

pioi)eiL_\. 1 iiL iii:m ^.wLiiiv^ii ^ secretaries. In 18.^4 the first con\entif)n was 

pay at the rate ot six dojlar.s per day. Ihis |^^,,^| .^^ ^,^^ ^^^-^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^ ^^^^^,^_^^ chairman, 

ordinance was repealed_ m December ot the ,p|^,„^^,^g , ^y .,^^ . ^ecretarv. P.' K, Woodside. 

same year, on motion ot Dr. Ben Cory, ilie ■ . '.,.,„., , 

first o'rder looking to the improvement of the ' he W hig party was organized m bV^3 and 

, 1 ^ „ T^a,,..,^1l^u,- 7 l>?mi M^hi.-ln on iil\' \. a con\-ention was lield witli Lole- 

streets was made on JJecemljer z, itiov, wnicn .' - • , ,, , . ,..^ „ 

■ 1 1 i ~',i- .^11-- ;,T ti-,,. i.,,c;npu^ r,nrt , ,f iiiau ^oiingcr, chairman, and rredenc Hall, 

|)rovided tor sidevalks m tne Dusiness pan 01 t. • 

the city. The income of the city for its first secretary. 

>ear of incorporation was $37,359.30; ex]iendi- In 1854 a district school was established, 

lures, $37,106.04. The expenses included a Freeman Gates, principal. 

debt of $7,500 handed doA\n from the Ayuntia- In 1855 the Know-Nothing jjart)' came into 
meiito of 1849. The cit\- was (li\ided into four existence but held no con\ention. Its candi- 
wards in April, 1853, and a fire warden ap- dates were nominated b}- primar}-. 
pointed for each ward. .\n api)ropriation (jf 'Ph^ Republican jiarty was organized in 
$2,000 for fire apparatus was also made. ]S56 and a coinention was held the same year 
In 1855 the office of cajjtain of ](olice A\as with J. H. Morgan, chairman; A. C. Erkson 
created and the same \'ear the ma}'or and and M. v^awx'er, \ ice-chairmen ; C. (.t. Thomas 
council hebl session in the new city hall on and R. Fl utchiiison, secretaries. 
^Market Street, north of Santa Clara Street. In In 1857 San Jose was remapped. 
1866, by act of the Legislature, the city funded In 1858 the ,\nti-Lecompton (Douglas- 
its flcjating debt by the issuance of bonds. Democrat) jiarty conxened at the city hall. 



AY. "SI. Lent, chairman, and Freeman Gates, 

An ordinance authorizint;" the cit^' tn la\' 
g"as pipes was passed January 11, 1S38. In 
July, 1860, James Hagan secured a franchise 
from the cit}' for this purpose. The first lights 
were g'i\'en on Januar^' 21, 1861. There were 
then (.inh- fight\'-four consumers and seven 
street lights. 

In 1861 Jasper D. Gunn, city marshal, ab- 
sconded, having eml)ezzled $2,700 of the city's 
money. Gunn was accpiitted of the criminal 
charg"e but his liondsmen ^^•ere sued b)" the 
cit^' and judgment obtained against them. 

Donald Mackenzie, in May, 1864, was 
granted permission to lav water pipjcs in the 
streets of the cit\\ This was the lieginning of 
the San Jose A\'ater Company. 

In 1865 a firidge was budt (")\er Coy(")te 
Creek at Santa Clara Street. The same ^•ear 
the ]\lansion House, liuilt in 1850, was fnirned. 

In April, 1867, Abijah ?vIcCall, countv treas- 
urer, absconded, being a defaulter in the large 
sum of $2,3,762.41. He \\-as arrested and con- 

A\'illiam Blanch, an Englishman, was mur- 
dered on ^la}- 16, 1860, while at labor in a 
field he \A'as cultixating about a mile from San 
Jose. The murderer was an Indian named 
Sal\-ador Garcia, \\ ho had been accused b}' the 
deceased of stealing a rope, Garcia was 

In March, 1868, the Legislature granted to 

5. A. Bishop and others a franchise to con- 
struct a horse railroad along the Alameda. Un 
August 31 work on the road \\-as started and 
on XoAcmber 1, the cars made their initial 
trip, running from First Street, San Jose, to 
Main Street in Santa Clara. In 1869 the line 
\\-as extended eastward along Santa Clara 
Street to the Co}-ote Creek bridge On Jul\- 

6, 1870, the board of supervisors granted the 
companv permission to use steam, pf'ti}- or 
pneumatic propelling power, and on Novem- 
ber 6, 1877, authority was granted to permit 
cars to run over the bridge to McLaughlin 

Un AA'ednesday, October 1, 186S, at eight 
o'clock in the morning a severe earthcpiake 
shook California. San Jose sutiered consid- 
erable The hea^•y brick cornice of Murph}-'s 
building, corner of Market and El Dorado 
Streets, fell to the ground. The Presbyterian 
Church on Second Street sustained great 
damage. All the brick turrets fell and large 
portions of the steeple were precipitated 
through the roof to the floor. The large water 
tank o\-er the roof of Moody's flour mill fell 
through the roof, carr)'ing destruction in its 
course. Their wooden storehouse, 100 feet in 
length, filled with grain, \\"as totally wrecked. 

Two Large chimnews of the San fose Institute 
were tlirown down, one of them crashing 
through into the rcKims below. A portion of 
the rear wall of Welch's livery stable fell. 
Otter's unfinished Idock at the corner of First 
and St. Jolm Streets was severely dama.ged. 
There was not a liricL building in the city that 
was not more or less injured. 

'Lhe next winter San Jose was visited by a 
se\ere flood, 'idle Los Gatos and Guadalupe 
Creeks o\-erfio^\-ed their banks, flooding the 
lands adjacent thereto. The high grade of the 
h.irse railroad track dammed the Water back 
south of Santa Clara Street, inundating the 
houses and yards. The water broke over the 
track flooding the low grounds between the 
College of Notre Dame and the Guadalupe. 
.\bout a hundred feet of the railroad track was 
swe|:it away. The main portion of the city 
from Third to Seventh Streets was under 
water to the depth rif se\-eral inches. 

In 1870 the population of San Jose was 9,118. 

In 1871 A\'ashington Square was granted to 
the state as_a site for a Normal School. On 
April 3, 18/1, .Mayor Adolph Pfister sent a 
communication to the council stating that he 
had donated his salary for the year ($600) for 
the purpose of aiding in the establishment of 
a puljlic lilirary. 

In December, 1871, another flood, caused 
Ij.v overflow from the Guadalupe and Los Ga- 
tos Creeks, On the east side of River Street 
se\-en small cottages floated down stream for 
a distance of a third of a mile. During the 
flood all communication \vith the outside 
\\'orld was suspended. Since that date the 
two creeks have been widened and improved 
so that now there is no danger of o\'erflows. 

On January 22. 1864, the Santa Clara Val- 
le}- & Luml^er Compan}- was incorporated 
with a capital stock of $300,000. The directors 
were William P. Doughertv, Y\L H. Hall, 
Samuel McFarland, E. AV. Haskell, Y'. w' 
Pratt, John Aletcalf and G. Y'. McLellan. 

(.)n January 5, in the District Court, Judge 
Da\-id Belden presiding, Tilnircio Yascjuez, 
the notorious bandit and murderer, was placed 
on trial for the murder of Leander Davidson, 
hotel keeper at Tres Pinos, San Benito 
Count}-. This was the most celelirated trial 
ever held in San Jose. Attorney General 
J(jhn Lord Love, assisted by N. C. Briggs 
and Hon. YV E. Lovett, of Llollister and Dis- 
trict Attorney Thomas Bodle}' of Santa Clara 
Count}-, appeared for the prosecution. The 
night l)efore. Judge C. B. Darwin, of San 
Francisco, to whijm had been intrusted the 
princijial management of the defense, with- 
drew fr(jm the case, Liefore the Iieginning of 
the trial. Judge Y'. H. Collins anrl Judge J. A. 
Moultrie were retainerl to assist P. B. d'ullv. 



I if (lilroy, as attorneys for the prisoner. F.N'ery- 
thiny; being' in readiness Vasquez was placed 
on trial. AX'hen the conrt adjourned in the 
afternoon, the followinj^" residents of Santa 
Clara County had been selected t() serve as 
jurors: G. W. Reynolds, foreman, Tyler 
Brundage, Frank Hamilton, M. Dornlierger, 
Noah Parr, ^l. Tobin, G. C. Fitzgerald, |. W. 
Moorehead, S. T. Woodson. M. Lubliner,"C. S. 
Towle, Flugh O'Rourke. On Saturday, Jan- 
uary 9, a verdict of .guilty of murder in the 
first degree, was rendered and on Alarch 19, 
the execution took place in the jail yard. 

Vascjuez' career was one long series of law- 
less acts. He was born in Mcmterey in 18,^5. 
was a wild, harum-scarum }'oungster, but he 
did not give the officers an}' trouble until 
just before he reached his si.xtecnth year. 
Before an occurrence which launched him into 
a career of crime, his associates were Mexi- 
can law-breakers, cattle thieves, mainly, 
Avhose iiperations l^ecame extensive soon after 
the occupation of California by the Ameri- 
cans. C)ne night, in company with Anastacio 
Garcia, a Mexican desperado, he attended a 
fandango. A quarrel over a woman, the fatal 
shooting of the constable while trying to 
maintain order, the lynching of one of Vas- 
quez' associates and the formation of a vigi- 
lance committee sent \"asquez into hiding 
from which he emerged to ally himself with 
a band of horse thicA'CS. 

In 1857 he came to grief, but five years' 
sequestration in the state prison faided to pro- 
duce any change in his morals. (..)ne month 
after his discharge he was operating as a 
highwav roliber on the San Joaquin plains. 
Chased l")y officers into Contra Costa County, 
he sought and obtained refuge at the ranch of 
a Mexican «'ho was the father of a jirett}' and 
impressionable daughter. She easily fell a 
victim to the seductive wiles of the handsome, 
dashing voung knight of the road. <.)ne morn- 
ing Anita and Vas(|uez were missing. With 
stern face the father of the girl mounted his 
fleetest mustang and started in pursuit. He 
overtook the loNcrs in the Li^•ermore \"alley. 
The)' were resting under a tree b_y the road- 
side' X'asquez saA\' .Anita's father and sprang 
to his feet, but made no hostile demonstra- 
tion. His code of honor forbade an attack on 
the man he had wronged. ;V cpiick under- 
standing of the situation sent Anita to her 
loA'er's side. "If you kill him you must also 
kill me," she screamed. The lather frowned. 
Vasquez, with hands folded, stood Avaiting. 
After some consideralum the ranch owner 
said if Anita \\'ould return home her lover 
might go free. The girl consented and Vas- 
quez shrugged his shoulders as father and 
daughter rode away. 

Transferring his field of operations to So- 
noma County, Vasquez prospered for awhile, 
but one day in attempting to dri\e off a band 
of stolen cattle, he was arrested and for the 
offense spent four years in San Quentin prison. 
Immediately upon his discharge in June, 1870, 
he laid plans for robbery on a much larger 
scale than he had before attempted. Selecting 
as his base the Cantua Canyon, a wild and al- 
most inaccessible retreat in the Mt. Diablo 
Range, formerly the camp and shelter of Joa- 
quin Murietta, he gathered about him a band 
of choice spirits and for four years carried on 
a warfare against organized society, the like 
of which California had never before experi- 
enced. Stages, stores, teams and individuals 
were held up in the counties of Central and 
Southern California, and though posse after 
posse took the field against him he succeeded 
in eluding capture. In the hills he was safe. 
Vliite settlers were scarce and the Mexican 
population aided and befriended him, princi- 
])ally through fear. Besides, his sweethearts, 
as he called them, were scattered throughout 
the hills of the Coast Range, from San Jose 
to Los Angeles. They kept him posted re- 
garding the movement of the officers and more 
than once he escaped capture through their 
vigilance and actiA'it}'. 

In the fall r)f 1871, after a daring stage rob- 
bery in San Benito Count}', Vasquez got 
word that one of his sweethearts would be at 
a dance in llollister that night. He resolved 
to be in attendance. The dancing \\'as at its 
height A\'hen he appeared. Becoming flushed 
with wine his caution deserted him and he re- 
mained until near the break of day. He was 
not molested and emboldened b\' a sense of 
securit}' he went into the barroom and en- 
gaged in a game of cards Avith one of the 
women. Llere he A\'as seen and recognized 
bv a law and order Mexican. The constable 
was notified, a posse was organized and a plan 
laid to pot Vas(|uez at the moment i")f his ap- 
pearance at either of the diiors. A woman 
ga\"e X'asquez warning nf his danger, and dis- 
guised with her mantilla and skirt, the bandit 
\\'ent (lut of the dance hall, crossed m front of 
the approaching posse, found his horse, 
mounted it and Avas beyond the danger limit 
before the deception was discovered. 

.V few days later he stopped the stage from 
the New Idria mines. A woman's head 
showed at the door as A^as(|uez covered the 
drix'er with a ride. She was the wife of one 
of the mine bosses, a man who had once be- 
friended the outlaw. "Don't do it, Tiburcio," 
she entreated. V^asquez looked at the grim 
faces of his foIloAvers, hesitated a moment, 
then liiwered his rifle. "Drive on," was his 
curt command. The stage lumbered away and 



(he hainlit loader faeed a situation that de- 
nianiled all his skill and nei"\ e. '[diat he sne- 
eeetled in plaeatini;" his follnwers nui}- he taken 
tor granted tor that same da}- the hand roM)ed 
a store and then rode toward a hiding ]daee 
in the Santa Cruz Range. 

AAdiile the rolthers rested, the sherilTs of 
three eounties \\-ere searehing for them. A 
few miles al)0\"e v'^anta Cruz the oHieers and 
the outlaws met. In the fight that ensued 
two of \ asquez's men were killed outright 
and \"as(|ucz was shot in the hreast. ddroui;h 
desperateK' wounded, he stood his ground, put 
tlie ofrieers tei rout and then rode sixt^• miles 
liefore he halted for friendh' ministration. 
When aide to stand on his feet he rode to the 
Cantua Canvon, where he found the remnant 
of his hand. 

There he planned a sensational fall eam- 
]iaign wdiieh opene<l by a raid on Firelmugh's 
Ferrv on the San Joaquin plains. The story 
of what oeeurred ^Yas afterward told to the 
Inisttirian by Vasquez, wdio said: "1 took a 
wateh from a man they ealled the captain. His 
wife saw the act, and running up to me thre\\- 
her arms around m\ neck and liegged me to 
return the wateh to her husliand, as he had 
gixen it to her during their eourtship. I ga^'e 
it back and then she went into another room 
and from behind a chimney took out another 
watch. 'Take it,' she said, but I wouldn't. 1 
just kissed her and told her to kec]) the Ax'atch 
as a memento of our meeting." 

Then came the robbery of the Twenty-One 
Mile House, in Santa Clara County, wdiich 
\vas followed by a descent on Tres Pinos (now 
Paieines), a little village twelve miles south 
of Hollister, in San Benito Count}-. This raid, 
liecause it resulted in a triple murder, aroused 
the entire state. Rewards for the capture of 
\'asquez, dead or alive, brought hundreds of 
man hunters into the field, but for nearly a 
\'ear the cunning outlaw successfully defied 
his pursuers. 

The I'res Pinos affair was the boldest Vas- 
cpiez had yet attempted. With four men — 
Abdon Leiva, Clodovio Cha^'ez, Romulo 
Gonzalez and Teodoro Moreno — he rode into 
the village, robbed the store, the hotel, private 
houses and individuals, securing booty which 
required eight pack horses, stolen from the 
hfitel stable, to carry away. The raid lasted 
three hours and the men killed ^^•ere Bernard 
Bihury, a sheepherder : George Redford, a 
teamster, and Leander Davidson, the propriet- 
or of the hotel. Bihury came to the store 
while the robbery was going on and was or- 
dered to lie down. Not understanding either 
English or Spanish, he started to run and was 
shot and killed. While the robbers were at 
work Redford drove up to the hotel with a 

load of ])ickets. lie was atten(ling to his 
horses when \'as(piez ap]>roac]ied and ordered 
liim to lie down. Redford was afflicted wdth 
lU-afnt'ss and not understanding the order, but 
l)elie\iiig tli.-it his lifi' was threatened, start- 
ed ou a run lor the stables. Ide had just 
reached th.e door when a jjullet from Vasipiez' 
rille jiassed tln-ough his heart, killing him in- 

All this time tlie front door of the hotel 
was open and l)a\idson Avas in the doorway. 
Lei\a sa\\' him and shouted. "Shut the door 
and kee]i inside and \ou AN^on't be hurt." Da- 
\ idsoii stepjied fiaek and A\as in the act oi 
closing the door wdien X'asipicz fired a rifle 
shot, the bullet passing through the door and 
|iiercing I)a\idson's heart. He fell l)ack into 
the arms of his \\-ife and died in a short time. 

,V short distance from Tres Pinos the bandits 
dixided the bootv, each man being counseled 
l)_\- \'asqucz to look out for himself. Teiva 
had left his \v\ie at a friend's ranch, near 
Elizabeth I^ake, Los Angeles County. Thither 
he rode to fmd that \"asquez had ])receded 
him. As the da}-s passed Lei\a began to sus- 
pect that his chief had more than a ]-)latonic 
interest in the attractive Rosaria. He called 
Vasquez to account suggesting a duel. But 
\''asc|uez refused to draw a weapon against 
the man he had A\-ronged. After some hot 
w(-)rds matters were allowed to drop and for 
a few (lavs all went smoothly. Then Vasquez 
asked Leiva to go to Elizabeth Lake for pro- 
visions. Lei\a consented, but instead of car- 
rving out instructions he hunted up Sheriff 
Adams, of Santa Clara County, and surrend- 
ered, at the same time offering to appear as 
state's AA-itness in the event of \*asquez' cap- 
ture and trial. Adams started at once for 
the bandit's retreat, but Vasquez was not 
there. He had Ineen gone man}- hours and ^Irs. 
Leiva had gone with him. 

A month later Vascpiez deserted the woman 
and fled northward. This step w-as induced 
b^- the number and acti\-it}- of the officers. The 
ijegislature had met and' authorized the ex- 
penditure of $15,000 for a campaign against 
the daring and desperate fugiti\-e. One sheriff 
(Harrv ?*Iorse, of Alameda County) organ- 
ized a picked company of fifteen men and 
wuth provisions for a two months' outing 
started to explore thoroughl}- the mountain 
fastnesses of Southern and Central California. 
But so efficient w-as Wasquez' system of in- 
formation that every move made by the of- 
ficers became know-n to him. At last Morse 
gave up the hunt. 'Then the irrepressible 
Tiburcio made up for lost time. Robbery after 
robbery followed in quick succession. After 
holding up a number of stages, Vasquez en- 
tered the tow-n of Kingston, Fresno County, 



and there made a rich hauL Stores were phm- 
dered, safes broken into, houses looted and 
])rovisions, clothing, nionev and jewelry taken 
away. The news of the raid spurred the of- 
ficers into renewed action. Soon there was a 
rush of determined men into Fresno Count^'. 
But Y'asquez could not be found. He had re- 
treated southward. Of his band of followers 
onh- Chavez was left. Conzalez had Med to 
Mexico, Leiva was in jail and Moreno was 
in San Ouentin, having been tried and given 
a life sentence. 

,-\ month after the Kingston raid, Vasquez 
and Chevez made a descent upon Co3rote 
Holes, a station on the Los Angeles and ( )wens 
Lake stage rciad. The few residents were tied 
to trees, the station was robbed and the two 
bandits were about to depart when the stage 
a|)peared. After the ])assengers had been 
robbed and a goodly treasure taken from 
Wells-Fargo cS; Co.'s strong box. the horses 
^vere unharnessed, four more taken from the 
stables, and with bullion, money, jewelry and 
horses the lawless pair departed for the hills. 
On the following day Vascpiez and Chavez 
stopped the Los Angeles stage near Soledad 
and then dissolved partnership, Chavez to ride 
for the Mexican border, his California career 
forever closed, Vasquez to seek a fa\x>rite hid- 
ing place in the Sierra Madre hills. Here, se- 
cure from molestation, he remained two 
mcjnths, when word was brought to him that 
one ijf his sweethearts was staying at the 
house of Greek George, not many miles from 
Lris Angeles. The place was in the zone of 
danger, but Vasquez resoK-ed to go there. 
His intention in some way l^ecame known and 
word was sent to Sheriff Rf)wland at Los 
Angeles. A posse was quickl)- organized, and 
placed under charge of Under Sheriff John- 
son and the rendez\'ous was soon reachetl. 
\'asquez was there and in attempting to es- 
cape received eight bullets in his body. It was 
thought at first that he could not sur\'i\-e, 
l)ut a strong constitution enabled him to ])ull 

On May 25. 1874, ele\en days after his cap- 
ture Vasquez was transferred to the countv 
jail at Salinas, Monterey County. There he 
was closely guarded until Jul}' 26. when a 
court order was made transferring the trial 
to San Benito County. A seconrl (jrder sent 
Vasquez to tiie county jail at San Jose for 
safe keeping. On the afternoon of the same 
day Vasquez reached San Jose, to find himself 
in the custody of his olcl adversary, vSherifif 
Adams. Afterward the case ^\•as re-trans- 
ferred to Santa Clara County and in San Jose 
the trial took place, as has l)een stated. Lei\a 
was the state's witness. The op])ortunity to 
square accounts with the man wdio had 

wronged him had come at last. He swore 
that X'asquez not only fired the shot which 
killed Davidson, but also was responsible for 
the other murders committed during the Tres 
Pinos raid. His was the only positive testi- 
mony, but other and thoroughly reliable wit- 
nesses gave sufficient circumstantial corrober- 
ation to enable the jury to reach a verdict. 
The fatal day came and California's star bandit 
walked calmly to the scaiTold and died with 
a smile upon his lips. After the execution 
Leiva went to Chile, remained there a few 
vears, then returned to California. He died 
m Sacramento several years ago. Chavez was 
killed in Arizona in the fall of 1875 by an 
old enemy. The head was severed from the 
body and brought to San Juan. 

On February 11, 1876, a franchise was grant- 
ed to C. T. BiVd, Charles B. Hensley and oth- 
ers for a street railroad from Julian and Mar- 
ket Streets to Willow Street. Afterwards the 
road was extended along First street to the 
Southern Pacific Railroad depot and along 
Willow street to Lincoln avenue. 

In 1877 one of the most remarkable cases 
of mistaken identity had its origin in San Jose. 
Although there came a revelation on a most 
essential point when no revelation was expect- 
ed, one mystery remained and that mystery 
has never "been solved. John C. Arnold was 
a playwright for one of the variety theatres 
of San Francisco. He was well connected and 
a man of education but he had one beset- 
ting fault and that fault was overindulgence 
in strong drink. In the summer of 1877 his 
condition became such that grave fears for 
his reason were entertained by members of his 
family. A suggestion was made that a few 
months in the country would probably 
straighten him out, and as Fred Sprung, a 
pioneer minstrel and an old friend, ^^'as re- 
siding near San Jose, it was resolved to pack 
him olT to the Santa Clara Valley. 

Arnold reached San Jose in a shaky con- 
dition, but a few days of ozone breathing 
seemed to make a ne\\- man of him. ( )ne 
morning he left the Sprung residence on Mc- 
Laughlin .\venue and came to town. Here 
he met a Mexican and the twain hired a rig 
from the City Stables, now used as the Santa 
Clara Street I^^xtension of Hart's Emjiorium. 
and drove in the direction of Los Gatos. The 
next morning in Neff's alnnmd orchard, near 
the Gem City, a ghastly discovery was made. 
Lying under a tree, with a bullet hole in his 
tem])le, was the l)ody of a dead man. The 
body was I^rought to San Jose and for twenty- 
four hours remained unidentified. Then a 
newspaper description brought to the city 
Frefl Sprung, Mrs. Ned Buckley and Lockhart, 
an undertaker from San Francisco. Each posi- 

11IS'I^)RV ol'^ SANTA Cl,AkA CoL'N'lA' 


ti\ely identified the luidy as tliat of idhn 
C. Arnold, 'rile features were not disfis^nred 
and Spruns;- deelared that without other e\ i- 
denee he was ready to swear that the Ixxly 
was that i)f his old friend. While visiting at 
the Sprung raneh Arnold wore shoes of eer- 
tain marked peeuliarities. These shoes were 
on the feet of the ilead man. Arnold wore 
a hlaek hroatlcloth suit, mueh the worse for 
wear, one lapel ha\ing distinguishing marks. 
This suit covered the hotl)- of the eorpse. 
Arnold carried a gold-headed cane. This cane 
was found a short distance from the tree, un- 
der wdiich the body was found. Upon one of 
the fingers oi the dead man was a ring. When 
Mrs. Buckley saw it she declared that it was 
one she had presented to Arnold and that an 
inscription which she ga\ e would he found on 
the inner side. The ring was remo\ed and 
the inscription was there as described. At 
the inquest two physicians swore that it was 
a case of murder and the jury returned a \er- 
dict setting forth that John C. Arnidd had 
met his death at the hands of some person 
unknown to them. 

The body was taken to San Francisco and 
interred in the Arnold lot in I^one Hill Ceme- 
tery. Three months later John C. Arnold in 
the flesh and the picture of health reappeared 
in San Francisco. He had come by steamer 
from Santa Barbara and was amazed when 
he learned that he had been kjoked upon as 
dead. Although put through a gruelling ex^ 
amination of Capt. I. W. Lees, then San Fran- 
cisco's chief of detecti\'es. he could gi\e no 
explanation of the mystery that surrounded 
the crime of the almond orchard. All he could 
say that he had gone toward Los Gatos, had 
had a number of drinks near that town and 
that he remembered nothing more until he 
awoke in a stage coach going toward Santa 
Barbara. Fie knew' that he had changed clothes 
with someone and was sure he had been robbed 
but as to the identity of the man wdio looked 
like him and wdio wore his clothes, he had 
not the faintest notion. The Mexican wdio had 
accompanied Arnold to Los Gatos was never 
fotmd and the name of the man buried in the 
Arnold plot has never been discovered. On 
account of his striking resemblance to the 
playwright Captain Lees thought he ought to 
1)6 a relative but investigation on this line 
came to nothing. Arnold lived for several 
years after his reappearance in San Francisco. 

In 1879 the Legislature passed an act au- 
thorizing the city to open Market Street 
through the Plaza, close San Jose and Guada- 
lupe Streets and sell the vacant lands adjoin- 
ing Market Street. There was so much op- 
position to this that the street commissioner 
saw fit to do his work in the dark. The peo- 

ple awoke one tnorning to lind the trees and 
shrulibery in the line of the street cut down 
and destroyed. The scpiare remained in a di- 
lapidated con<lition for several years. In 1887 
it was selected as the site for the city hall. 

In 1870 former Sheriff John H. Adams antl 
former Count)' Clerk Cornelius Finley were 
murdered by bandits in Arizona. They were 
on their way to Tucson from their mine when 
the\' were shot and killed from ambush by 
Mexican bandits. Both of the murdered men 
held office at the court house in San Jose when 
Vas(|uez \vas tried. Adams was one of the 
l)ra\'est officers in the state and Finley was 
extremely ])opnlar on account of his courtesy 
and generosit}'. 

In January, 1879, J. C. Keane was appoint- 
ed city clerk to fill -the vacancjr caused by the 
disapi^earance of A\\ N. Castle, a defaulter. 
Castle fled to Oregcm and there ended his 
life with a pistol bullet. 

In Februarv, 1878, the citv library was 
turned o\-er to the city. 

A systematic system for the improvement 
of St. James Scpiare was adopted in 1869. The 
grcmnds \\'ere laid out with walks, grass, was 
planted and a superintendent was employed. 
The system was imp^o^■ed in the winter of 
1887-88 and after a few years it was brought 
to its present beautiful ccmdition. 

In May, 1879, the new constitution was 
adopted and in the fall of that year a Work- 
ingmen's party was organized. It was in ex- 
istence for two years. 

San Jose had a sensation in 1881 when 
Dick Fellows, the champicm lone-hand high- 
wayman of California, came to San Jose to 
put the officers on their mettle and furnish 
columns of scare-head matter for the daily 
newspapers. Fellows, wdiose real name was 
Geo. B. Lytle, was a school teacher and lec- 
turer before he became a lawdDreaker. It was 
claimed in his behalf that he fell from grace 
in order that he might assist a near relative, 
a poverty-stricken widow. About forty years 
ago he robbed eleven stages within a space of 
three weeks, his operations extending from 
Santa Barbara to San Jose. When he en- 
tered Santa Clara County, the sheriffs of half 
a dozen cotinties and Wells-Fargo & Co.'s 
large force of detectives were at his heels. He 
was captured near Mayfield by Cornelius Van 
Buren, foreman of the Coutts ranch, a former 
constable and justice of the peace, and turned 
over to Constable E. E. Burke, of Santa Clara, 
so that he could be taken to the county jail 
at San Jose. On the way to the jail from 
the Market Street depot Fellows asked if he 
might be permitted to have a drink l^efore 
becoming the inmate of a cell. Burke made 
a mistake in consenting to the request. They 


passed the court house and entered a saloon and he was lound j^"uilt\" and sentenced to he 
at the southwest corner of First and St. John hano'ed. At tlie execution a novel feature was 
Streets. introduced in making a hair from the head 
Fellows -Mt his drink and then made a break "t the murdered Avoman act as the last in- 
fer liberty, (dut oi the door he went and strument in the hanging-. In former hangings 
dashed up St. [ Street toward ^larket. Aft- ■' I'iccc (if chalk line attached to the rope was 
er he turned tlie corner he was lost sight of. always used, Init Slieriff I'.ranham had tested 
The escajie occurred after dark and therefore ^lie hair, found that it Avould work and this 
the search Avas conrlucted under unfavoralde hair stood lietween Wasielewski and death un- 
cr.nditions. A few days passed and. then Feb ^'1 't was se\ered by the knife of the e.xe- 
loA\-s was recaptured in a cabin near the Guada- cutioner. 

lupe mine by Chief-of-Police Dan Flaskell and In 1SS2 the Democratic State Convention 
juan E. Edson, a local detecti^-e iifficer. 7de Awas held in the California Theater on Second 
was taken to Santa liarbara for trial on ime Street. The leading candidates for Governor 
of man}' charges. CouAiction frilloAA'cd and a A\-ere Gen. George Stoneman. a noted cavalry 
life sentence Awas im])osed. After the trial he commanfler during the Civil War. and George 
triecl to escape, reached the street, TU(Tunted Hearst, father of William Randolph Hearst, 
a horse and might ha^-e dieen successful in prriprietor of man}' ncAvspapers in California 
getting a\A-a}- if the horse had not bucked and and the East. Stoneman Avas nominated and 
thrown him from the sarldle. After ser\dng elected. At this cinvention "\A'. A. January, 
as a couA-ict frir tAA'entA' A'eai's he A\'as released of vSan Jose, A\'as noiuinated for state treasurer, 
on parole. In ]'■>]/ luan F.dson A\'as first tor- bTe also Avas elected. Another nomination A\-as 
tured and then killed at his ranch near Tepic, that of James H. Rudd for congressman from 
^Mexico, by a liand of marauding Ridians. Hon- the San Joaf|uin district. He Avas elected, 
est, brave and fearless Dan Haskell became serA-ed one term at AA'ashington and AA-as after- 
shot gun messenger for A'\'ells-Fargo &- Co. in A\'ard elected governor of the state. In the 
Shasta County after his ternr of chief of police nominating convention he Avas opposed by 
had expired. In October, 1905, Ayhile in the Hon. R. D. Murphy, of San Jose. The con- 
pierformance of his dut}- he Avas shot and killed test Avas very close. 

lyA- a highwayman, A\dir) awis attempting to hold One of the most sensational murders e\-er 
up the Redding stage, committed in California occurred in June, 
In 1882, Jan WasieleAvski, a Pole, murdered 1883. It brought into vicious prominence one 
his AA'ife at Los Gatos. He had been but a Lloyd L. Majors, the most dangerous crimi- 
short time out cif prison A\diere he had serx-ed nal ever harbored Iia' Santa Clara County, He 
a sentence for cattle stealing. In 1877 he mar- had no love for neA\-spapermen, though he t(d- 
ried a pretty Mexican girl. After his con\-ic- erated them Avhen he thought he could use 
tirin on the cattle stealing charge he told his them. AAdien he could not use them and 
Avife that he Avould kill her if she obtained a found their pencils turned against him, he 
diAorce. The threat Avas unheeded and Avhen hated them A\dth the hate of a coarse, lying, 
AA'asielewski came iiut of prison he found that re\-engeful brute. During his life of forty- 
she not onl}- secured a (liA'ijrce but had mar- tAvo }'ears, much of it spent in San Jose, he 
ried again. Then he planned to kill her. In had been Avagon-maker, lumber dealer, laAVA'er, 
June, 1882, he Avent to her home in Los Gatos, temperance lecturer and saloon keeper. He 
met his Avife out rjf doors and stabbed her was not a handsome man : in truth he Ayas 
thirteen times. Leaving her (hdng on the jiositiA'elv ugh^ He had a hideous disfigure- 
ground the murderer fled, to be captured in mcnt f)f the loAver lip, his forehead Avas Ioaa', 
Alarch, 1884, La' Juan Edson and Sheriff R>en his e}'es cold and snaky, and his face Avore an 
E. R.ranham, of Santa Clara Count}'. Rjefore haljitual scoavI. In the late '70s, Avhile he lived 
he reached the county jail in San Jose the in San Jose, scA'eral buildings oAvned and oc- 
prisriner feigned insanity. He Avould not speak cupied I)a' him at different tiines, AA'ere Iiurned. 
and Ayi')uld not eat only enough to keep him 'bhe public prejudice against him, caused by 
alive. After his trial he sent out a bulletin these burnings, caused him to lea\'e the city 
giA'ing notice that a great meeting of the and settle in Los Gatos. At this place he 
angels A\'ould come off in a few daA's, that oj-iened a saloon and to it caiue one Joseph 
it Avould last tAvo A\'eeks and that in all that Jewell, a good looking jiainter anrl grainer and 
time he wcmld he "immortal to the Avorld." recent arri\'al from the East. Majors quickly 
The meeting carue off, according to his state- sized him up and A\'hen he suggested to Jewell 
ment, and for two Aveeks not a morsel of food a plan to rob and if necessary kill \'V, P. Re- 
passed Ins lips. He Avas tried in Ma}', 1884, noAvden, an aged rancher living in the Santa 
and his defense Avas insanity. ,\ commission Cruz hills, A\'ho Avas reported to have $20,000 
of medical ex]jerts refused t(V> uphold this plea hidden on his ranch, JeAvell readily agreed to 


undertake the icb. As assistant in |e\\ell 
Majovs snj^-s^-ested Julm v^howers, an illiterate- 
ne'cr-dii-well, wdm had been deiins;- udd jobs 
ahiint tnwn and wdinse hn'orile lonnn'inL;" place 
was i\la)iirs' salnon. l'rn\ided \vith imple- 
ments cif torlnre to be used il Reno^-den ini- 
der murdernus jiressure should refuse In dis- 
close the hiding;- jilace of his money, the ]iair 
left Los Gatos one night and proceeded to the 
raiich. Arri\ed there thev found that Renow- 
den had a \isitor, a friend from (^lenwood 
named Archie Alclntyre. Reno^^'den Avas shot 
In- Jewell and Showers killed Mclnt\re. 
Though mtirtall)- \\-c)unded Renowden refused 
to tell \\here his mone}- could be found and 
was then subjected to a nameless torture. 
E\"en A\hen suttering the keenest agon\' the 
old man stubltornly held his tongue. -\ sec- 
ond bullet ended his life and the murderers re- 
turned to Los Gatos and infc)rmed Majors 
that their mission of roldjery had failed. The\- 
\\ere suiiplied A\'ith monc}' and h(.")rses and 
quickl}- rode out of town to escape arrest, 
^lajors, fearing that he might be suspected of 
compHcit}- in the mrn-ders, saddled a horse 
and rode to the Renowden ranch to cover up, 
if pcissil)le, all traces of the crime. At the time 
he supposed that both dead bodies Avere with- 
in the house, wdiile, as a matter of fact, Ive- 
nowden had lieen killed on the outside and at 
some distance frcmi the luiilding. Hurriedh-, 
Majors applied the match and wdien he sa\v 
the flames leap up he remounted his horse and 
rode like the wind to his Los Gatos home. The 
ranch house burned to the ground and the 
next day the charred remains of ^Iclnt_vre 
AA'ere found in the ashes and outside, un- 
touched by the fire, was the bod}- of Re- 

When ^lajors learned that his night ride 
had availed him nothing he tried, by lies and 
e\-asions to keep the officers from suspecting 
that he was the principal in the doid^le crime. 
He talked freely to the historian and other 
press representatiA-es, nt)t thinking that much 
of what he said w-ould be used against him at 
his trial. Sho\\'ers was arrested at Gilroy and 
made a full confession. Then the hand of the 
law reached out and gathered in Majors. A 
few- da}-s later Je\\-ell A\'as arrested in I'resno 

The three prisoners were lodged in the 
county jail at San Jose. In due time Jewell 
was tried, convicted and hanged. Showers, 
who -was used as a state's w-itness, pleaded 
guilty to murder in the second degree, was 
given a life sentence. A few- years later he 
was killed by a fellow- convict. Majors was 
tried in San Jose for the murder of Renowden, 
convicted of murder in the second degree and 
sentenced to life imprisonment. District At- 

torney C'ampbell was not satisfied wilh the 
\erdict and st i h;id Majijrs indicted for the 
murder of Mclnt\re. A change of venue to 
Alameda l'ount\- wris taken and after a 
lengthy tri:d Alajors was convicted cjf murder 
in the lirst degrt'c and sentenced to lie hanged. 
The sentence \\;is executed in May. 1X84. 

In 1X86 a most in-iportant prtjpcjsition \\-as 
])resented to the \ oters of vSan Jc'ise. The rapid 
growth o! the eit\- created a demand f(jr extra- 
orihnary ex]}enses, which could not Ije i-tiet 
without a l:ii-ge increase in the rate of taxa- 
tion. The channels of the streams needed t(-) 
be impro\-ed S(] as to prevent ON'erfirnv. A sa's- 
tem ol ni)-to-date sew-erage Avas necessary arid 
there \\as a rapi<lh- grow-mg demand for in- 
creased school facilities. ^V tax sufficient to 
meet the requirements \\-ciuld haxe been a bur- 
den against w-hich the people \\-ould ha\-e pro- 
tested. _\n attempt Avas made in 1874 to 
break the charter rule which fcirbade the 
Council to create any debt. A resolution was 
adopted b}- the council directing the drafting 
of a bill to be |)resented to the Legislature, 
authorizing the city to issue l.)onds to the 
amount of $40,000, the proceeds tcj be used in 
the building of school houses. The bonds 
w-ere to run tw-enty }-ears and to bear eight 
[)er cent interest. Nothing further w-as done 
in the matter and it rested until 1880. At the 
citv election held that }-ear the matter of issu- 
ing bonds, in connection with other proposi- 
tions, was subn-iitted to the peojde The re- 
sult of the A-ote \\-as as follows : To incur a 
delit to build a new city hall — for, 842 ; 
against, 1096. To open Second Street through 
St. James Square — for, 192; against. 1649. To 
establish a free public librar\- — fcir, 1232; 
against, 605. 

This disposed of the question of a city debt 
for another six years. In 1886 a proposition 
w-as submitted to the people at a special elec- 
tion, asking for the issuance of l.)onds in the 
sui-n of $300,000 for jiublic sewers, new citv 
ball, iron bridges, improvement of squares and 
improA-ement of streets. It required a two- 
thirds vote to carry any of these propositions 
and they were all lost. Within twelve months 
the people experienced a change of heart. The 
great tide of immigration that w-as flow-ing 
into the southern counties had attracted the 
attention oi the board of trade and strenuous 
efforts to turn the stream in the direction of 
San Jose w-ere being made. Public meetings 
were held and the council was petitioned to 
call an election asking the people to vote for 
or against the issuance of bonds for the fol- 
low-ing purposes: Completing main sewer, 
$150,C)00; branch sewers, $135,000; building 
new city hall, $150,000; cross w-alks and parks, 
$50,000; wooden bridges, $15,000. Total, 



SSOO.OOO. The \-ote was in the affirmative on 
all these propositions. The l)onfls were is- 
sued payable in twenty years and hearing in- 
terest at five per cent. They were sold to A. 
Sutro, of San Francisco, who paid one-eighth 
of one per cent premium. 

Early in 1888 it was discovered that the 
election which authorized the issuance of these 
bonds was not held strictly in accordance with 
the statutes. The irregularity claimed was 
that the notice was one day short of the time 
required h}- law. There was some difference 
of opinion as to whether or not this was a 
fatal error, but the purchaser of the bonds did 
not wish t(i lea\e the matter undecided, and 
asked that it be definitely settled. There was 
a proposition to make u]) an agreed case and 
submit it to the courts for adjudicatiitn, and 
another proposition to call a new election, is- 
sue new bonds and cancel the old ones. The 
latter method was considered somewhat haz- 
ardous, as the peojde had on three occasions 
rejected the proposal to create a debt against 
the city and there was a chance that the nec- 
essary two-thirds \'ote might not again Ije ob- 
tained. Ijut the chance was taken, a new 
electi(jn was called and the proposition to is- 
sue new bonds was carried by a practically 
unanimous vote. The new bonds were issued 
and the t)ld ones burned in the presence of the 
mayor and common council and a large gath- 
ering of citizens. 

In April, 1888, a Ijoard of fifteen freehold- 
ers, to frame a new charter for the city, was 
elected as follows: L. Archer, C. W. Brev- 
fogle, J, H. Campl)ell, A. W. Crandall, G. E. 
Gra\es, A. Greeninger, V. Koch, E. Lion. li. 
D. Murphy, D. B. Moody, H. Mcssig, C. E. 
Metzger, John Reynolds, John A\". Ryland. D. 
G. Vestal. The charter was prei)ared and sub- 
mitted July 6, 1888. It was defeated. 

In 1886 the Democratic state convention 
was held in the Auditorium (m San Fernando 
Street. E. E. Fond of San Francisco was 
nominated for go\-ernor. During the session 
Hon, Stephen M. White made a speech in 
which he asked the convention not to indorse 
him as a candidate for the United States 

In 1886 B. F. Branham, sheriff:' of the county, 
was beaten for reelecticm on accr)unt of the 
action of the Mexican voters, who resented the 
killing of Pedro Pacheco, a gaml)ler. In the 
early part of 1886 he committed his first crime. 
While out walking (m North Sixth Street with 
a pretty Mexican girl a stop was made in 
front of The Villa, a notorious res(.)rt near 
Washington Street. Pacheco asked the girl 
to come inside and have some refreshments. 
The girl refused and then, as he afterward 
testified, he seized her in his arms and car- 

ried her into the house. Some hours later the 
girl escaped and told her story to Police Of- 
ficer Richard Stewart, who had seen her ap- 
proach The Villa. Upon her mother's com- 
])laint Pacheco was arrested for a statutory 
oft'ense. At the trial District Attorney Camp- 
liell made out a strong case and Pacheco was 
convicted and sentenced to ten years' confine- 
ment in the state prison. (Jn the eve of his 
departure from San Jose, to serve liis sentence, 
he asked permission to go to Concord, Contra 
Costa County, his former home, to settle some 
business afTairs and bid goodbye to his rela- 
tives, pioneers of the state and for one of 
whom the town of Pacheco, in the same 
county, was named. 'Fhe district attorney 
ga\e his consent and Pacheco left the county 
jail with Deputy Sheriffs Healy and Biane as 
his guards. They were instructed to keep con- 
tinually bv Pacheco's side and to take him to 
San Ouentin after he had concluded his busi- 
ness in Concord. 

Arri\'ed at the Contra Costa town the trio 
stopped at a hotel for refreshments. As soon 
as he entered the door Pacheco made a dash 
for the rear, \\-here a h(]rse, saddled and bri- 
dled, \vas awaiting him. Healy hurried after 
him but Pacheco was beyond shooting dis- 
tance when the deputy reached the street. In 
the Mt. Diablo Range the fugitive found 
friends Avdio advised him to get U> Mexico as 
soon as possible. The acEice \\'as followed 
and a place of safety might have been reached 
but for Sheriff Branham's activity. Believing 
that Pacheco would ride south, Branham 
started out l)y way of one of the movintain 
passes to intercept him. ,Vt Bakersfield the 
sheriff learned that Pacheco was quartered at 
a Mexican ranch some miles a\va\'. He com- 
mandeered a farmer's wagon, obtained the as- 
sistance of a local officer, and, concealed in 
the bed of the wagon, the twain were driven 
to the ranch. They were near the house when 
they saw Pacheco and a companion in the 
yard, a short distance from their horses. Now 
was the time for action. The officers were 
dri\en for^vard and two rifles covered Pa- 
checo to enforce the command to surrender. 
Instead of ct)m|dying, Pacheco ran to his 
horse, mounted it and was in the act of draw- 
ing his pistol wdien the rifles spat out bullets 
that found lodgment in Pacheco's body. He 
fell oyer, mortally wounded and died in a 
short time. 

The news of the shooting' created a sensa- 
tion in Central California. In San Jose the 
Mexican element denounced Branham as a 
murderer and threats to get even with him 
\vere freely made. The way to reprisal was 
shown when Branham entered the fall cam- 
paign for reelection. Before the Pacheco epi- 



socle ho had been cunsidcvod invincihle. I'ut 
this year he met his Waterhxi. 'I'o arouse pub- 
lic seutiuient against him a fund was raised 
and the county \vas thoroughly canvassed, tlic 
late luan E. Edson' taking the most active ]iart 
ni the campaign of vengeance. As a result 
of the opposition I'ranham was defeated h\- 
Jonathan Sweigert. Shortly after his defeat 
llranham left San Jose to engage in mining 
in the northern part of the state. 

( liie of the notalile trials \vas that of the 
Dixon- .\llen case. It excited nearly as much 
ititerest as that of the famous trial of Ti- 
Imrcio \'asc|uez, the bandit. The plaintiff was 
.\nna E. Di.xon, late Normal School student, 
nineteen years of age, and the defendant was 
Prof. Charles H. Allen, principal of the school. 
Miss Dixon was a buxom demi-blonde, as 
pretty as a picture and chuck full of animal 
spirits. She had strong lungs and she chose 
occasions to make annoying use of them. Her 
love of mischief made her, wdiile a student, the 
despair of her teachers and a source of grief 
to Professor Allen. Nothing against her char- 
acter was ever alleged, but her jiranks, ac- 
cording to Allen's allegations, interfered seri- 
ously with the discipline of the school. Once 
he wrote her mother asking her to withdraw 
her daughter from the school, saying that the 
girl's deportment had not been such as to sat- 
isfy the faculty that she was a suitable per- 
son to enter the work of teaching. As the 
mother declined to act, a meeting of the fac- 
ulty was held and Miss Dixon was dismissed 
from the school. The charges against her 
were made up of small things. It was al- 
leged that she sneezed with a ^^hoop and in 
unexpected places; that she was in the habit 
of screaming without provocation and in such 
a manner as to nearly raise the roof of the 
school building ; that she went out sometimes 
without a chaperon : that she sent in mislead- 
ing boarding house reports; that she was bois- 
terous and paid scant attention to the rules of 
the school and as .a crowning delinquency was 
the propounder of conundrums, one of which 
had shocked Professor Allen and excited the 
risibilities of man)- of the teachers. 

After the dismissal a series of communica- 
tions appeared in the columns of the Mercury 
They ridiculed Professor Allen and declared 
Miss Dixon had l)een dismissed Ijecause she 
sneezed. Allen replied by asserting that the 
girl's conduct in her classes and around the 
building had been such as to show she \\'as 
full of tricks and almost destitute of those 
womanly and honorable characteristics that 
should be the prime requisites of a teacher. 
This article was made the basis of a libel suit. 
Miss Dixon sued Professor Allen for $10,000 
damages for defamation of character. D. M. 

Delmas, now of Los Angeles was her attor- 
ney and Thomas H. Eaine and W. .^. John- 
ston were engaged bv Professor Alien to con- 
duct the defense. The case came to trial in 
No\eml)er, IJ^cSl. and ran for over, a week. 
Eacli (L'U' tile court room was crowded to the 
doors, it was a battle of legal giants. Del- 
mas was in the height <(f his power, while 
Laine and Johnston were looked upon as two 
of the shining lights of the San Jose bar. Del- 
mas, in his closing argument, was at his best, 
and a more powerful and eloquent address 
was never heard in a San Jose court room. He 
said, among other things, that he was not 
trving the case to get damages — he did not 
want them — Ijut he did want a \-erdict that 
would be a \'indication for his client. Laine. 
suave, dignified, eloquent and persuasi\-e, held 
the close attention of court, jury and specta- 
tors in a masterly j^lea for Professor Allen, 
while Johnston, precise, clear and logical and 
with tlie law at the tip of his tongue, gave 
Laine alile support. The judge, in his charge, 
held that the article written by the defendant 
contained terms of disparagement and that 
these terms were actionable in law. If, how- 
ever, the jury should find that Professor Al- 
len acted in good faith and for the protection 
of the school, then these circumstances were 
to be considered as mitigating the damages 
and that no other than compensatory dam- 
ages should 1)e allowed. The jury brought in 
a verdict in favor of Miss Dixon and assessing 
the damages at one thousand dollars. 

At the first meeting of the Board of Normal 
School Trustees, after the trial, Professor Al- 
len tendered his resignation. The board re- 
fused to accept it and reelected him as princi- 
pal for another term. Miss Dixon returned 
to her home and after a time married and set- 
tled down to domestic life. 

In 1881 an electric tower was erected at the 
crossing of Santa Clara and Market Streets. 
The plan originated with J. J. Owen, publisher 
of the Mercury, and the architect was John 
Gash. It stood 208 feet above the street, was 
constructed of tubular iron and supported a 
number of lamps aggregating 24,000 candle- 
power, making it the largest light in the 
United States and the third largest in the 
world. Besides this there were in other por- 
tions of the city twelve masts 150 feet high 
sup])orting in all ninety lamps for lighting 
the streets. The tower was known all over 
the world, and before its destruction in 1917 
it had small lights running from the ground 
along all the supports. Lighted at night it 
presented a beautiful spectacle. A high wind 
toppled it down so that its removal became 
necessarv as a measure of safety. 


( )n ?\Iay 4, 1887. Chinatown, liicated on the of Coslaw, this time for murder. He was tried 
,t,^r(iund at the southeast corner of Market and in the Superior Court at San Jose and, having 
San hArnandn Streets, was destro}"ed ])y tire. no attorney, the court appointed a young man 
Tile Chinese occupied cpiarters on v^an Fer- wdio had just been admitted to the Ijar. Thus 
nan<lo Street, belnw Market, until there was handicapped, Goslaw had slim chance of es- 
secured a lease of the Fleinlen property, be- cajiing con\'ictiou under testimony adduced b)' 
tween Fifth and Se\'enth Streets and |ackson the prosecution, sup]deniented b}' the ])o\\'er- 
;ind Taylor Streets. Shorth" after its estab- ful argtnnents made 1)}' the district attorney 
lishment in this section a rival Chinatown, and his aids. The jury found (joshuv guilt_\- 
under the management of "Big jini," a noto- of murder in the lirst degree and the deatli 
rious Chinese ]")olitician and gambler, was sentence was im|)osed. \\ ithiiut niiine}" and 
started on the banks of the Guadalupe nearly lacking ])owerful friends, Coslaw A^-as unalde 
on a Hue with the Ileinlen town. It Avas kept to take further steps tliat might have sa\-eil 
u]) a few }'ears and then went out of ex- his neck. FTis ne\\'S])a]")er friends did A\diat 
istence. they could, but no headway against the tide 
In 1887 inflamed i.ublic sentiment operated of inflamed public opinion could be made. lUit 
disastrously m the case of Charles C.oslaw, of thev resolved that when the tunc came ior 
Los Gatos' The murders committed m and marchmg him to the scallobl he should not be 
about that prettv foothill tiwvn. now one of in a condition to realize his ix.sition. 1 iiere- 
the most peaceful and law-abidm- ..n the fore some of these friend,-; stayed m the death 
Coast, had aroused the people, and the latest ^'ell all of the night ]. receding the execution, 
had l-)rought them t.. a white heat of indigna- They plied (..k-slaw with lupior which he was 
tion and resentment. This one had b.een com- quite willing to drink so that \vhen the sheiitt 
mitted on the main street of the citv. Two came to take him to the scaliold he was so 
Alexieans quarreled and one of them, iuicarna- far gone m liquor that he could neithet stand 
cion (larcia, killed the other. A mob of citi- "^ his feet nor understand what the sheritt 
zens gathered, the slaver was seized an<l with- wanted. In that maudlin condition he met lis 
out ceremonv han-ed from the brid-e over death and the persons who were resji. -nsihle 
Los Gatos Creek. It was reported at the time t'.r this condition have ncNer regretted their 
that Goslaw threw the loop of the rope over w'-rk. They felt at the time that a judicial 
the murderer's neck. Not long after the trag- murder was about to be committed and that 
edv, Goslaw, Avho was a house-mover, went it was a humane act to ameliorate if they 
to'San lose, leaving in charge of his house- could not deaden the victims mental agony, 
moxing "tools an old man named H. A. (kant. In their opinion Goslaw should have been en- 
He returned in an intoxicated eomlition to victed of manslaughter and it was atterward.s 
fin.l that Grant, without permission to do so, their belief that had the trial been postponed 
harl moved the to,ds t,j another part of town. t'^ six months such a verdict would have been 
(joslaw became furiously angry. He swore rendered. 

that he would find Grant and give him a sound On July 2, 1892, San Jose was visited with 
drubliing. AfteV taking a few more drinks to the most disastrous fire in its history. Half 
brace him u]), he went to Grant's cabin and the l)lock — the southern half — between San 
assaulted the old man. His fists Avere his Fernandij and Santa Clara Streets and First 
only weapons, but as Grant was ])hysically and Second Streets was burned. Among the 
his inferior there is no doubt that finfling his fine Imildings destroyed were the Lick House, 
task an easy one he allowed his rage to carry the South Methodist Church, the California 
him further than he had intended. Leaving Theater and Krumb's l-!re\\'ery. 
Grant bruised and helpless on the floor, Gos- j^ ^1-,^ e^rly '90s a mvstery case Iiattled the 
law went downtown, found the constalde and ingenuity of' the city' and' county oflicers. 
asked to be arrested for battery. There was Henry Planz was a b'ookkee])er at 'the Fred- 
clear proof that he never intended murder and erickslnirg Brewery on the Alameda. As far 
that he had no thought that the beating would as anyone knew he \\-as without enemies. He 
result m death. He was arrested for battery ^^as a tall, strai^'ht felbwv, twentv-five years 
and allowed to g(-:) on his own recognizance. of age, single and lived the ordinarv li'fe of 
A few days later Grant died. Then it was the young 'men of his time. On the" evening 
that outraged Los (^atos cried for vengeance. ,-,f Novemljer 10, ]S^->2, he came to San Jose 
The carnival of crime that had given a black ^nd next morning his dead l)ody was found 
eye to the town must ])e stopped and the only hanging from the limb of a pepper tree on the 
way to stop it was to have the extreme pen- northern side of Julian Street, not far from 
alt\' visited upon c\'er}- person in Los Gatos the bridge over the (aiadalupe. AAdien the of- 
and vicinit}- wdio should take the life of his fleers arri\'ed it was at first supposed that 
fellow man. Grant's death caused the rearrest I'lanz had committed suicide, but in\-estiga- 



titins made alter the luxly bad l)een cut down 
soiin dispelled this theory, it \\as a case of 
murder lun'oiul the shadc)\\- of a douht. An 
cxaminatinn of the contents of the stomach of 
the dead man showed that he had l.ieen pois- 
oned and there were e\'idences about the 
clothing- \\ hich denoted that the liody had 
been drag'ged for some distance before it was 
suspended from the limb of the tree. The 
heels of the shoes, seat of the trousers and 
back of the coat were abraded and dust}' and 
there was ground-in dust on the back of the 
head. W'hen the bod_\' was cut down a scarf 
tied over the face was found. At the inquest 
the conclusion was reached that I'lanz was 
dead before the hanging and that the mur- 
derer or murderers had driven along the street 
in a wagon containing the dead body and that 
the bocly had l^een dragged over the dusty 
street to the pepper tree. A verdict of wilful 
murder against sonre person or persons un- 
known w as rendered. 

The mvstery became a state-wide sensation. 
Detectives came from San Francisco to assist 
the local officers m trying to ferret out the 
truth, but nothing came of then- efforts. A 
number of years afterward the pepper tree 
was cut down, but while it remained on Julian 
Street is was one of the sight-seeing (?) at- 
tractions of San Jose. 

In 1896 a still greater sensation agitated 
San Jose and Central California. It was a 
sextuple murder committed by James C. Dun- 
ham, a young man who had heretofore borne 
an unblemished reputation. A few years be- 
fore he had married the stepdaughter of Colo- 
nel ]\IcGlincv, an orchardist, whose homewas 
on the Los Gatos road about six miles from 
San Jose. After their baby was born they 
separated on account of Dunham's cruelty, 
the Avife taking refuge in the home of her 
mother, Airs. M^cGhncy. The other inmates of 
the household, besides father, mother and 
daughter were James AVells, Airs. Dunham's 
brotlier, a ser\ant and two hired men. One 
mght Dunham came to the house, for the pur- 
pose It Avas supposed, to induce his wife to 
again live with him. \Mien he arrived late in 
the evening, AIcGlincy and Wells were gone, 
having left on hour or so earlier to attend a 
meeting at Campbell. IJunham entered the 
house, took oi^ his shoes and ascended the 
stairs' to the second story, where his wife's 
bedroom was located. What transpired in 
that room between husband and wife will 
never be known, lint the fact remains that 
the woman was choked to death, although the 
babe was not harmed. There must have been 
a struggle for the servant coming out of her 
room adjoining was met Ijy Dunham and 
killed. The double murderer then ascended 

the stairs to Hnd Mrs. McCdincy (ju the first 
lloor. She had heard tile noise upstairs and 
had come (nit to investigate. Dunham killed 
her and then calmly waited for the return of 
McCdincy and AWdls. At last the)- came and 
as the_\' entercil the front door Dunham shot 
and killed McCdincy. Wells then rushed for- 
ward, was shot, 1)ut despite his wound, grap- 
pled \\'ith Dunham and threw him to the 
lloor. biut the murderer \vas :the stronger 
and soon Wells was a corpse. 

x-Vcross the back yard was the l)arn where 
the two hired men ^^-ere. One of them heard 
the shots and rushed out to ascertain the 
cause. A bullet from Dunham's pistol enrled 
his Ife. The other hired man, fearing for his 
own life, retreated to the loft of the barn and 
coA'ered himself up in the hay. Dunham 
rushed over to the liarn for the purpcjse of 
making a clean sweep, but failed to find his 
man. Flis murderous work o\'er, he mounted 
a horse, and still in his stocking feet, rode 
toward San Jose. Next day he was seen on 
v^mith Creek by Elmer Snell and C)scar 
Parker, the last named the keeper for the 
Morrow ranch. Dunham appeared on horse- 
back at Parker's cabin, aljout a mile south of 
the hotel, asked for something to eat and hav- 
ing been accommodated rode on up the can- 
yon t()ward Indian Gulch. Next da)- Sheriff 
Lyndon of Santa Clara Count}', Sheriff Phil- 
lips of Santa Barbara County, a force of dep- 
uties and a large body of citizens, arrived at 
vSmith Creek. Phillips brought two blood- 
hounds and near Indian Gulch, pieces of sack- 
ing which had been used to cover Dunham's 
feet, Avere found. Nearby the horse he had 
ridden \\-as also found. Nothing else was e\-er 
disco\-ered. The ofticers spent da}'s in the 
search Ax-ithout result. As Dunham was with- 
out mone}- and without food, had no shoes 
and had left his horse, the oliicers concluded 
that he had found some wild place in the hills 
and had there committed suicide. For years 
after\\'ards the papers chronicled the arrest of 
suspects, but in e\-ery case the man arrested 
proved not to be the AIcGlinc}' murderer. 

In 1S97 a new charter for the city was 
adopted. Py a concerted resolution of the 
Legislature it became the organic law of the 
citA- on March 2 of that year. Under the old 
charter the ma}-or held ofiice for one year. 
The new charter extended his term to two 
}-ears. The first election for city officers took 
place on the second jMonday in April, 1898. 
The charter provided that all elections subse- 
ijuent to the first should be held bienniall}- on 
the third Monday in Alay. Ma}-or Koch. \\-h(.i 
had been elected' in 1896, held over until 1898. 
In 1897 a Grand Army veteran named Scho- 
field was killed at his ranch on the Llagas, a 


few miles west of Madrone. His wife and tliat destruetion had e\-er \isited the Garden 

Dan Dutcher. a hired man, were arrested for City. 

the crime. Before his trial Dutcher confessed In 1906 there \\'as verv little street or other 
that he had killed vSchofield to protect Mrs. municipal improvement, except to make re- 
Schofield, who was being threatened with a pairs in fire houses and furnish new appliances 
shotgun when the fatal shot was fired. There and do the city's work in repairing the dam- 
was an acquittal in each case. ages done l)v the earthquake. In 1908 a pro- 
On April 18, 1906, a severe earthquake nounced street paving movement was inau- 
shook up Central California. San Jose suf- gurated l\v Mayor Davison. During his in- 
fered considerahlv. A numlier of frame cuml)ency miles upon miles of paving work 
houses in the business section were wrecked, was done and the program he had laid out 
but the real center oi destruction was reached '^"t "ot finished during his term was afterward 
in the business district. The big three-storv carried out by his successors, Monahan and 
Phelan building, corner of First and Post Husted. From 1908 to 1912, l)onds for $,^55,- 
Streets, fell flat'and three persons were buried 000 were used for sewers, bridges, creek alter- 
in the ruins. At the comer of Santa Clara ations and Alum Rock Park improvements. 
Street and Lightston Alley, the large three In December, 1911, the city, by special elec- 
story building" occupied bv stores and the tion, took in as new territory East San Jose, 
Elks' Hall became a shapeless pile of brick Gardner and West San Jose, 
and mortar. Outside of the Inisiness district In 1912 and 1913, under Mayor Monahan's 
several large edifices sutTered. The handsome administration, the horses were taken out of 
and massive brick Catholic Church of St. Pat- the fire department and motor-drawn trucks, 
rick at the corner of North and Santa Clara engines and carts were put in. 
Streets was a picturesque ruin, its solid tower In 1914-15, wliile Husted was mayor, the 
and front wall hdng across the street, its rear Cancjas Creek bypath was diverted so that in 
and side walls thrown down into the audito- the rainy season the waters would not flood 
rium. The fine high school on Normal Square Cottage Grove and adjoining sections, 
crumbled and the large wooden Grant school (jn October 30. 1917, the Coyt)te bridge col- 
on Empire Street was twisted out of shape to lapsed Iseneath the weight of three heavy cars 
fall a mass of ruins a few days after the quake. lt)aded with prunes. A Ixiv riding on" a bi- 
Further down town the tower and spire of the cvcle was on the bridge at 'the tinie and was 
First Presbyterian Church on Second Street, instantlv killed. In the spring of 1918, a spe- 
near St. John, lay across the thoroughfare, its cial election gave the citv the pcnver to use 
shattered walls telling the stcjry of ruin. Im- $65,000 remaining in the 'sewer fund for the 
mediately after the earthcpiake fire liroke out erection of a new ctmcrete, steel-reinforced 
on Second Stret near San I'ernando. The bridge. A contract was awarded and the 
three-story brick Martin building had been work was completed in the spring of 1919. 

hurled to the ground and instantlv flames r„ iqi:: tin,. f,-,ii,,„,:,nr^ f^^^u ii ' i 

, ^ c ^11 n^i I ■ r 1-11 ^''' tne toUowing freeholders prepared 

burst from the wreckage. 1 he Eieber build- ^ „ew charter giving San Inse a comm,ssi,,n 

ing next north was on fire m a tew minutes f,,r„, „f ..overnment: Elmer E. Chase, R.'.bert 

and then the conflagra ion enveloped the five- j.. Sver, W. E. Atkinson, E E Petree Rov 

story Dougherty building, spreading thence Newberrv, G. M. Fontaine, lohn D Crum'- 

to the three-story Louise building on the cor- ,,,,3., ^y.'j. Close, Walter L. Chnsman, H. J 

ner o San hernando Street Ijere was but p. ^y,,^,,^,^ y^^^^^^ challen, Chas. M. O'Brien, 

one other fire. It broke out m the E iMonte j,,,^„ y yu,!^.,.^ ^^^.j ^ j, ,^ ^, ■ 

lodging house on Locus Street and .seven y^^^ ^.j^^.^^,^^ ^^.^^^ ^j-j Februarv 15 IQls' 

people were roasted t., death. Material in- ^^^, ^ ^^ -^^ ^,^^,^j,,^^ ^ ^ ^ 

jury was done to he new Hall -' /-'cords ,,tified bv the Legislature, R av 4, 1915 The 

the Dougherty resHlence, a wing of the Ho el ,,,,,,^.,. ^- ^.,^^ j^^,, ^,^- • ' ^ 

Vendome, the I'lrst Methodist Church, the ;„„,,,vtn,Tt ,,-,;.; i-i ,■ 0- 

i--r.i o.. 4- 1 ('- 1 1 I- t ■ .\ impditant pioMsmns were: bdectn'e officers, 

tifth Street and Golden (,ate canneries, the ^li,- .-it^. ',,1,10 ,- , r ■ 1 1 

, 1 -1 r- Oi IT • TM I 1 tile eit\ ciunitoi, police nu px- and se^•en coun- 

Rucker building, St. Marv s Church, and manv ,.;i, ,,,,,". fu ;„;•,(• ^1 r ^^y^'^" 

, i . r 11 ' • ii 1 ' i-inuen, the imtiatne am reteren( um bv 

other structures. iMjllowmg the quake mar- „.i,;,.i, ,1, , 1 , ,, V ,- 

■ , , 11 1 1 1 <- ■ " f r \\nnli the people reser\e to themse ves the 

tial law was declared and kei)t m force tor ,,,,.,., 1 , ■ , ,• '^'^'='- >■ "- 

several davs. The total loss bv earthquake p ,/," "'^".^>\]'' ^'.''.'^'t "refinances at the 

and fire was $,^,000,000. Killed, .Sixteen. polls m.lepemlentlv ot the council; the recall, 

. ,,,.,... I'> "Inch anv eleclne ofiicer mav be removed 

Ihe recovery tr.,m the dreadlul visitation from ofiice b'v the electors : the election by the 

was rapid. Inside of a week repairs were be- council of a city manager, who shall be th 


mg started and so.m the debris (hsap])eare<-l ,,nicial head <,f t'he city 'with ]).,\ver to appoint 
and building o])erations were commenced. a city treasurer, citv engineer, city attorne^', 
o years later there was mithiiig t(j indicate board of health, health officer, chief of polic'e. 



chief of the fire department, board of ethiea- dreii hearint^ flatus, wlio after mareliint^ tliron,[,^h 

tion, hoard of hhrarv trustees, superinten<lent the streets, massed in front of tlie city liall 

of parks: the election liy the council of a city and sant,"- p;itri(itic s(inL,''s. The activities of 

clerk, ci\il serxice C(miniission and city ]dan- San Jose during the war |)eriod — 1''17-1H — will 

ning' commission; the remo\al nf the city he fmind in another chapter, 

manag'er at anv time bv a majority \i>te of In March, l')2(), the city voted bonds in the 

the council. .\t the first election lUmer E. sum of $700,001) for imi)rovements in the high 

Chase, W. Iv. .\tkinson. Chas. M. O'Erien, and grammar scliools. The permanent prop- 

and Elton Shaw x\'ere chosen as cnuncilmen, erties of the city as shown in the first repfirt 

the tw'cT first nametl to ser\e lor six years, the (if the city manager are as follows: Lands, 

two last named for four vears. I'en Sellers, S62S,250 : buildings, structures and impro\'e- 

J. F. IMcLaurin and A. C. jayet were the hold- mehts, $2,307,142.50: equipment, $140,08,5.45: 

(.ner councilmen under the old charter, fn total, $3, 075,475. **5. 

'918 Sellers and Mcl^aurin went out and Afatt In May, 1920, at the regular city election 

Arnerich and E. S. Williams were elected \n a proposition to increase the tax rate by adding 

their places. In 1918 A\'illiams resignerl on ,i5 cents on each $100 valuation for three years, 

account of remoxal from town and Dr. E. (.). as a temporary ex])edient, was carried. The 

Pieper was chosen to fill the \acanc>'. At the withdrawal of li(|uor license mone\- caused b-\- 

May election in 1920, Joseph lirooks, D. M. the prohibition law shortened the city finances 

Denegri antl AN'illiatn J^dgger were elected, so that an additional tax for a short jieriod 

Pieper, Shaw and O'Brien retiring. became necessary in order to place the citv 

AVhen the new council organized in Jul)-, government in proper working order. 
1916, Thomas H. Reed was chosen manager. The mayors of the city from 1850 down are: 
He served for three years and was succeeded 1850, bjsiah l^.elden : 1851-2-3-4, Thomas W. 
bv Dr. AW C. P.ailev. ' The other officers of the Wdiite': 1855, S. ( ). Houghton, 1856, Lawrence 
ci'ty in 1920 were j. Lynch, city clerk: Ro\- .\rcher: 1857, R. C.. Moody: 1858, I'. (J. Minor: 
Walter, city auditor: Louis Lightston, tax 1859, Thomas Fallon: 1860, R. B. Buckner : 
collector: C. B. Goodwin, city engineer: X. 1861-2, loseph W. |ohnson: 1863-4-5-6-7, J. A. 
Bell, acting health officer: John C. Black, chief Ouinb}": 1868-9, Mark Leavenworth: 1870-71- 
of police: H. Hobson, chief of the fire depart- 72. A. Pfister, 1873-4-5-6-7, B. D. Murphy: 
tnent. Dr. Bailey resigned after a three years' 1878-9, I^awrence Archer: 1880-1, B. D. Mur- 
service and was succeeded by C. B. Goodwin. ])hy : 1882-3, Chas. [. Martin: 1884-6, C. T. 
AVilliam Popp was appointed city engineer. Settle: 1886-7, C. AV. Brevfogle : 1888-9, S. 
In 1917 immediately following the declara- \\'. P,oring: 1890-92, S. N.' Rucker : 189i-94, 
tion of war the city manager appointed a II. E. Schilling, 1894-96, Paul P. .Austin : 1896- 
committee to prepare a Loyalty Day celebra- l)8. A'. Koch: 1898-1902, Chas j. Martin; 1902- 
tion wdiich resulted in the most stirring parade 1906, Geo. D. AA'orswick ; 1906-8, H. D. Mat- 
ever seen in San Jose. 'Jdie most striking thews: 1908-12, C. A\'. Davison; 1912-14, 
feature of it was thousands of school chil- Thomas Monahan ; 1914-16, F. R. Husted. 


San Jose and Santa Clara Activities During the Great European War — 
Liberty Loan, Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., Belgian Relief and Other 
Noteworthy Drives — The Men and Women Who Did the Work. 

The part played by San Jose and the other is realistically and finely told by Airs. Edith 

towns in Santa Clara County in the Great Daley m her pamphlet written for the Santa 

liuropean AA'ar was both patriotic and self- Clara County Historical Society. Emm that 

sacrificing. During the hurry and stress of labor of love the historian has coiupiled the 

the grave and arduous respt)nsibilities of the lollc)wing interesting facts : 

occasion, wdien even the average, easy-going ( )n April 6, 1917, President AA'ilson signed 
citizen was called upon to bear unusual bur- the resolution of Congress declaring the "ex- 
dens, no one realized that the activities in istence of a state of war" and asking that all 
which they were engaged constituted the mak- the resources of the United States be "directed 
ing of history. AA'hat the city and county did to prosecute hostilities against the German 



Ciixernment to a successful ci inclusion." On 
.\])nl 12, 1917, San Jose inaugurated the loy- 
alt\- movement in California. C)n that day more 
than 10,000 lo},-al citizens led by City ^lanager 
Thomas II. Reed, marched throngdi the cit_v's 
streets \\diile the Stars and Stripes \\'a\ed 
al)o\e them and the liands played "Dixie" and 
"America" — and the thrilling "Marseillaise." 
That niglit in a great mass meeting in the 
high school auditorium hundreds unanimously 
pledged hearts and hands to the country's 

On May ?>. 1917, the announcement \vas 
made that tlie first ofTering of l^onds under 
the fmance law would l)e $2,000,000,000. Lib- 
erty Loan issue. o])en to ]iopular suI>scription 
at par: subscriptions to lie received until June 
5; l^onds to 1)e dated July 1 and ready for 
deliyer\- then. Santa Clara County's quota 
was about $2,000,000. 

On May 14, 1917, the details of the Liberty 
Loan yere telegra])]ied all oyer the country. 
Officers' training camps oiiened. Men flocked 
to fill them, Pacifists were al)road in the land, 
their \oices raised in protest against the coun- 
try's war policy. The es])ionage measure was 
])assed Ma\- 14. ( )ne liegan to hear the oiuin- 
ous \\'(irds "slacker," "dislo}'alt}'," and "sedi- 
tion." The old easy settled routine of things 
\\-as sadly disturbed at the time of the lie- 
ginning of the first Liberty Lnan drive. 

California \\'as divided intii two districts 
y^ith the Tehachapi the dividing line and Los 
Angeles and San Francisco headquarters. The 
northern district was di^•ided into sixteen sub- 
districts with a conifietent bond seller in 
charge of each. Hefore the real campaign 
started \-oluntarA' hical bond subscriptions be- 
gan to come in. The Knights Templar and 
( )l)ser\•ator^• I'arlor of the Nati\-e Sons were 
the first fraternal i irganizations to buy bunds. 
Senator Frank H. l-lensun and Judge LTrban 
;\. Sonlheimer are nn record as ha\-ing ad\-o- 
cated the earl}' purchase of Liberty Honds by 
the Native Suns. 

Ma\' 2,1, I'M 7, ]>v telegrajihic designation, the 
Secretary of the Treasury and ,\. Kains, C.ov- 
criior (if the Federal Reser\'e Bank of San 
Franciscii, appointed a local committee for 
handling the cam])aign in vSanta Clara Count)-, 
])articularl}' tn recei\e bond subscriptions. The 
following men were named: John Brddke 
vice-president Safe Deposit I!ank, chairman 
W. K. IJeans, president of Lank of San Juse 
W. E. Iilaner, manager local branch nf l!anl 
(if Italy; W. S. Clayton, president First Na- 
tional I'.ank : T. S. Mdntgnmery, jjresident C,ar- 
den Cit\' Bank and Trust Company; Wilbur 
Ldwards, president Security vSavings Bank. 

The opening of the Second Oflicers' Train- 
ing Camp preceded the first bond drive. Very 

few San (oseans e\"er kne\\' that the work of 
interviewing and examining all the applicants 
for shoulder straps and military titles was 
d..)ne l)y a \\'orking \'olunteer committee of 
three. 'W. S. Clayton, A. B. Post and V. J, 
LaMotte did this patriotic service, rejecting 
the men the\' considered unfit and sending the 
others to vSan Francisco for acceptance or re- 
jectidu by the "higher powers." 

The little old oak table in room 401 in the 
I'trst National Bank building could unfold an 
interesting tale if it had a \'oice. lieside it the 
committee of three met the embryo officers 
and here alsn the real ^\•ork of the first Liberty 
I'ond dri\-e had its beginning. On the evening 
of May 24, 1917, a few San Jose men gath- 
ered in this room to talk over the task that 
confronted the nation and the task that await- 
ed them. 

It was a poorly attended meeting. No extra 
chairs had to be brought in. Around the 
\\'orn old table were W. S. Clayton, Dr. W. C. 
Bailey, John Kuster, E. K. Johnston, LI. L. 
l^aggerly, J. D. Farwell and perhaps one or 
t\\'o others ydiose names are forgotten. No 
records were ke])t. Only the little room and 
the oak table can tell the whole story. It 
was an earnest gathering and the ptiwer .gen- 
erated here won a smashing victory in bonds 
\\-ith wdiich to back up the bo\'S. 

This office had nv telephone so on May 
26 these \'olunteers nu^-ed into rooms 701- 
702. This was IL N. Richmond's office and 
he donated its use during the entire period of 
the first and second bond dri\'es. In the new 
headquarters there was another small but sig- 
nificant meeting on the evening of "moving 
day," May 26, 1917. At this memorable time 
a complete working committee was named. 
John D. Kuster, manager of the Pacific Gas 
and l<;iectric Company was made county 
chairman and Dr. \V. C. Bailey secretary. The 
l.iank committee jireviously named by Beans 
and -McAddo was su]iplemented by other ap- 
pointments, makmg the personnel of the or- 
iginal l:)ond workers as fnlldws : Jdhn D. Kus- 
ter, Dr. W. C. Bailey, John F. Brooks, E. N. 
Richmond, J. D. Farwell, Plowell D. Melvin, 
II. L. Baggerly, Elton R. Shaw, Ceo. N. Her- 
bert, .\lfred B'. Pdst, Wm. E. Blauer, E. K. 
Jdhnslon, Walter Mathews(-)n, \'. ]. La Motte, 
\\'. S. Clayton, C. R. Parkinson, Herbert Rob- 
inson, H. C,. Coykendall, Ckas. R. Parkinson 
and. Wilbur J. Edwards. 

AX'iirk began in earnest. Telephones and 
autduiobiles were recpiisitioned. The commit- 
tee forgot to look at the clock. ( )n May 25, 
Senator James 1). Phclan telegraphed from 
Washington "W'e are fighting for our liberty 
with the weapon nearest our hand. The Lib- 
erty ISond is such a weapon." Sunday, May 

HISTORN' i)l' SAN'IW L'l,Ak.\ I'oUNTN' 177 

m San Joso cluirclics, lis- ,,| palrii.tic mass nu'ctin.i^s. That evening at 

tened to eloquent appeals to then- l,.yalty and the hi,-h seh(.,,l inenil.ers' ,.l the eonimittee ad- 

patnotism. In one church the pastor ehanged dresse.l the student Ixidy nuuil)erin,t,>- 1 SOO 

•'Jerusalem" to ■'Amenea" with telling- effect, l,,,nis C'ampit^lia, R,,tanan president 'heartily 

his text roadmo: ••If 1 foro-et thee, () America, sanctidued the "Sh,,e Leather Canipai>'-n '" 

let my rioht hand foroet its cnnmno-." Folh.uini^- the meetin- 100 hiyh schrnd hcys 

The committee on ])ublic nieetint^s consist- under the direction nf John L}'nch, president 

ed of Elton R. Shaw, E. K. Johnston and Iv nf^ the student Ixidy, formed a special commit- 

N. Richmond. On May 29, the first hii;- lunch- tee to can\ass the residential district. 'I'here 

eon was hekl at the St. James hotel. The were committees appointed to inter\ie\v all 

speech of the hour was made by Max Kuhl lawyers and, indirectly, their clients. This 

and the spirit of the gatherino- w'as President committee consisted of F. If. lUoomingdale, 

Wilson's message : '"Fhe supreme test of the David M. Burnett, L. I'etree and I^. I:!, .\rch- 

nation has come. We must all act and ser\e cr. .\11 lines of business \vere segregated and 

together." a committee appointed for each list. ''No busi- 

On Decoration Day hundreds gathered in "^^^ house was forgotten. For instance: El- 
St. James Park to hear Rev. J. W. Kramer's "i^'' J-- Chase was given canneries; Dr. David 
wonderful tribute to his country and his ^ Reattie, doctors^ and nurses; .A. G. Du- 
dramatic appeal for everv loyal citizen's loyal P'mtz, plumbers ; Ferdinand G, Canelo, dry- 
support in the hour of America's need. "Old goods and department stores; Robert F. Ren- 
Glorv," said the speaker, "Alav it wave and '^^n, automobiles and accessories. Barber 
wave and never be furled until it is folded shops fell to the lot of AVm. L. Prussia. Jay 
over the grave ef dethroned Prussianism ! May McCabe, being known for his ^'ersatility, was 
it wave and wave until war shall onlv be a fit handed a list wdiich designated priests, and 
inscription for the gates of hell! And wave Chinese and Japanese settlements. For Jay's 
and wave until alfsuffering humanitv shall assistance leaflets were printed in Japanese, 
feel the warmth of its loving embrace'!" On Chinese and Italian. 

this Decoration Day, C. F. Ivratt, the first The speed was increased and nobody shirk- 
pharmacist to enlist, left San Jose to join the ed. In competition with the high school sol- 
colors, and J. D. Chase, Jr., secretary of the icitors Capt. Charles Parkinson of the Rotar- 
County Council of Defense since its organi- 'ans worked his bunch of live business men to 
zation, enlisted as a private in the National the limit. Among the speakers at the meet- 
Guard, ings held in the various schoolhouses were 

Everv bank in the countv was alive to the !?• ^'- '^"''"^"^ ^^(^ge Urban A. Sontheimer, 
need and subscribing liberal)- c)n the night {j- W' ^'^'^^hmond, Chas, M. O'Brien, Chauncey 
of lune 6, Citv Manager Tbomas H. Reed and f.- Iramatolo, Dr. F. H. Patterson, George 
Cvrus Peirce, of San P ancisco, addressed a f.- , '"'f''^' -Arthur M. Free, A. G. DuP.rutz, 
mass meeting at the V .torv Theater at wdiich ^^ ■ ^- Atkinson, Elton R. Shaw, W. S. Clav- 
[udge W. .A. Beaslv presided. E. N. Rich- *'-"^ ''"'' City Manager Thomas H. Reed, 
mond acted as bond seller and $44,650 was Everylu.dy was working and working hard, 
subscribed on the spot. Onlv about 1000 at- Y?*^.;*'^,^'^: ^'"^ secretary was no sinecure. Dr. 
tended this first mass meeting, but each of the ^^ • C; I-ailey was a whole battery of big guns, 
1000 men and women went away fullv deter- ''"^' Chairman John D. Kuster a regular vital- 
mined that San Jose should do i'ts fufl duty. '^mg current of energy. 

Music for this meeting was furnished b\' About this time the "four minute men" 
W. E. Johnson, assisted by Dr. Charles M". made their entrance, s])eakmg in the theaters. 
Richards and the following cjuartet : Mrs. The men \vho won applause and bond sub- 
Charles Braslan, Mrs. J. " C. Elder, Roy scriptions m four minutes were City Manager 
Thompson and Warren French. A\'hen W. E. Peed, Councilman A\'. E. Atkinson and De- 
Johnson sang "The Battle Hymn of the Re- P"ty District Attorney Fred L. Thomas, 
public," and "The Star Spangled Banner" that A unicjue break in the routine of probate 
night in June he little thought how many proceeding occurred in |udge P. E. Gosbev's 
times his appealing voice \\'ould wake San court room wdien he ga\e permission to trus- 
Jose audiences to heights of patriotism in the tees of ^•arious estates to use funds for the 
days to come — da}-s that \vere to bring him purchase of Eiberty bonds. Thousands of 
heart-breaking news in the casualty lists from dollars, otherwise unaxailalile, were loaned to 
his "Mother England." L'ncle Sam by this order which the |udge 

( )n June 8, 1917, led by Charles R. Parkin- expressed himself as ".glad to make." 

Son, the Rotarians started a "Shoe Leather B_\- Wednesda\', [une 13, 1917, the San 

Campaign" of the residential and business dis- Josean wdio appeared without a Eibert\' Loan 

tricts with an accompanying "boost" program button was not popular, lianks remainerl open 

1 •> l 


in the e\'enin!^ frcini seven to ei,t,'ht f(]i- the cient to sh(iw that this loan knew no territor- 

l")enefit (it snl^scrilu-rs. U]) to this time only ial di\-isions, no financial cliques, no racial 

361 out of 1628 suliscribers had bought bonds factions. ])ut that it was a grand outpouring 

direct!}- from the banks. The banks were sulv nf the gold of the ^^d^ole countr}' by the rich 

scril)ing hea\'ily. a large percentage of the en- and ])oor for united American democracy. 

tire loan being taken Ijy them. Many signi- We are proud of our local participation and we 

ficant subscri])tii ins were made. The scholar- take this tipportunity t() congratulate all those 

ship fund at the high school piurchased a $1000 whn helped in an)- way to make this first in- 

l:)ond. The First ^lethodist Church purchased stallment nf the Liberty Loan so splenrlidly 

bonds after hearing an address by Rev. AY. L. successful. 

Stidger. the ]iastiir, in \\-hich he said; 'A\'e are 'A\\ C. R.-MLh^Y. 

fighting toda_\- for the sanie thing that Jesus "SecretarA- Liberty Loan Comn-iittee." 

Christ died fnr— the cmservation of human Senator Frank'lL Renson is the man who 

hberty and freedom. introduced the original state conned of de- 

I^ittle Chester ( tlson. a twelve-year-.dd fense emergenc\- measure requested by Gov- 

newsboy. read a flaming poster that said: ernor William'!). Stephens, to the senate. 

"Those that stay at home must feed the l)oys 'phig ^^-as done on March 28, 1917, the measure 

at the front." Chester was patriotic— he had passing without a dissenting vote. This pro- 

$10 in the bank. He asked father and mother |,r,st-d "state council of defense, to be com- 

for something. They agreed to bel]) bim. jMised of three members appointed Ijy the 

Rroudly Chester went to the First National o,,vernor. was to be em|->o\vere(l to investi- 

l!ank and negotiated for the inu'chase of a $50 [^.^^^ ;(,-,, | ,-e|)ort on all of California's resources 

bond — SIO do\\-n and $2.50 a month. He .^^y\ niibtary needs. 

made $1.43 in three day.s ISusiness was good ,^,,^,.^, ,„;.,„,,,,,, ,,{ ^j,^ council appointed 

and Uncle Sam needed the mone.v. Later |,^, ^,,^. ^.,, pernor Nvere judge P. F. Gosbev, 

Chester s older brother donned a uniform and chairman: Henr\- M. Aver, chairman b.-ard of 

the Httle newsie was gladder than ever to be ,i,j,erv,sors : Art'hur IL'Langford, sherifT. Ar- 

a bond owner! ^1-jj,,. -\p p,.^,^.^ district attorne\-. Later I3erol 

'idle first Lilx-rly loan went through with | Cdiase was made secretary, ' and C,eoro-e E. 

a whoo].. For San Jose the nundx-r of sub- llamilt.m, of Santa Clara, and 11. L. Haehl, 

scril)ers was 4774: for the county 222>^, mak- ,,f (.^1,, .\lto. were added to the council's 

ing a total of 7002. The amount ol the loan meiuliershi]!. 

subscribed by San Jose was $1,611,300, aver- Derol Chace made an unselfishly jtatriotic 
aging per capita ^i.^7. For the county the secretar\-, gi\ing not onlv his entire time, but 
subscription was $707,050; per capita average, th,. „se 'of his automobife t,, the work of the 
$317. The total bond subscription for the city council. Not evcrA- ,:,ne was ipute clear just 
and county was $2,318,350, with a i)er capita what duties l)elon,L;-'ed to tliis 1:)ody of men,' for 
average of $331, and only six and one half per ,hc reason that their work was of such a na- 
cent of the entire population snl)scril)ing, u,,-e that much of it was a secret shared only 
ln\-aluable aid during this and the second Li- ^jth their Uncle Sam. The objects for which 
berty Loan drive Avas given by Fred Lewis the nation-wide councils were formed were to 
Foster, the able and patriotic assistant secre- safeguard the welfare of the people during 
tary of the Chamber of Commerce. He Avas the ^^'ar, to increase food production and prc^- 
combination patriotic assistant secretary, niote conservation: to co-operate in carrying 
counselor, solicitor and puldicity luan and ,,n business and industrial ])ursuits in a man- 
working quietly but efficiently he did a tre- ner as near normal as possible : to classify all 
mendous service, unofficial military organizations and super- 

(")n June 20, 1917, after the "smoke of l)at- \ise their actiA-ities. In short, this council 

tie" had cleared a\va}-, Dr. A\\ C. Railey. pre- was to co-ordinate patriotic effort. There was 

sident of the Chamber of Commerce and sec- one camp at Sixth and Santa Clara Streets, 

retar\- of the Liberty Loan committee, issued where companies ]', and M and a sanitary 

the fcdlowing letter, addressing it to "The Ci- detachment were awaiting orders. Lieut. L. 

tizens;" "Noav that the first installment of AL b'arrell commanded the real fighting con- 

thc Liberty loan has passed into history," lingents. Alaj. V. H. I'aterson headed the 

wrote Dr. Railey, "as vSecretar\- of the Liberty sanitar)- detachment and called for A'olunteers. 

Loan Committee, and in behalf of the commit- Telegraphic reports grew discpiieting and the 

tee, I ^vish to congratulate }'ou ujion tlie ^von- vSixth Street camp was \-erA- real. It began 

derful success of the issue and to rejoice with to disturb mothers ami sisters, sVveethearts 

you in this great exhiljition of solid financial and wi\es. Tlien, unexiiectedly, that corner 

assistance to the go\'ernment in time of need, lot camp \vas jiroken u]). Companies R and 

We simply could not fail. Returns are sufii- AI left April 2, 1917, under orders. 



noininic Hil^'iovc, L'ni\ crsit\- n\ SaiUa lMar:i 
graduate, enlisted in the axiation corps and 
said giindlnx'. Uneal reg'inients were lurniing". 
Maj. Herbert 1.. I'artridge, retired, was aet- 
mg' eolunel of one reg'inient. Cai>t. Russell 
I'i. Trip]!, N. t";. C, retired, aeted as adjut.ant, 
and Capt. 1\. !!. Leland, lornierh' of the Na- 
tional taiard vi Lowa, serxed as qnarternias- 
ter. l""(.nn' local coni])anies were headed res- 
pectixely liy l.ient. Arg'yll Catnpliell. iaeut. 
Wdlliaui 1,. lioxve, i.ieut. 15_\ron \\'. C.vdy, all 
formerly of the N. (".. C, and Capt. Clyde A. 
llostwiek, formerly of the Missouri National 

Then City ^Manager Reed began the organi- 
zation of the Home tluard \\diich was to take 
the jilace of departed comiianies I', and M. A 
committee of patriotic citizens met at the 
chamlier of commerce — just elexen men — and 
decided to ha\'e a cit_\- Lo}'alty Demonstra- 
tion. Ten Spanish War ^•eterans, led b)y Capt. 
P>. B. Kax-anaugdi, presented themselves at 
this meeting and offered themseh-es as a nuc- 
leus for the Home luiard. 

San Jcise's part in the great AA'orld A\'ar was 
realh" started at this meeting. The following 
Tuesday there was a meeting of the Chamber 
t>f Commerce. Dr. A\'. "\A . Cam])l:iell came 
doxvn friim Alt. Hamilton to tell about the 
stars. There came a time \\hen three blue 
stars shone in the window <j1 his mountain 
hcime — Kenneth, dri\a'ng an amlndance on the 
fighting line in Italy; Douglas, Captain Doug- 
las Campbell, later with the Aviation Corps m 
France : and AA'allace, with the fighting en- 
gineers. The local Knights of Columbus and 
manv other org'anizations adopted patriotic 
resolutions and the Sons of \'eterans offered 
their loval services. 

Xot e\'eryone knew there were two Coun- 
cils of Defense in the city. (_)n Saturday, .Vp- 
ril 7, the North Ninth vStreet Council paraded. 
Led by Capt. Harry \'ance, aged thirteen, 
came a guard of fourteen. The contmgent 
consisted of a hospital corjjs of Red Cross 
nurses. Capt. Claire Declaire, seven }'ears 
old, led them. The fighting squad, besides 
the captain, was officered by three first ser- 
geants, Ernest Declaire, Ralph Cuther and 
ililton Dampier. 

At the time of the first registration. County 
Clerk H, A. Pfister took his place on the 
Council with a plan for handling the big task. 
'Tt's a big job." he said, "but I can do it and 
want to do it for the cause." June 17 was 
named b}' the President as Registration Dayr, 
for all men between the ages of 21 and 31. 
Foreign speaking residents were reached 
through the officers of their societies and a 
speaking committee. Sheriff Langford, assist- 
ed by Dan J. Flannery, covered Chinatown. 

finally a h;ilt came. Postage stamps cost 
money. Down in their pockets went the 
members of the Council to tlie depth of $5 per 
member. I )f,-ol L'hace was electe.l treasurer 
b\- ,-iccl;im;ition. On Ala\- M. 1917. he resign- 
ed trom the Council, shouldered a real gam 
.and m.arched awa\-. 

W. C. Short, of the firm oi Short cK; Ryan 
was .-ippointed to fill the vacancy left by Derol 
ehaces enhstnient. The Council ' almost 
went down for the third tnne m the struggle 
o\er registr.ation and naming exemption 
lio.ards and \Nar gardens and so forth Plans 
change.l. It was decide.l that County Clerk 
I lister should have charge of all registration 
outside of San Jose and City Manager Reed 
and City Clerk Rouis liailey all that within 
the city limits. 

< 'ne patriotic endeavor for which great cre- 
dit IS due the Council was the launching and 
helping to bring to success the 1917 war gar- 
den campaign. The Council's eiTorts were 
successful 111 obtaining l,,wer water rates and 
tree water for many vacant lot gardens m or- 
der to promote food production. Meetings 
Avere held from time to tune wdienever mat- 
ters of grave importance had to be discussed 
new members were added until at the Novem- 
ber 16th meeting the personnel of the Council 
\\'as as follows: xMrs. J. P. Shambau, chairman 
of the Women's Committee; iMrs. W. H. 
Shockley, chairman of women's committee on 
food conservation; :\lrs. John G. jury, chair- 
man largest group of women's" activities; 
treorge E. Hamilton, chairman committee on 
commercial econom_y; Miss Stella Hunting- 
ton, chairman collection of liooks and period- 
icals^; H. Al. Aver, chairman fire protection; 
PI. P. Alartin, food administrator; tP W. Mc- 
Comas, four-minute men; Byron Alillard, city 
fuel administrator; E. A. Wilcox, county' food 
administrator; D. J. Flannery, general speak- 
ers' bureau; J. M. Parker, Liberty loans; 
Judge H. D. I'uttle, non-war construction; E. 
A. Richmond, chairman Red Cross ; Fred' L. 
P'ehren, Stanislaus plan; W. S. Clayton^ 
chairman war donations; Joseph IL Hancock^ 
war gardens; Prof. H. B. Leland, chairman 
war history; Dr. James B. Bullitt, chairman 
war sa\-inos stamps; C. S. Allen, war seryice 
league, and Mrs. L. T. Smith, women's mobil- 
ized army. The name of the Council was now 
changed to the Santa Clara County Division 
of the State Council of Defense. 

On May 5, 1917, the Vc.ung Men's Christian 
Association started work on a national cam- 
paign for $3,000,000 for war work. Of this 
amount, Santa Clara's quota was .^5000. This 
fund was raised at the request of Uncle Sam 
and was to lie used for \\drk among the sol- 
diers and sailors of the Lhiited States. The 



request included a call for 1000 of the Asso- 
ciation's Ijest trained secretaries to work with 
the soldiers. For this drive California was 
dixided into nine sections \\'ith nine execu- 
ti^■e secretaries in full charge of the financial 
features. The Santa Clara County di\ision, 
with San Jose as headcjuarters, included San- 
ta Clara, Monterey, Santa Cruz and San ISenito 

R, H. Gossom, a well known "V." worker, 
had complete charge of the district, and John 
R. ^lott. General Secretary, was at the head 
of the National Campaign. The San Jose 
campaign received the hearty endorsement 
of the focal "Y." directors on iviay 9, 1917, at 
which time R. H. Gt)ssom was ])resent at 
the meeting. Hiram A. Blanchard, president 
of the San Jose Association, was delegated 
to select a district committee to operate the 
"dri\'e," with the able assistance of John U. 
Crumme}', vice-president, and Geo. C. Wilson, 
secretary. At a dinner on May 11, State Sen- 
ator Herbert C. Jones explained the Associa- 
tion's objective. It was stated that the plan 
of mobilizing 1000 secretaries included extra 
equipment, educational and for amuseinents, 
for the benefit of the soldiers at e\ery army 
post. This equipment was to include 200 
pianos, 200 buildings, 200 nKjving-picture ma- 
chines, 200 phonographs, 40,000 pounds of ice 
per day, 1000 [)ens and fiarrels of ink for the 
home letters. There were tt) be added 95 
trucks and tons and tons of reading matter. 
Plans were comjdeted and at a "Y." dinner on 
May 22, Senator Herbert C. Jones presiding, 
two "Generals" were chosen to head friendly 
opposing teams in the campaign for the $5000. 
These generals were District Attorne}' Arthur 
AI. Free and Senator Frank H. Benson, who 
was also general chairman. 

At Grace Baptist Church on Sunday, May 
20, Frank D. Keene, who had left the College 
of the Pacific to join the colors under the 
standard of the Marines, and Hector Sawyer, 
local high school boy, also a "soldier of the 
sea," told an interested congregation of wdiat 
the "Y." means to the enlisted men. These 
San Jose boys were h<jme on their first shore 
leave and gladly enlisted their tune in the 
cause of the "V." 

On the evening of May 12, the generals, 
captains and enthusiastic workers gathered 
for dinner at the V. Jd . C. A. and the follow- 
ing morning, May li, the campaign for 
"$5000. in two days" began with a rush. The 
two teams, headed respectively Ijy District 
Attorney Arthur I\L Free and Senator P'rank 
H. Benson, had ten sub-teams, each with a 
captain and two workers. (Jthers were to be 
added as nee<led. The captains of the Free 
team were: E. N. Richmond, Judge F. B. 

Brown, .\. S. Bacon, Rev. J. A. Sutherland, 
L. D. Bohnett, J. D, Crider, C. E. Kelsey, 
Prof. C. M. Osenbaugh and \A'. G. Rambo. 
Benson's team was captained as follows: E. 
R. A\'agner, D. J, Denhart, H, M. P)arngro\-er, 
L. P. Edwards, Rev. George I. Long, J. D. 
Crummey, W. L. Atkinsim, H. A. Blanchard, 
A. G. Wilkins, and C. F. Crothers. 

The dollars rolled into headquarters in a 
steady steady stream and in two days vSan 
Jose went "over the top." This did not end 
San Jose's gift to the Y. M. C. A. During the 
dark days overseas and the time of dread and 
waiting here eight Y, M. C. A. secretaries left 
San Jose to minister to their soldier brothers. 
They were George C. Wilson, local Y. AI. C. 
A. secretary; Rev. W'^illiam L. Stidger, [)astor 
of the First Methodist Church; Rev. O. P. 
Bell, former pastor of the United Presbyterian 
Church ; Senator Frank H, Benson, John H. 
Tupper, Jesse H. Pledger, Fred Evans. Char- 
les A. Miller, and Rev. E. A. King. The inti- 
mate experiences of these unarmed crusaders 
for human liberty are chapters of history writ- 
ten by the wdiite light of unselfish service. 

Other men came intti the work particularly 
for overseas service, but in the person of 
George C. AVilson. San Jose's W M. C. A. 
sent a real secretary to the front. This was 
his life work, the great endeavor that held 
his heart in its keeping and to him came the 
gravest experience. For more than seven 
months in the St, Mihiel and other salients, 
he was constantly under airplane and shell 
fire. One night on an errand of mercy to the 
lioys at the front, the truck in which he was 
riding through the blackness ui the unlighted 
night abmg a ])erilously shell-pitted road, col- 
lided with another machine. In the terrific 
smash AN'ilson was \-ery seriously injured. 
Wandering awa}- in a delirious condition he 
stum1)led and fell into a shell hole and was 
gassed. Some time passed before he was res- 
cued. ln\-alided to the south (jf France he re- 
fused to lie an in\-alid and soon returned to 
the horror of actual fighting scenes to minis- 
ter to "his l)o3\s." 

Jesse Hedger, ])re\iously in active "A'." ser- 
\-ice at home, just "had to go." When the 
call came, Ivev. O. P. Bell went to France and 
found his work among the Russian soldiers. 
Rew E. A. Iving went to France after the 
signing of the Armistice to carry out an edu- 
cational campaign among the soldiers, Karl 
Ivennedy, a former San Jose lawyer, \\-ent 
from San Francsco as athletic instructor 
about the same time. 

With its members nnnd^ering 100, the first 
Red Cross membership drive in April, PJ17, 
was conducted b}' Mrs. .V. A. I'owler. The 
Red Cross Christmas Roll Call that com- 

111ST()R\' oK SANTA CLAkA CoUN'I'Y 181 

menced December 11, U)17, under the diree- Maude I'. JMiviUdU, eliairman ; r,len I'.yrie 

ti(in (_if the AX'oinan's Arni_\- added more tlian \\'. C. T. U. circle. Mrs. A. C. Saunders, eliair- 

17,3UO names. ]\arl\' in .Vpi'il came the idea man. 

fur funds with which to purchase malenal fnr 'phj,, pioneer vear in war work was hlled 

the makm- of hospital --arments. These ap- ,vith diniculties, 'init it i.erfected an or-aniza^ 

peals alternated with the ones lor ohl hiieii, (i,,„^ .„i,i ...p,.,! ^p,. ,.^.p,,rt came in for the lirst 

old mushn, l>edspreads, anil turkish towels. vear's work, under the g-uidance of M rs. W. B. 

1 hree rooms m the New Century luiddm-- at | |,,Ps,,n. it was a tlocument to he ]iroud of. In 

the corner ol ^ccond and Santa Clara streets, ].)]7 ^p,. t,,!.^! receipts, $20,401.6,S; dishurse- 

were donated by the De Saisset estate for the hkmUs, $<)Zh.M). Total of articles coin- 

surg-ical dressm- department of the l<e<l Cross. pletedbvSan [ose Chapter, 22.2^7. From 

^ On June 12 the o-arment rooms opened at 41 ]\]ay, ]g'l7, to JMav, VrHH, the sewin-- rooms 

South Second street, their use bein-- kin.lly completed SI .'xS paiVs of pajamas ; knitted t,'-ar- 

d^onated by the I'helan estate tinou-h Mr. .V. ments, 190,025. For the same period the pro- 

L. i.Jai h} . (hiction in the surgical dressing rooms 

On June 19 came the hrst call for comfort amounted to 228,264 articles. Refugee work 
l.iags for the boys of Companies Jl and M, comjirised 30,^2 garments. For ](.)cal use the 
then stationed in Xewada. The W. C. T. V. production nxjms completed 266 pneumonia 
assisted in prei-iaring 123 comfort liags. jackets and 2800 masks. F'rom Ala_\-, 1917, to 
Though shipi)ed immediatel}' through some May, 1'-'18, the garments and surgical dress- 
inad\'ertence they failed to reach the boys un- ings numbered 152,487. Frtjm May, 191S, to 
til almost a year later wdien a letter of thanks ?ilay, 1919, the ])roduction totaled 153,338. 
arri\-ed. It came from Captain U. Fa line, and For the entire period the dressings and gar- 
was written before sailing lor h'rance. ments numl.)ered 2f'^7.823. The Junior Ived 

The first work under the direction of .Mrs. Cross produced 2316 garments. 

Hoijson was prepared by .Mrs. l)a\i(.l I-lurnett, The Home Ser\-ice De])artment of the Red 

Mrs. S. Van Dalsem, ]\Irs. W. R. Wilson, Mrs Cross assisted 1452 families from Ma\- 18, 

Fillipello, Mrs. R. S.yer, Mrs. A. D. DuBrutz, 1918, to April 30, 1919. The money expended 

the Alisses Doroth\- AMiite, Ida A\'ehner, S}djil amounted to $6,488.88, and of this disburse- 

Hay'es, IMiriam Hayes, Cecille Brooke and ment, $2,178.33 came back. 

^liss Chapman. The first cutting of garments From May, 1917, to Ma)-, 1918, the sewing 

was done by Mesdames W". Gross, A\'. \'an rooms completed 8133 pairs of pajamas. Of 

Dalsem, P. F. Gosbe}\ S. W. Gilchrist, Arthur knitted garments: socks, s«-eaters, wristlets, 

Dangford, Charles A\'a}dand, A\'alter Murra}-, helmets, mufflers, shawls and stockings — a 

W. G. Alexander, George ^luirson, F'rnest total of 190,025. There were in this ciuota 

Conant, L. Blackford and other willing volun- 12,806 socks and 3662 sweaters. For the same 

teers whose names failed to be recorded. period the production of the surgical dressing 

The first societ}- to volunteer as a societ}- rooms amounted to 228,264 articles, including 

\\'as the P. E. O. organization. These ladies 5-yard rolls, pads, pneumonia jackets, masks, 

offered their services through ^Irs. AA'. C. compresses, drains, tampons, bandages, front 

Bailey and worked through the entire war pe- line parcels, heel rings and sponges. Of ccmi- 

ri(.)d later taking charge of the knitting rooms presses alone there were 183,723 made. Refu- 

at the Theatre building. Late in the fall of gee work comprised 3032 garments. Of mis- 

1917 the production and garment rooms were cellaneous garments there were 26,305 com- 

moved from South Second street to a suite of pleted. This list included aviators jackets, pil- 

fi\'e rooms in the Theatre building. Inw cases, bed socks, helpless case shirts, 

San Jose had many bus)- Red Cro-^s circles, pajama trousers, bo)rs' suit, boys' trousers, 

each doing its best under a capable chairman drawers, undershirts, underdrawers, bed shirts, 

to keep us up with the quotas alloted. Among ambulance covers, ambulance pillows, ice hag 

those circles were St. Vincent's circle, Mrs. W. covers, convalescent covers, bed jackets, hot 

P. Dougherty, chairman; Eastern Star circle, water bag co^■ers, girls' petticoats, girls' 

Mrs. A. B. Langford, chairman; College Park dresses, napkins, scrub cloths, wash cloths, 

circle, Mrs. M. Candee, chairman; Moreland handkerchiefs, tray cloths, cjuilts, comfort 

circle, Mrs. LeRoy Anderson, chairman; Hes- bags, operating leggins, sheets, unhemmed 

ter circle, Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, chairman ; Y. squares. 

W. C. A. circle, Mrs. Mary Bolan, chairman; From May, 1917, to May, 1918, the g^ar- 
Normal Training school, Aliss Margaret Glea- ments and surgical dressings numbered 152,- 
son, chairman; School Women's clul). Miss 487. From May, 1918, to May, 1919, the pro- 
Edith O'Brien, chairman; Ladies of Macca- duction totaled 153,338. For the entire p__eriod 
bees, Mrs. Nellie Thompson, chairman; Ra- dressings and garments numbered 287,825. 
chael Fox Union circle at Burbank. Mrs. Nor was the Junior Red Cross doing "junior" 


work along the lines of production. With a L. Bag-g'erly, Buel Anderston; stunts, Jay Mc- membership of 13,120 the garments pro- Cabe, R. O. Bell, Alvin Long: outside press, 

duced were 2316. " Alvin Long; pulpits, Arthur M. Free; theat- 

Bv the President's i.roclamation Line 18-25, ers. Gene Rosenthal; schools, J. E. Hancock, 

1Q17, was Red Cross week, and a nati.m-wide ^'- M._ Osenbaugh, M. E. Dadey, Alexander 

cam])aign opened. San Jose did her part Sherifts. 

noblv. \'\t the time of the "opening oi the Red Then the publicity committee worked over- 
Cross campaign the officers of the local Chap- time. Full page ads appeared m all the pap- 
ter were Dr. M. E. Dailev (since deceased), ^'i"S- No one will ever forget the immense 
chairman; Mrs. W. P. Doughertv, vice-chair- l<ed Cross poster that lifted against the sky 
man; W. T. Rambo, secretary ; V. 1 La^fotte "" top of the First National Bank Building. 
treasurer. One of the first Re<l Cross benefits ^^ith its statue of Liberty and pertinent ques- 
was a dance and Red Cross d.riU given ^fav tion 'AViU you fight or give? no one could 
2+ bv the G. C. Review, No. 4, Ladies of the escape it. It veritably "shouted from the 
Maccabees, Captain Amv Thompson. A. 1).!" Then team captains were chos- 
Ferrari, of the Italian-American Progressive ^u. Those selected for the- work c^ raising 
club, came forward with a suggestion for co- the mercy fund were D. M. Bn'-nett, Henry U. 
,,peration HiH. I'-''"^ I'- Fitzgerald. Dr. Charles M. Rich- 

A-,,' m' ,7 T-^ Ai t: ta -r ■ i ards, "Charles M. O'Brien, S. W. Waterhouse, 

( >n Mav 2/ Dr. M. L. Dailev received a ,,.,,t-. -ti tt tj -a- -d 

, 1 ., r" T 1 I m r -t i *i Richard Bressani, John . ones, udge r. a. 

telegram from i)hn ]. Ch'mer, rhrector ot the , , -t i . t ' -' o 

ri '■ c ^^■ ■ ■ " I- ii" i>' 1 r^ ■ ^- \>vc\wn auf Herbert ones, 

i'acihc Division ot the Red Cross, appointing -' 

a meeting in San Francisco. Dr. Dailey, Dr. S'l'^ J"se had $100,000 to raise and^OO 
W. C. Bailev, ]. O. Hayes and W. C. Andrews workers for the job. Karl Stull chalked re- 
attended this" meeting. The result of this turns on his blackboard and the first days el- 
conference was a meeting of the local chapter '"'"t went down as $U,600. Just then Jack 
on lune 6. At this tune'Samuel C. Tompkms <".raham's war song, 'AX e 11 iMght l,.r Yankee 
was appointed chairman for the Santa Clara l>o<i<lle," ma.le its appearance and became a 
County campaign and Arthur Ak Free was feature during the Red Cr.iss drive, being 
made campaign' manager. Karl Stub as chair- "sed b)- theater orchestras and bands all 
man headed '" the activities ol the followiui^ "^"er the country. Lodges contribute Iiber- 
publicitv committee: Alvin Lono-, (. Q. Haves. '-^"y : there were all kinds ot benehts lor the 
lay Mc'Cabe, H. L. Baggerlv, \V.' L. Pru.ssia, ^^ed Cross. Mrs. B. E. Laughlm wrote and 
"S.'R. Walls, R. O. Belk'" Bulge AY. A. Measly, personally superNised the beautiful presenta- 
E. M. Rosenthal, ]. E. "Hancock, Alexander tion ot a children's cantata, "An Evening m 
Sherilis, C. M. Osenbaugh, Dr. M. E. Dailev Dreamland." The charms ..f the dreamland 
and [ohn 1) Kuster ' were enhanced I)y pui)ils of Aliss Hughes and 

Tlie executive committee included Samuel Hell'ert Hitching, who gave a program of 

G. Tompkms, chairman: Arthv- AI. Free, dances, and the pupils of Airs. Theresa Par- 

cami;.aign manager: S. W. Waterhouse, Hen- '^'er and Prof. De Lorenz.), who gave voices 

ry M. Ayer, D. J. fi'lannery. Karl Stub, W. "* ^""§' t" fairyland. 

T. Rambo, Alexander Sheriffs, Judge W. A. The ne\er-to-be forgotten pageant was a 

Beasly and A. P. ALirgotten, secretary. gigantic Red Cross benefit, staged by 1500 

()n'May 0, 1917, the San Jose chapter of jierformers and witnes'sed by more than 5000 
the Red Cross met at the Chamlier of Com- jieople on June 1. The pageant of history and 
merce to arrange for the ccuning driA'e. The allegor)- was A\-ritten ):)y Miss Helen Stock- 
Chamber of Commerce, b_\- Joseph T. lirnoks, ing, with music by Miss Ruth Cornell, and 
secretary, offered the use of a room in the song ^■erse 1)}' Clarence Lrmy. Joseph E. 
Iniilding for headfjuarters and the ser\"ices of Hancock, president of the Drama Association, 
the office force was res])onsible for the pageant, wdiich A\'as 

Hiram A. Blanchard, with the .assistance i^f gi\en under the directing genius of (lariiet 

15(1 girls, compiled a roster of 1(J,000 names Kolme. 

for the assistance of the cam])aigners. A ciulj Alexander P. Murgotten, secretar)' of the 

Women's committee under the directujii of committee, donated needed office supplies and 

Mrs. A\''. B. Irisli was ap|iointed and Mrs. the Argall brothers (piartet \olunteered their 

Stub, puljbcit)'; ^Vrthur bb.ilmes, round u]) ; serx'ices for the entire Red Cr(jss cam])a!gn. 

Mrs. AV. I:'.. Irish, musical entertainment; D. I'rank Sabatelb's gift for the cause of human- 

[. ITannery, waste ]iaper; H. A. Blanchard, it-i' should not be forgotten. His subscription 

cards, etc.; L. AI. vSimonson, treasurer and was $100, and he Avas only earning $2 a day 

cashier; committee on lodges and societies, as a common laborer. The largest single eon- 

AA'. G. Alexander, A\A I'". Curry, IvI Distel ; tribution was secured by 1). AI. lUirnett's 

newspapers, Sheldon AA'ills, J. (_). Hayes, H. team — $2500 gnen by the estate of E. Ale- 


Uaughlin. The waste i)aper campaign, vn- K.lcanor Brown, ];)iccy liaiiqh, Mar,t;-uerite 
S'ineerecl by Dan Klanncry, \\as a \'ahial)le as- Vella and Mrs. ). P\ Charles, 
set m the final eonipntation ..I funds. The Tlie ne.xt was the bouk drive, started in the 
women s team under Mrs. l,dian ,\rnold War Service Committee of the Ameriean Lib- 
turned m over -i^JOOO. ol .lobars ,-,.„-,, Assoe.atn.n. Not with howitzers and 
were given at a mass meeting at the \ letory .shrapnel was the tedium of camp life to be 
I heater. 1 he speaker was Lieutenant Cohls- .lestroved, Init by books, papers and maga- 
worthy, a wounded soldier. y_,„^.^ ' 'pi.,g ^.^^n ^;,.^g j^,^ $1,000,000 for reading 

On the night of June 27. San joseans were matter, the l)iggest movement of the kind eVcr 
astonished to see the lights in the cross on contemplated. At five cents per capita, San 
the tower of the First Methodist Church turn Jose's quota was $1750. Airs. John E. Rich- 
from white to red. Rev. W. L. Stidger, the ards, president of the board of library trus- 
pastor, gave the following exi)l-uiation : "1 tees, ])resided at a preliminary meeting held 
consider that lighted er.jss turning its face at the city librar)- t("> arrange the campaign, 
north,. east, south and west as the s)-mbol not Senator Frank II. Pjenson drew the secretary- 
only of that Christ wdio died for liljerty and shi]). Charles F. Woods, recently appointed 
freedom, but I also feel that it symbolizes in librarian, explained the purjioses of the drive, 
an especial wa}- the li.ght that the whole Red The acti\'e campaign commenced September 
Cross movement i.s, spreading in the dark 24, l')17, with Librarian W'oods in charge. 
places of the earth in these cruel w^ar times." He was ably assisted by Miss Stella Flunting- 
Paul D. Cambiuo, whose serxices for the ton, eountv librarian. 

changing of these lights were lent liy the (Jver 200 posters m red, w^iite and blue pla- 

Blake Electrical Company, did his •dut" m carded the town. Each donation of $1.00 or 

this unique transformation. CamlMUo had more entitled the gi\-er to an engraved name 

never climlied a tower. The wind was blow- plate in ,-)ne ..f the books inirchased. "Send 

mg. too, but he his fear, climbed your name to the front if vou can't go" was 

to the top and made the change. j, drive slogan. Day by day the amount m- 

Sunday morning, June 24, the final appeal creased. Then came Saturday, September 
of the eampaign was made, v^pontaneously, 27. 1917, — the last dav of the week's dri^-e. 
[latriotically, wdiole-hearteclly, the appeal was It was a great "Tag F)a\-." A l^evy ni San 
answered and all da)' Motida}- the dollars Jose's pretty .girls, under the direction of a 
rolled in. Alonday afternoon and e\-eiiing committee headed b}' Mrs. A. A. Fo\vler, 
Manager Clover, of the T. ^: I), ddieater, ,ga\-e pla}-ed "tag" all day. The members at this 
the entire proceeds to the Red Cross. A\ . H. committee A\'ere Mrs. A, A. Fowler, Airs. I. E. 
Johnson and the Argalls sang; Flelbert Hit- Richards. Airs. Chas. F. Woods, Mrs. G. A\'. 
ehing presented an attractive program of llomniedieu and Mrs. Nina Abjon. Tag Day 
dances: an orchestra composed of members brought $300 and the end of the drive for 
of local union No. 15.1, under the direction of funds. Librarians A\ oods and Huntingt(jn 
Carl Fitzgerald, ^'Cllunteered their ser\'ices ; with the assistance of the interested commit- 
Joseph Blum, manager of the Jose Theater, tees and \-olunteer workers had "put it 
lent tw'o of his best acts; Judge E. AI. Rosen- across." Other l.njok drixes followed. The 
thai acted as stage director. Jay AlcCabe's cr)- from overseas was answered li_y San Jose, 
able committee sold candy. The onl)- thing On Alay 1, 1917, San Jose high school stu- 
the}- were not able to do was to make change! dents heard the Avar garden program outlined 
These patriotically energetic salesmen who b_\- Lrof. H. L. Crocheroii, of the Department 
forgot' their arithmetic under Jay's direction (if .Agriculture, LMiiversit}- of California. Fle 
were: W. L. Prussia, Ernest" Lion, Henry held the official appointment made by Dean 
Hirsch Lerov Parkinson, Dr. lames Kramer, FInnt, of the College of Agriculture, to enlist 
Dan F'lannery, R. < '. Stewari, F. (). Reel. the help ot bovs too young to enlist l.n- otlier 
Karl Stub and Arthur Holmes. The drive -;erv.ce. At the time ot his visit to San 
,,, ., ,,,,, . . , , , lose he found that the high school agricultural 
Avas a siiccess Chas. M. O Lnen s team led '^ ,„^^^, i^^.j 154 jig interested in prac- 
Avith $10,229.61. and the sought tor .SlOO.OOO ^^^^j f^,^,.„^ production. These student-farmers 
became $13^,000. (.enerous assistance was constituted an agricultural club, under the dir- 
given by Nellie Farliepp, Belle Gallagher and cction of Prof. J. R. Case, Jr. This first meet- 
Mrs. Floy Johnson, of the court house. One j^g resulted in the enlistment of 350 high 
of the hea\dest burdens fell ui)on Louis Sim- school bovs who pledged themsehes to crop 
onson, expert accountant and under sherift'. ]iroduction and to assist whh the }-ear's liar- 
He devoted all his time to the work and the \est. 

sheriff's office was transformed into a Red I'ood production plans occupied the earnest 

Cross headquarters. His assistants were attention of the council of defense. A eiti- 


zen's Cdinniittee under the leadcrshi]-) of E. E. The Rntarians did mure than make sjieeehes 
Chase 1)eeame interested. The Kotar}- Chd) and eheer. Tlie}- (hi,y; in their in(H\ifhial tjar- 
stood scihdly heliind the eampaign. l'>\- Ma^• dens and thev chig- down deep in their pockets 
2, 1917, j)lans A\'ere well under way tn super- and put up several hundreds of dollars to fin- 
vise intensi\'e gTirdeniny-. E\'er\' man. woman anee the \\'ork of g'ettino- the vacant lot i^ar- 
and child whu o\\-ned or could Ijorrow a 1)it dens readA- to plant. They secured the ser- 
of land made uji a committee "of the wdiole." \ices of C. H. A^'aterman, who t(iok charge of 
Cam]jiglia adxised the Rotarians of the cam- their planting camjiaign for M] days. It was 
l)aign ])rogress in other sections — and San a uni([ue campaign, for it ^\'as the first time 
Jose just rrdled up its slee\-es and went to in the liistory of the city tliat its grivernment 
farming. tiumed gardener! Eiremen to do the flooding, 

The response to the ajipeal for vacant lots police department volunteering to transport 

was an avalanche ! All scho, ,1s received visits the hose from place to place, and the city's 

from the committee. F'.y j\Iay ?i the Horace teams to do tlie plowing! 

Mann children had taken 30 lots, each ha\'ing Tlie firemen had the worst of it. Tlieir 
more than 4000 scpiare feet. 'I'he C^rant and \\-orl^ ^\-as done I)et^\'een the lioiU'S of eiglit in 
Longfellow children planned to cultivate their tlie e\-ening and foiu" the next morning — hut 
own back varrls. School jieads agreed to farm not one of them complained. There was diffi- 
lots themseh'es or in co-o])eration v\-ith the ciilt\' in finding the lots. Erequently instead 
children. Rotarians graldjed a piece of land of one vacant lot the\' found four and the mid- 
some distance from town and ];)lanted 50 acres die of the niglit was a mighty incon\"enient 
of corn. Thev Slso ofl'ered S])ecial induce- time to find cjut \vhich lot to flood! All night, 
ments to school children in the form of prizes. night after night, the fire bov's worked. 'iMiey 
Then work liegan in earnest. AVeeds and dvv "dyked" the lots until each one looked like a 
grass tremliled and tin cans kne\\- their hour miniature Holland — then turned on the water, 
of doom had come. Eirst of all, the vacant A conference of all the localfood production 
lots must be \vell "soaked" or tlie ground experts was held at the high school cafeteria 
would be lumpy at the phnving. This water- ,-,n .Mav 10, 1917, E. E. Chase, chairman of the 
ing was undertaken by the Rotarians, The original food supplv committee, presiding, 
council of defense and other interested organ- p;arl Morris, countv horticultural cf.mmission- 
izations found the San Jose Water Coni|)any er, was made chairman of the campaign coni- 
eager to hel]) by reducing rates for home gar- mittee and the i)ersonnel of those attending 
dens and donating water for vacant lots. The the conference were: E. E. Chase, W, L. At- 
San Jose fire department, under Chief Edward kinson, representing the Rotary Cluli : Alex- 
Haley and Assistant Chief Herman Hobson, ^^^f-\^.^ SheriiTs, city superintendent of schools; 
volunteered to do the flooding of the lots. Idle Arthur M. Free and J. D. Chace, Ir., of the 
street department, directed by Chief Engineer Council of Defense: Rrof, ]. R. Case, Ir., of 
Walter H, Hunt, were to furnish teams and hjg-h school agricultural department; C H 
a plow and do the needed work on as many W'aterman, general enmpaign supervisor- 
lots as possible. The liean Spray company Karl Hazeltine and Ernst L. Conant Arthur 
ofl:"ered a tractor f...r ])lowing the larger lots pree toured the schools of the county, [, |. 
and groups of kits. ^ AlcDonald donated a plow, teams were loaned 

Then the 100 Hoy Scouts of the Eirst Me- by John R. Chace and the Standard Oil Com- 

thodist Church, under the leadership of Rev. ]>any, and over 500 high school and normal 

F'rank AIcLain, each pledged himself to "feed school students enlisted for the work, ( )ver 

a soldier," They ]iromised to forget vacation 200 lots were cultivated. Andrew P.' Hill's 

— and they kept that ]5romise. The>- put on back yard \vas an incentive for greater garden 

an unexpected and no\'el program. (.)ne even- effort, for nothing was ^\■asted there, not 

ing in May, headed Ijy two stalwart policemen c\'en space, 

and armed with rakes and for weajjons, The winners of the first and second jirizes 
they marched through the down town streets. offered by the Rotary Club in the scluxds 
The Scouts bul)bled over with patriotism. (Jne were: Gardner School — Herliert Hver, lack 
little laddie said : "Maylie I'm too little to car- Hewitt, Lowell School — AA'illie JurV, Harris 
ry a gun, but _ I can make a garden!" F'or Willson, Washington School— Frank C.uer- 
months Rev, Frank .McLain, Mr. Farrier, of ra, Emilio Gagliardo, Hawthorne School — 
the First National Lank, George Norris and Mario and Frank Duino, first, and George 
Donald Argnello had workefl on the Loy Straight, second. Grant School-^Louis Ar- 
Scout movement in San Jose and their efforts none, 'first, and Denward and Fred Davis, sec- 
found recognition in the cheers that greeted ,,nd. Horace .Mann School— Albert Hachlen 
this patriotic ])arade of volunteer food pro- and George L.liss, first ,and A^ivian Thornton, 
ducers, Thelma Lanz, Alvis Davis, Rubv Withers. 

lllS'r()l^:^' ol'' SAN'IW CI.MvA Cul'N'IA' 185 

Tlielina Mc("lar^^ C'anil Aiucs, sccimd. Kohl;- Jiisr|ili Al. I'arl^cr's ci iiiimittcc incl Stniday 

fellow Schdul — r>\-riin and 'riichna liunt, I'li'st, al the W'ikIihiu' I idle! ami fur rarli (jf tlic six 

and Waller IVmle)', I'jnile Kieea and I'eeil preeinels in llie Ifrst ward a eliairinan and liis 

Moreheatl, seednd. f^incciln Sehoul — Ra)' Nicli- aids were named. i'l-ecinel Nn. 1 — lienry 

olas and laek Gilleran. A\ ei", chairman; William WalSMii, Joseph 

Xo storv of this l'M7 .i^arden aeti\it\- wonld llartnian, William 1. (ieoffroy, W. 1'. Cnrry, 

he complete w-ithont special mention oi" ke\ . |. ^i^d I )r. A. A. Ca\a,L;-nara. rreemct N'o. 2— 

H. Wythe, who, durin.t;- the entire ])eriod, \\ ;'is Joseph i\la;_;isU-elti, chairman; 1). M. 1 )ene,<,';ri, 

deeply interested in the nioxemcnt and w\u< J. Caillean, lui.pene 1 'ezolo, 1<\ W. Ilo-an. 

aided its snccess in e\er>- \va\-, not onl\- he- I'recinct Xo. .'^ — John \'. Sla\icli. chairman; 

eanse of his government appointment on this A. I'. LeiK'sh, .\ngust P. Minjoulel, (nis 

commission Imt because of his love of gardens. "Wendt, X. .\. I'ellerano. I'recinct No. 4 — 

During l'M8 Prof. Joseiih E. Hancock was J. J. ^1 cLaurin. chairman ; Matt Hlennoii, W. 

given the chairmanship of war garden actn- I'- Isham. .\. U. Kenned}'. I 'recinct^Xo. .5 — 

itie.s by C. C. Moore, chairman of the state ^^'• l^- Atkinson, chairman; Dan J. Flannery, 

council of defense. Professor Hancock h,ad Oeorge IT. .Anderson, (leorge M cb)onald, J. R. 

an e.xtensi\e campaign jilanned when the ar- Kocher, James ('.illon, A. X. Posse. Precinct 

mistice removed the pressing necessity for No- C' — .Mexander Sheriffs, chairman; Harry 

increased food production. " Alorris, f. F. < )'[veefe. Miss T,\nch. Mrs. P'red 

AVednesday, September 26, 1917. San Jose ^Y]1^'J' ^'l^S- I'.ennett, Mrs. J. J. Conniff, Rtr.s. 

bade goodb}-e to Companies P and M, Califm-- ''<i.^J^"tP 

nia volunte'ers, trained at P'ort .Alason, wdio < 'ther war leaders hastened to perfect their 
passed through on then- wax- to ■'somewdiere \vorking force. Free learned that Al Huliliard 
in France." That same da\''[. D. Ixuster. \A'. "'^s coming o\'er in his ward to appropriate 
S. Clavton, A'. T- T^aAIotte, 'A^'ictor Palmer and some of the liest workers. Hubbard made 
Dr, AA'. C. Pjailev went to San Francisco to approaches to liilly F'russia, wdio was count- 
consult with the general executive committee. C'^l <-'" by Fr^-'e as a soliciting prize winner. 
Friday the local meeting Avas held to arrange That would never do. Pree called a meeting 
for the opening of the loan campaign (.)ctober at the Chamber of Commerce. Hubbard called 
1. The committee personnel remained the a meeting at the same time and place ! They 
same as in the first loan, P)hn I). Kuster, compromised! H Avas the best compromise 
chairman, and I3r. AA'. C. Pailey, secretary. m the world. They simply agreed to combine 

The citv was dnnded into four district's. io''^~es and fight side by side to a victorious 

each with'well defined street boundaries, and '""^h ^;'>th the folk.wmg committeemen; 

a competent executive head named for each Free's workers — S. AA'. AA'aterhouse, James 

district. Joseph M, Parker was made chair- Finley, C. A. Hall, AA'alter Lillick, Juanita 

man of ward one ; Arthur AP Free, ward two; PPalsey, Jennie Sheriffs, R. R. Syer, PI I\P 

A. L. Hubbard, ward three ; and H. A. Harms, Rosenthal, S. Trapani, Jese Pevy. Alexander 

ward four. Each chairman appointed a work- Plart, Joe Millard. Pert Gassett. Judge P. F. 

ing committee of from 50 to 100 in his district Gosbey, Elmer E. Chase, Tom Bodley, Fannie 

wkh captains and lieutenants so as to cjuickly Morrison, Mrs. C. A. AA'ayland, Dr. AA'illiam 

organize eft'ectiye work. ' Simpson, Dr. J. J. Miller, Gus Pion, Frank 

At this time the Eighth regiment, compris- O'Connell, Alfred lAfadsen, Karl Stull, Afrs. 

ing over a thousand men, Colonel George M. Fosgate, Dr. David A. Peattie. Tom AA'atson, 

Weeks commanding, arrived at Camp" Ere- ^R's. T. L. Blanchard. AA'alter Chrisman, L. 

mont after a two inonths' trip from the Phil- Alaggini, Sam E. Smith. Samuel Tompkins. 

ippine Islands. The famous California Griz- R. C. McComish. Captain Bailey, Captain 

zlies were forming and camped at Tanforan, Campbell, Mrs. lAPae FauiP Mrs. Henry Lion, 

I)rominent among them being Major Rt)bert P ^Irs. S. Ogier. Robert Borchers, A. C. Kuhns, 

Bentley, Captain Cedric R. Richmond, Cap- Ralph Lowe. 

tain Ellsworth E. Chase and Lieutenant AA'il- In ward four H. A. Harms, chairman, put 
mer Gross. The cross above the hallowed his sign and seal on the following gentleman- 
grave of Lieutenant AA'ilmer Gross "some- ly solicitors, each to name other able assis- 
where in France" casts its shadow on the tants ; C. AA'. Da\ison, Judge PTrban A. South- 
hearts of the home-folks for the continuance eimer, E. P. Bonar, J. B. Chiappe, F. A. 
of whose lil.)erty he made the supreme sacri- Gunn, J. M. McKiernan, C. H. James, Mrs. D. 
fice. H. Roberts. 

Sunday, September 30, 1917, the Argall AA'ord came that on the following Friday, 

Brothers quartet made their last appearance October 5, more than 700 lH)ys would pass 

as a singing group at the Methodist Church. through San Jose on their way; to Camp 

Charles was soon to leave for France. Lewis. The reception and supper given them 


in St. James Street next to the Park, followed an eloquent and stirring address. Deputy 

the eit_y's g-ot)dliye to 126 of the loeal Ixivs, Distriet Attorney Griffith addressed the crowd 

Avho left that dav for army camps. ' from an auto near the Park, again from the 

(A-toher 6, I<,hn D, Knster received a tele- -^teps <.f the Garden City Bank, and a tliird 

gram from Airs. E. R. 15rainard, chairman of 

time at the corner of St. James and First 

the Woman's T^iberty Loan committee for Streets 

California, asking that women l:(e appointed 

The men who gave their time and energy 

for conntv work." Mrs. C. A. Wavland was to make this parade an unforgettcdDle event 

given the honor of the first appointment as \vere Joseph M. Parker, Chas. R. Parkinson, 

chairman and immediatelv began to perfect an Thomas H. Reed. John U. Kuster, A. L. 

organization. The woinen entered into the H"lmes, Karl Stnll, Howell D. Alelvin. Dr. 

campaign with as much fervor as the men. ^V. C. Bailey, Henry M. Ayer and Arthur h. 

Tvr c^i 1 r^ w 1 !• -ii c Lano'ford. 

Mrs. Charles C. W a_yland s committee of '^ 

women was co-operating with the men's libcr- At the last moment the Boy Scouts were 

ty loan committee and the women's council of '^'-'"^■'l "P'-n and they enlisted full of enthus- 

defense. ''a^'"- 1'he second Liberty loan campaign 

' ~ ' ,,..-,. V n , , 1 1 ., I ended Saturdav night, October 27, with a sub- 

Judge A\ Uham A. Beasl.y headed the speak- ^^,,., j,,,^ ,_,^- $3:365; 100~another over subscrip- 

ers committee- and secured Charles K. field, ^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^,^ ^^^^^^^1^^^ ^^ .subscribers was 

editor of the Sunset Magazine, who address- ^-,,, ^,^.^^^^^:|. g^^,,g,j.i,,e,5_ 3250, making a total 

ed an immense audience m the First I, a,, 1st ^^. -„-_,^ ^^^ 'mcrease of 970 over the first loan. 

Church the next .-unday evening. (.)ther ,,^,^_^- ,^^ subscrii.tion was $2,305,650. The 

s,-,eakers who gave their services during die ^^^^^^ subscription ,)er capita was $488. 
campaign under |udge l.easl\" s direction \\-ere '^ ■ , a- ir r^ \ 1 ■ 

I. S. Williams, br.'T. W. Dinsmore, .\rthur >^ow came the second \. Al. C. A. drive. 


J-ree, Victor LaMot'te. Senator Herl.ert H. I he Natioiial_ AVar Council recoininended th 

lones A C. Kuhn, Fred L. Thomas, .M . F. '''"^'nK "f a t""'! "t $.v5 000,000, to serve the 

Griffiths, \-ictMr Palmer, F. Al. Coleman and soldiers_ and sadnrs nt the allies and all pris- 

Senator Frank H. IJens, ,n. ' "^'^•'■■^ ' '^ ^var. 1 he plan tr,r .Santa Llara C, ,un- 

H W McC.mas was made chairman nf the Lv ^vas outlined m San Jose on N.-vember 19, 
four minute men— Arthur M. Free, Senator ''^1'. at a dinner m the l.Al. C. A Auditor- 
Jones, Grant ISennett, Dr. James B. Bullitt. '"'"■ f I'^i' ' w Y'?, ^^nat,,,- Herbert C. 

Friday October 1') 1<-)17, saw a won.lerful- J' 'ues and Judge W. A. Beasly. 1 hen church 

Iv insprri'n- para.le of sch,.ol children. Mure "i^-ctings and school meetings, the high school 

than ^OOO'were m line. The parade, filleen l>"ys being enthusiastic Avorkers. 1 hey sub- 

l)locks long, was led bv Citv Alana-'er Ree.l scribed $970. Nine San Jose girls, Alalva 

and Charles I'arkinson." Aluch of its success IF'atty, Grace Limerick, Julia Holdridge, 

Nvas due tn the efforts of Dr. M. E. Dailev, Hazel Dickinson, Georgme hmk, P.eth Cruin- 

'Vgnes F Houx- and Alexander Sheriffs. ' "i^')'' Lilah Seiley and Lola l',ur<lick, made 

The President's proclamation had desio- "'^■a™ and give" pledges of $10 each. The 

nated Octnber 2-1 as Lil)ertv Dav, and biseph chddren in the kindergarten wanted to help, 

\1 Parker Chas. R. Parkinson,' Henry Aver and a special fund tciok care of their pennies 

and Joseph T. Brooks went to Camp F'rem.'int and dimes. Alore than 350 committeemen 

to cf.nfer Avith the officers there aliout having lieli)ed to carry on the second "Y." drive, 

the troops take part in the day's demonstra- These men constituted more than twenty 

tion Dr. James B. Bullitt, [. S. Williams and teams. On November 20, Senator Jones an- 

X'ictor Palmer did valiant "work and s,, did nounced that the drn-e was "over the to])," 

fiilly Emerson, San Jose's veteran newsie. having $.-i000 more than the $2.-i,000 quota. 

On Lil»ert\' Day \\'ith its jostling crowds 'fhe Women's Alubilized xVrin\- jirox'ed its 

liniu'-'' the streets, there passed such a spec- abilit}' as a power for accom]dishment through 

tacular parade numljering more than 15,000 ( am])aigii after campaign for war funds and 

persons as had ncA'er liefcu'e thrilled the hearts strenuous jjond dri\es. Mrs. L. 'I\ vSmith be- 

of San b'^cans. The fjghth Regiment came ianie colonel fur the Santa Clara County 

from Camp frer.iont, S(JU strong, 'fhere \vere Army, and Airs. I). A.^Beattie, as licutcnaiU- 

se\'en Ijands, besides numerous drum corps, all C'lfinel, fjoked after San Jose. ]{L'\-en other 

tlie schooL, and fraternal and ci\'ic organiza- workers were apiiointed to lead the acti\ities 

tioiis. Chief of Pidice Black led the ])arade ul the \arious districts of the county. These 

Avith City Manager Reed as grand marshal were: Mrs. W. \'>. .\llen, Palo Alt(j ; Mrs. S. 
and Sheriff Arthur fi. f^angford as chief aid. L. Berry, Alountain \'iew ; Mrs. James Glen- 

.\t St. James Park, following the parade, re- denning, Santa Clara; Mrs. .\. A. Halsey, 

freshments were ser\'ed to the Eighth Regi- Cupertino; Mrs. Geo. Parso, Campbell; Mrs. 

nient, after which Arthur M. Free delivered W. (\. Tomlinson, Saratoga; Mrs. Z. L. Riggs, 


Los Gatos : Mrs. (.\ H. Ivirnhart, Morgan r>a1<cr iiiailc iid oliani^-cs in the jji-rsonnel of 
Hill; }vlrs. W. V>. ilolschaw, ' (lilroy ; Mrs. j. licr wi irkcrs dnriiiL; tlio entire war period. The 
r. Shaniho. lAcrgreen, and Miss Nellie Kvans, faitliful enteric nf wninen were: Mrs. I{. H. 
Milpitas. This permanent orijanization el- liaker, .Mrs. 1,. I,. Lamar, Mrs. C. 11. Parsons, 
feeted for the period of the war, ineluded Miss AL lili midi ihl, .Mrs. C O. Neale and Mrs. 
side the eolonel and twelve lieutenant-eolon- F,. I'erkins. 'Jdie nther instance of valiant 
els, a major for each school district. Each ser\ice \\'as that of Mrs. J. M. Church Walk- 
major ap]>ointed ca]itains and under each cap- er, in charge of the nKJuntain district abo\'e 
tain \\-ere se\eral lieutenants. hi San Jc>se Los Gatos. 'Jdiis little woman ha\-ing- no 
the majors named b)- Mrs. D. .V. iSeattie were other Avay to du her wnrk walked e\"er\- step 
Mrs. F. F. (."ioshev, Mrs. N. TL P)Ooker, ]\frs. of the necessar\- sixteen miles to (Mrganize her 
\. }. Byl, Mrs. J. E. Hancock, .Ahs. F. A. Von district. 

Dnrston, Mrs. C. C. Little, Miss W'ehner, }ilrs. The latter part of 1017 was a great sueces- 

Xicholas r.owden, ^vlrs. Willis Clayton, Mrs. sion of drives. The first week 'in December 

,\. B. Brown, IMrs. George 1!. Seeley, ^Mrs. the National War Council of the ^'oung Wo- 

Charles Parkinson and Afrs. S. D. Farrington. men's Christian ,\ssi iciation issued a call for 

This magnificent organization, nerfected m $4,000,000 for the of establishing soc- 

a short time, numbered 1400 women liandetl '^il 'i"<l '^est centers f<.r heroic nurses at the 

together to answer with unselfish service ev- front. Santa Clara County's qn.ita was 

erv appeal made to them. Nine tremendous $16,000. At a meeting <in December .t, Mrs. 

war activities called for their best endeavor. L. T. Smith made her appointments the 

The December, 1917, I^Led Cross membership c.nnty, and .Mrs. D. A. Beattie named the 

drive was the Mobilized Army's initial ser- following team cajUains for San Jose: Mrs. 

Nice. Airs. A. A. Fowler was chairman of this Pobert Syer, Miss Maud Blackforrl, Mrs 

activitv. The second campaign came in 1918, I'^'t^'i' Dunn, AIiss Lertlia Fair, Airs. C. C. Lit- 

when 'thev hel])e>l to carry nut th.e success- tie. Airs. Ste].hen Alaynard. Each captain 

ful Thrift' and War Savings Stamp drive un- selected ten to tweh'e women for patriotic 

der the- chairmanship of AL'S. F. AL Elev. serxice. San Jnse responded, as it always 

The third Libertv Inan, April, 1918, proved <1"1. with an oversubscription. N.jt only San 

the quality of women's service under the guid- jose but the County. The quota Avas reached 

ance of Airs. C. A. \A\ayland, chairman. "The ^v'tF $4000 to spare. 

Red Cross campaign in May, P-'18, AA'ar Sa\-- During the summer of 1918 the bjcal Y. W. 

ings Stamp dri\"e in June, 1918, and the regis- C. A. made a gift ])eyond price to the cause 

tration of all children under six }"ears of age, nf suilering humanity when ]\Iiss Alary Helen 

alsi.i in June, \yere directed by memliers of J'nst offered herself through the Association 

the Women's ArmA\ In October, 1918, came fnr o\"erseas work. 

the fourth Lil->ert>^ loan, and n(.i one aviII ever 'fhe Knights of Columbus and the Y. AP 

f.n-get the Volunteer Day preceding it on Sep- 0. A. received appointments at the same time 

tember 7. On this day members of the Wom- f,-,,m J^resident AA'ilsnn. The big task before 

en's Mobihzed Army served in the regular these organizations was to raise funds for 

polling places throughout the country, more the special needs of the soldiers. The Knights 

than 850 volunteering for this Avnrk m San umlertook to raise $50,000 for the entire coun- 

Jnse. The result of efficient organization be- tv. San Jose's share being $10,000. It was to 

came apparent when a "check up" nf the dav's p^ a fund for all, a work "for all, regardless of 

returns showed that ab(.>ut 65 per cent of creed or fraternal affiliation. Plans for the 

Santa Clara count_\-'s quota had lieen volun- campaign were made in December, 1917, at a 

teered in one day. The Llnited AA'ar AA'ork luncheon at the Hntel A'endome, at Avhich 

campaign in November, 1918, and the Liberty time Rev. Edward J. Hanna, the guest of 

loan drive closed the book of the AVomen's h,,nnr, expressed his pleasure in the eo-opera- 

Alobilized Army history. No tabulation of tion of different organizations. "For the first 

campaign returns or bare record (if work can time in its history," said Bishop Hanna, "the 

ever tell the story in its entirety. The mem- cnuntry has placed its moral and physical wel- 

bers of this army made every sacrifice, some fare in the hands nf the religious men of the 

<ii them even the sacrifice of health m the pat- nation. The best wav to make good soldiers 

riotic endeavor to leave nothing undone that is to educate men tn "high ideals/" 

would speed the coming of the day when 'phe drive, scheduled originally for Decem- 

peace should dawn on a war-worn world. 1,^1- IQ, opened at that time in the residential 

Among the thousands of appealing inci- districts only, the business district not to be 

dents during the work of the AA'omen's Arm}- canvassed until after Christmas. Charles AL 

are two particularly worthy of special men- ( )'l-!rien led the K. of C. forces as chairman of 

tion. In San Jose Precinct Nc;. 10, Mrs. E. H. a committee consisting of J. F. Brooke, D. M. 


Burnett, Jay McCabe, F. G. Canelo, F. J. tives of the Chamber of Commerce, the Rot- 

Somers, Koliert Benson, W. F. Eienson, ]. S. ar^• Chib, the Red Cross, \". W. C. A., Y. M. C. 

Williams. John J. Jones, Dr. P>. L. Wise, .\.', and the A\'oman's Club and other orsjani- 

Frank Martin, F. J. Reidy, R. l^ressani, N. A. zations to make phins and perfect some kind 

Pellerano, M. F. C.riffith' and D. J. Flannery. of Avorkin;:: committee. J. J. McDonald Avas 

Peter Dunne A\-as assit^ned to the Alameda; made eliairman and Luita Arnold secretary. 

Joseph A. r.ilm and James Hancock led the (;)ther ])resent were Mrs. Charles Osenbau.q:h, 

campaigners in the "\A'illoA\'s ; J. v"^. Cunan, E. Bro\vnie Schilling-slnu-g. Mrs. \\ . B. Irisli, 

S., Sanjose, Joseph Solari and C. <"). Wcndt Mrs. Arthur Langford, IMrs. Claude Winan.s, 

were committeemen to cover "the city." Dr. :\r. F. Dailey, Charles R. Parkinson, W. 

Christmas time, several other drives in ])ro- T. Rambo, and Joseph T. lirooks. The mten- 

gres.s— and $10,000 to raise! 'Idiat meant tion was just to lovmgly send to each lioy m 

$1000 every dav ten davs! The vaudeville trench or rami), a Christmas remembrance 

show for the Camp Fremont l.ovs had just "from the folks at home." Committee leaders 

been given bv the Knights of Co'luml)us and "'fre quickly selected, hmance, Fleanor 

stimulated interest in 'the drive. Then the Brown; publicity, Mrs. A. B. Langford ; to 

war fund received a Christmas gift from },fan- secure the names of the boys, Mrs. W. B. Ir- 

ager James lleattv of the Liliertv Theater. is'i : supplies, Mrs. Claude A. \\:nans; box 

This gift Avas 2000 theater tickets 'to lie sold packing committee, :\Irs. N. J. Gray. Later 

for the benefit of the campaign. >M'-s- !'■ J- Loel. Mrs. S. L. Cunningham, Mrs. 

The dav after Christmas the drive began in ^'- ^i- ^^^-^ ]^''\l- h ^^^Donald Judge W. 

earnest. 'Puk^e AX'. A. Beaslv, C. C. Coolidge '^^ l-'^^asly and jay McCabe were added to the 

1 T 1 " 1 't 11 1 " 11 ii ii o-eneral committee Abire and more were add- 

and L)hn ). Jones called upon all the attor- ,-,eiicicii loiuiiullc^.. ^ . 

nevs.- Doctors an.l dentists received visits ed until San Jose simply became a committee 

frcnn Lrs. Philip Wise, Arthur T. McGinty ot the whole to .see to it that not one- b,.v from 

„„,! n,- vi,,,-,-n,- I'll,, tr Ti,- 1 T p p home was fort;-otten. Mrs. Claude ,A. Wmans 
and l.)i. yiniia\. ohn i' . Ijiocjke. . K. Ivy- , , , ' . , , . -^i ^r 7> ^ 

land and David' Burnett visited all can- ^^'f .\'' c,.mmitteesh,p w. h ^Irs. Bert 

ners. Frank ]. Somers, AVill Prussia and F. Goldsmith „ Mrs. J. E. Hancock Mrs. D. L. 

L McHenrv claimed the territory on the east ^""^h and Mrs. A. D. Grant. Ihat gave he 

side ..f First Street from Santa Clara. The ^V<->mans Club a place of prominence in the 

west side of the street was canvassed by F. supply department and the clnb recognized its 

G. Canelo, Lay AlcCabe and Henry Hoff. Christmas honors by offering to pack the 

Santa Clara Street was assigned to Charles L. utixes. 
Barrington, P. [. Foley ancfPL [. Dou.gherty ; The Boy Scouts accompli.shed wonders rais- 

Second Street between San Antonio and San -ing in one day $1175.80. The original plan 

Fernando was claimed by Lie Solari, Frank called for 500 lioxes. There were at least 900 

Reidv and \\'. J. Benson, "[ohn S. AX'illiams, that went as Christmas cheer to the boys at 

N. A. Pellerano and Richard Bressani cover- the front. In addition to the liox oOO pounds 

ed Alarket Street. iT candy were sent. The boxes contained 

Daily luncheons with encouraging reports ''''^'«'""' P''""^'^- »"ts candy cakes, toilet 

spurred to .greater endeavor and ,m December aj't'cles, papers, jack ( .raham s song.s and 

,^0, when Chairman Charles M. O'Brien an- San Jose s Christmas greeting, i he first thing 

nounced that the (|uota had been reached with ^o catch the recipient s attentmn would be the 

a generous margin there was a burst of en- "^y s greeting. its warni-hearte.lness must 

tlnisiasm ' have seemed like a handclasp across the ihs- 

The^gift of $10,000 to the war fund did not tance— the handclasp of a friend! 
end the local oft'er of Catholic helpfulness. "San Jose bids her soldier l>o)'s, wherever 
Father Walsh and Father Cox, of Santa Clara they may be, a Merry Christinas. We would 
College, followed the flag overseas, and like to ha\e you think of San jose not as a col- 
Father T. C. r)'Connell, pastor of St. Patrick's lection of houses and stores, a mere hn-e of 
Church, spent more than a year (m the fight- '^I's.V people, but as a Ining personality whose 
ing front, offering his chaplaincy in the ser- heart warms to you who have left home to de- 
\ice of the bo"\'S. ' fend our beloN'ed country in this time of dan- 

The first id'ea of Christmas cheer came to ger. We would convey to you a bright reflee- 

Fleanor A. Brown, and she talked it over with tion of our Christinas cheer. A\'e miss you 

five other San Jose girls— Marion Goldsmith, fi""™ '>"r fii'esides and amid the rejoicing of 

Marion Cassin, Maud Thomas, lA-elyn John- the holiday season we are at^ once sad and 

s<in and Luita Arinjld. ' " proud that you are absent. A\'e call upon you 

.^t the Chamber of Commerce on November the blessing of Him in \vh(]se name the Christ- 

1, 1917, there was a meeting. Eleanor Brown mas feast is spread. Christ was liorn to bring 

and her fi\'e girl friends met with representa- peace and goo»lwill unto all the world. You 



haw.- giNcn yourselves tn the same eause ; lor 
peaeeand goodwill eannol thrive in the same 
world with Kaisorism. As on Christmas day 
your thovights turn loviui^ly toward home, our 
hearts' best wishes go forth to \i)U. Thomas 
H. Reed, City Manager of San Jose." 

In preparation for the third I^iberty loan. 
Dr. \\'. C. Hailev was made ehairman for Santa 
Clara County, John IX Kuster deelining to 
serve again." Dr. Bullitt, Judge Gosbey and 
joe Brooks, a ehorus of Normal Sehool girls, 
forty voices strong, and numbers of patriotic 
citizens carried out an educational campaign 
that coyered the county. H. D. Melvin visited 
all lodges and patriotic pledges were secured 
with the assistance of J. E. Hancock, Judge 
Gosbev, S. G. Tompkins, Arthur M. Free and 
Alexander Sheriffs, speakers of powerful con- 
viction. Dan I. Flannery's Speakers' Commit- 
tee consisted of A. V. Shubert, Victor Challen, 
Arthur Curtner and Judge Urban A. Sonth- 

H. \V. McComas, chairman of the Four Min- 
ute :Men marshaled his force of t\venty-fiye 
speakers early in the campaign. The Woman's 
Mobihzed Army, with its powerful organiza- 
tion of more than 1400 under the colonel, Mrs. 
L. T. Smith, the lieut. -colonel, ^Mrs. D^ A. 
Beattie and Liberty loan chairman Mrs. C. A. 
Wayland combined with the War Work 

Saturday, April 6, 1918. designated "Liberty 
Day." opened the third Liberty Loan drive 
with one of the grandest educational military 
demonstrations in Luna Park ever staged in 
Santa Clara Countv. As a result almost $1,- 
000,000 of Santa Clara County's quota of $2,- 
605,000 ^yas raised. The committee in charge 
of the Luna Park spectacle was a bank com- 
mittee, consisting of Geo. B. Campbell, cashier 
of the Security State Bank, chairman; J. H. 
Russell, R. D. Pearce, D. S. Glendenmng, C. 
A. Baronne, Bank of Italy; A. D. Baker, W. 
E. Dre^y, First National ISank; Waldo E. 
Lowe and M. B. Davis, Bank of San Jose; 
Lester Hyde and Percy Thompson, Garden 
City Bank; Harold Ahlman, George Pierson, 
Security State Bank. 

The burden of the campaign fell to the lot of 
the ten committeemen under the Liberty loan 
leaders. These committeemen were John D. 
Crummey, Alexander Shentts, A. D. Curtner, 
Louis Campiglia. Henry M. Ayer, Chas. M. 
O'Brien, Chas. R. Parkinson, Elton R. Shaw, 
E. A. Richmond, Alexander Hart, Walter G. 
Matthewson, Howell D. Melvin. Henry 
Hirsch became special inspector for the San 
Jose district to see that the plans were car- 
ried out. 

Not every one purchased bonds voluntarily. 
Everywhere workers met concrete evidence of 

insidious (.lerman ])ropaganda. The list of 
those refusing to Iniy bonds increased to such 
ail extent that the Santa Clara County investi- 
gating and educational committee, with John 
I). Kuster as chairman, came into the cam- 
paign. ( Uher members of this organizati(.)n 
were f. A\'. Grimes, Albert Kavser, V. H. 
Wylie", A. A. Halsey, A. M. Free, F. J. Mc- 
llenry, Fred L. Fehren, A. G. Du Brutz. Judge 
P. F. Gosbey, Sam G. Tompkins, Herbert C. 
Jones. These men did not shirk their unwel- 
come task. (_)\'er 900 cases were in\'estigated 
and the members' ser\-ices were inx'aluable. 

On April 16, 1918, San Jose was electrified 
b\' the news that Lieut. Douglas Campbell 
had won the French War Cross by bringing 
down a German plane and capturing the pilot. 
Shortly before noon on Liberty Day, April 
26, the message came that San Jose and the 
county had gone "over the top." It was a 
great campaign that ended officially on May 
4, 1918. with not only the full quota of bonds 
subscribed and the population recjuirements 
met. but an amount credited to Santa Clara 
County for more than $800,000 above the allot- 
ment and 12,136 more investors than during 
the second loan. The most sanguine hopes 
that came into existence with the organiza- 
tion of the War Work Council in March, 1918, 
had been realized. Each member of the Coun- 
cil gave to the members of the AVomen's 
Mobilized Army the fullest credit for the splen- 
did results. 

During the strenuous campaign an advisory 
committee met every da}- at the War Work 
Council head(|uarters to "talk things over and 
devise ways and means." Of the following 
faithful members of this committee many gave 
at least fifty per cent of their time to the work 
and others, finding that liusiness interfered 
with their patriotism simply gave up their 
business, devoting all their time and energy to 
the interests of "backing up the bovs" : Byron 
Millard, A. B. Post, Judge W. A. ^Beasly, Dr. 
James B. Bullitt, S. G. Tompkins, W. S. Clap- 
ton, A\'. E. liauer, \'. J. La Alotte, Louis Cam- 
piglia, Arthur M. Free, H. L. Baggerly, \\'il- 
Inir J. Edv\-ards, E. K. Johnston, H. G. Coy- 
kendall, \\\ G. Alexander, Frank J. Somers. 
George N. Flerbert, John D. Kuster and D. T. 

Special committeemen were Thomas Fl. 
Reed, Karl M. Stull, Victor Palmer, Alvin 
Long. Sheldon R. Wills, F. A. Nikirk, Frank 
L. Baker, D. J. Flannery, Victor Challen, 
Judge Urban A. Sontheimer, Arthur B. Lang- 
ford, Brooks Tompkins, F. F. Chapin and 
Wilson E. Albee. 

Preparations ^^'ere now made for the fourth 
Liberty loan dri\e. One or two changes al- 
tered the \var work council chart. Dr. W. C. 



llailey became chairman of the Santa Clara 
Cuunt}- War AWirk council; Joseph Al. Par- 
ker, chairman of the Santa Clara Count\- 
fuurth Lihert\- Ician cnmmittee; Louis Cam- 
]>ig'lia, chairman San Jose A\\ar AX'ork Cduncil ; 
E. H. F(jster, secretar)- ; Arthur H. Curtner, 
treasurer; I3r. James B. Bullitt, statistician. 

The campaign did not o])en olhcialh' until 
September 28, 1918, but long Ijefore the "Ijig 
da}'" evervdiie was at work. The 750 men of 
the war work Cduncil and the 1400 \viirkers of 
the Women's arm\' comprised the A'olunteer 
da}' fiirce to take charge of the "\oting l]ooths" 
in ex'ery pireciiict and ptdling place throughout 
the count}-. Arthur Curtner ga\"e a "get ac- 
quainted" dinner to all <listrict leaders at the 
jMontgomerA- Hotel on the cNciiing of Septem- 
bev 20th, J. Al. Parker nial<ing the jirincipal 
speech, lilind Al Herr, newsfio}-, lH">ught the 
first l)ond on Alonda^', September 25. His cane 
guided hnn to headc|uarters. Some throats 
choked a Int when Blind Al held out fifty d.)b 
lars for some unseen hand to take. 

Volunteer day, SeptemlDer 27. 1918, will go 
doAX'ii in histor}- as one of the greatest da}-s in 
the chronicles of the count\'. < )n that dav, 
practical!}' without an}' solicitation, the count}' 
subscribed $3,258,650 to the fourth Liliert}' 
loan bonds, $1,701,250 of that amount Ijelong- 
ing tci San ]ose. The h(;)nor flag oilered for 
the largest niimljcr of suljscriptious in a pre- 
cinct in ])roportion tC) the population went to 
precinct Nij. 57 in charge of I'\ A. \^an 1 )orsten, 
director, and Charles 'SI. OTirien, A'ice chair- 
man. Out of ,373 registered \'oters 62 per cent 
made l)ond subscriptions, ddiis precinct at 
Wilson's garage, 899 South Fifteenth street, 
listed among its workers Josei)h T. Brooks, 
Edward (ohnson, Ben Brown, H. Trephagen, 
Airs. W.G. Alexander, May Hoffman, Hattie 
Hoft'man, Miss Jones, Mrs. H. H. Aladsen, 
Mrs. L. P. Edwards, Airs. P. D. During, Mrs. 
C. !!. Mason and Airs. J. R. Baile}'. 

The honor flag for the largest amount of 
subscriptions totaling $68,850, was proudl}' 
carried away Y)y Crandallville ])recinct No. 2 
in charge of Alexander Sherriffs, ^•ice chair- 
man, and AW J. Lean, director. ( )ther workers 
were W. B. Irish, Daisy Cozzens, Reta .\ngus, 
Hattie Prindi\'ille, Mrs. R. H. Tojjham, Anna 
Mathews and Bessie Crowfo(.)t. D. M. Dene- 
gri did }'eoman ser\'ice among the Italian- 
speaking populati(m, ol>taining notable results 
from the emplo}'ees of the C,reco canner\'. .VII 
canners and their hundreds of workers stood 
sc)lidlv behind the loan. William Halla cov- 
ered Chinatown and founrl bond suljscriptii ms 
piling ui) after the neA\'s came that young Sing 
Kee, son of Chung Kee, had been awarded the 
Distinguished Ser\-ice Cross. Sing Kee. the 
only Chinese soldier in Compan}' (). Three 

Hundred and Sixth Infantry, (leser\'ed that 
(lect)ration and the Croix de C,uerre \\'hich 
came to him later. He stcjod for 48 hotirs at 
an advance post with ^\'ireless apparatus send- 
ing messages l)ack to his commander after the 
j'lost had lieen aliandoned b}' the entire com- 
pany. Sing Lee fought in man}' battles and 
spent a month in the hospital at Tours follow- 
ing a sexere experience with mustard gas dur- 
ing a Hun attack. A letter of congratulation 
went to Sing Kee from his felhn\' townsmen of 
the War AV'ork Council. The Jajianese sub- 
scribed $50,000. The service flag dedicated at 
St. Joseph's on (Jet. 6, 1918, held almost one- 
third of the San Jose stars. ( )n Saturday. ( )ct. 
19, 1918, bells, horns and whistles annrjunced 
victor}-, v^anta Ckira Cciunt}- was credited 
\\'ith an ox'ersubscription of $826,650. 

Judge P. F. Gosl)e}' of the Council of De- 
fense made tlie following acknowledgment of 
Parker's aide leadershi]) : "1 wish to e.x|")ress 
the aiJiJreciation of the vSanta Clara couni\- di- 
vision of the Council of Defense for the excel- 
lent AX'ork dciiie !:>}' J. M. Parker during the 
fourth Lil)ert\- loan campaign. It ^\■as large- 
ly due to his efl:orts and to those of his aide 
assistants that the campaig'n was carried 
through in this cit}' and count}' to such great 
success. The result wdll alwax's stand as a 
monument to Josejih M. Parker's al)ilitA' and 
li:i}'alty." In the fourth loan San Jose had 20,- 
075 suljscribers. 'Idte total bond subscri]ition 
was $3,595,000, per capita a\erage of $179. 
loir tile county, sniiscriliers 11,662, amount 
$1,8'W,700, per cajjita $163. Cit}- and county 
suliscribers, 31,735; amount $5,4*34,700, iier 
capita $173. In this loan 29.4 per cent of 
the populatioi-i su))scri])ed as against 19 per 
cent sul)scril)ing for the third loan. 

"Wdiile priest and Protestant clerg}'men min- 
istered to the men of all nationalities and 
creeds on the liattlefieids v\-here all differences 
\\'ere forgotten in a common cause, in the 
homeland there developed a new bond of 
l)rotherhoocl. 'A splendid demonstration of 
this l)roader understanding v\-as the "Seven in 
< )ne" campaign in Novemlier, 1918, when 
se^-en great war work organizations united un- 
der one l)anner. Santa Clara County sounded 
an unanimous call for .\rthur D. Curtner to be 
its dri\-e leader. This intensel}- patriotic 
American was an outstanding figure liecause 
of his magnificent service in all war work un- 
dertaken by the community. The assisting 
Committee represented each l(.:)cal organization. 
Y. M. C. A., Herl,ert C. Jones; Nati^onal Cath- 
olic \\'ar Council, including Knights of Co- 
luml)US, M. h;. Griflith ; War Camp Community 
Serxice, E. N. Richmond; V'. A\'. C. A., Mrs. L. 
T. Smith ; Jewish Welfare Board, U. S. army 
and navy, J. H. Levy; Salvation Army, J. Al. 


Parker; American l,il)rar\' Assneiatinn, Stella ihe (ln\e for Iniicls was eii,L;iiU'ere(l entire]}' 1)\ 

Huntingtem. Santa Clara Cnunty's (|Uiita was the Chaniljer of Connneree with Fred 1^. h'os- 

raised with an o\ ersnhseription of $J5,(MM). ter as the capable and enerj_;-etie publicity 

The fifth \'ictor\- loan drive was carried to a.^ent. The real or,^■anlzatlon was perfected in 

success ag-ainst ,>;-rJat handicajis. The war was l'"-' 1:^11 <'f 1''15, aiid headquarters established 

over and^there was indiiTerence in the ].ublic in a room in the Chamber of Commerce 

mind. j. M. I'arker was the dri\e leader ])ar budding. 

excellence, lie stirred up the vx'orkers and all 'bhe first work under the new organization, 
went ^\"ell. W. S. Clayton and John K. Chacc with Mrs. J. W. l)a\\' chairman, was the rais- 
brcike their own records liy securing $,iKS,UOi' ing (jf a v'ohintar\- subscription of $2400 for 
in bond subscri]itions in four davs. A uni(jue the pin-chase of new clothing. After the big 
stunt ^\■as the X'olunteer 1 )ay air circus staged mass meeting v\iiich resulted in the shipment 
bv James 1'.. Leaman, I''. II. Chapin and A. b'... of warm new clothing, the mcinthl)' pledges 
Hcilmes. Airplanes from Alather Field circled became a feature cif the relief. These pledges, 
above the eonnt^•, drcipping 1 5,000 \'ictor\- loan Nuluntarih- signed, were the means (jf send- 
dodgers. On Ma)- Day, F'19, came the big I'e- ing from San Jose $400 a month in the begin- 
ception and parade to honor the bo}-s who ha>l ning; that increased to $600 and the last 
gone to the front and had come back heroes. month's gift amounted to $1,^00. Appro.-\i- 
bn the night of May 10, 1919, the drive jiassed niately $15,000 totaled the local subscriptions 
into history — an oversubscription, as usual. to this relief fund and that amount does not 
\A'ith the estaldishment of Camp I'remoin "nlude the first funds of $2600 for foodstulTs 
only twenty miles awa^■, and soldiers coming ^'"'l $--^^0 for new clothing, which were for- 
to San Jose bv hundreds, a place had to be \varded through the Stanford Fund before the 
provided w-here they might rest, rea.l and San Jose organization was com|dete. 
w-rite and eat. The Chan-ibier of Commerce In all there were four dri\-es for clothiu'r 
lost no time. Its ]n-esident. Dr. A\'. C. llaile>-, T\\-o of them \\-ere made in conjunction with 
immediately appointed Chas. R. Parkinson the National Red Cross. Afore than 25 tons 
ehairn-ian i_)f a committee to proxide a soldiers' of clothing were shii)]>ed o\-erseas as the result 
recreatic>n fund. An old fund left o\'er from a of appeals made during these four drives. One 
rose carnival auKjunting to several hnn<lred remarkable record of hel])fulness was made 1))- 
dollars, with accrued interest, w-as in the hands the Comforts Forwarding Committee of the 
of Alexander llart, the earni\-al treasurer. Christian Science Chnrcli, who gathered at 
This amount was turned over to the commit- their North First street headcpiarters one-tenth 
tee as a starter and made possible the oi)ening of all the clothing sent to Belgium during the 
of rooms in the Chaml.-ier of Con-inrerce build- last drne. From the Home of Truth on 
ing. Help was needed, as the boys kejit com- North Fifth street there has been issued no 
ing, and accordinglv- a committee of eight was record of the unlimited auKjunt of mone}- and 
appointed l:)y the \\'omen's National Council clothing they have sent across the sea. W'ork- 
of Defense to co-operate A\-ith the Chamber of ing independentl}- the_\- forwarded hundreds of 
Commerce. The members were }>Irs. Nicholas dollars and box after hox of clothing directl}- 
Bow-den, Mrs. I). .\. Beattie, Mrs. Fester to Aladame de Fleni|)tine, a Belgian woman 
Morse, Airs. [. \V. Da\}', Mrs. W. L. A\'ood- who conducted a refugee house at Calais, 
row-, Mrs. J. E. Hanci.ick, Mrs. Louis Sonnik- From first to last no money was used for ad- 
sen, Mrs. R. R. [ohnston and Mrs. C. R. Bark- ministration of this great mercv' fund. ' E\-ery 
inson, chairman. There was a reception and cent collected for Belgian Relief went to Bel- 
200 soldiers attended. Forty w-omen matle ,gium, sent by Jack Russell, of the Bank of 
themselves responsible for the club. Mrs. W. Italy, w-ho acted as treasurer. 
L. AVoodrowr was appointed chairman of the The committee w-ho served with Airs. J. \V. 
canteen; Mrs. Frank Leib, secretary; Airs. S. Da\-v' in this great humanitarian work w-ere 
A. Appleton, treasurer; Mrs. C. R. Parkinson, Miss Ida Wehner, Mrs. W. A. Beasly, Airs. S. 
director of ser\-ice. L'pon the aband(U-iing of C. Tompkins, Mrs. Charles R. Parkinson, Airs. 
Camp Fremont the club w-as closed. 4d-ie Thomas Blanchard, Airs. Edwin A. Wilcox, 
dishes and furnishings were given to worth)- Airs. Everett Bailey, Airs. D. A. Beattie, Airs. 
charities and to the center for women in indns- J. E. Bell, Airs. AV. A. Johnson, Airs. A. P. 
try established by the Y. W. C. A. Post, Airs. W. P. Lyon, Airs. H. L. Baggerly,, 
To help the Belgians San Jose did her ])art Airs. George Herbert, Mrs. Nicholas Bowden, 
from first to last. In January, 1915, at the call Airs. David Burnett, Airs. Edward Sterling, 
of Herbert Hoover, Dr. W. C. Bailey, presi- Airs. Paul Clark, Airs. Louis Sonniksen, Airs. 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce, called an Willard C. Bailey, Mrs. Leonard Stocking, 
important meeting, which resulted in $2,600 Mrs. Robert Syer, Airs. F. C. Singletary, Airs, 
worth of foodstuffs being sent to Belgium. George B. McKee, Airs, (ilendennmg, Mrs. E.. 



C. Richmond. .Mrs. Jay Elder, Mrs. M. E. 
Eaull, Mrs. Charles R. Wavland, Mrs. Arthur 
Eield, Mrs. T. H. Reed, Mrs. W. L. Woudrow, 
Mrs. W. P. Doiighert.v, Mrs. W. A. Water- 
house and Mrs. \\". AY. Campljell. In the 
schools Miss Mary Helen Post was in char^'e 
of the work at the Normal, Mrs. Mary Smith, 
V\'ashington School, and Miss Elizabeth Alc- 
Swain at the high school. 

Thousands of dollars went frt)m San Jose for 
Armenian and Serl:iian Relief. During two in- 
tensive drives for the suffering and starving 
people across the sea the local response 
amounted to more than $38,000.00. 

When the appealing needs of the Armenians 
became urgent, a meeting at the Y. \V. C. .V., 
on March 11. 1918, started the first Ing drive. 
Judge F. B. Brown led this campaign and J. D. 
Crummey took the treasurership. The amount 
apportioned locally was $12,000 with $3000 to 
come from the county outside of San Jose. 
The one fact of this relief fund Ijeing adminis- 
tered by a New York man who paid all ex- 
pense so that ever}- cent collected might go to 
Armenia was a feature of the drive. The en- 
tire quota was met under the efficient leader- 
ship of Judge Brown and Mr. Crummey aided 
by the following executive committee, Cap- 
tains and assistants at headquarters : 

Executive committee: Judge F. B. Brcnvn, 
Mrs. W. A. Alexander, Rev. R. S. Emrich, 
Rev. E. A. King, Hon. H. Jones and Mrs. D. 
A. Beattie. At headc[uarters : Mrs. Flickinger, 
Mrs. Hull and Miss Bishop who re|)resented 
Mr. Crumme\". Captains: Mrs. F. M. Eley, 
iMrs. D. W. Gilchrist, Mrs. J. \\". Lewis, Air's. 
M. Y. McCurdy, Mrs. Charles Crothers, Mrs. 
A. T. Hermann, Mrs. E. A. Wilcox, Mrs. E. 
Richards, E. Y. P.usch, A. C. Wilkins and 
George N. Herbert. 

James Beatt}-, manager of the Liberty HMica- 
ter, jjresented the committee through George 
N. Herbert's team with 200 theater tickets for 
each month of the year, a gift that supported 
10 children for the entire period. The crest of 
giving came on Saturday, March 6, 1918, with 
a respimse of $4,222.00 vSan Jt)se's entire 
Armenian subscri])ticin during this "Judge 
Brown drive" took care of 1598 children' 1000 
men and 1000 women in the destitute country 
that looked to California for help and did not 
look in vain. 

The second drive for allied relief, headed b)- 
Charles M. (J'Brien. chairman, and carried r)ut 
with the machiner}- of the War Work Council, 
began Januar}- 14, PM9. With a (|ur)ta of 
$22,000, asked over $23,000 was given. The 
armistice silenced the guns and out of that 
silence the cry for help came. From the l)e- 
ginning the Jofifre Club, Club La France, the 
San Jose branch of civil and military relief 

under the direction of Mrs. Victor Cauhape 
sent hundreds of dollars and tons and tons of 
supplies, while societies and individuals 
adopted French orphans. 

The county members of the War Work 
Council did their part nobly during the war. 
They were : 

Alviso — Geo. E. Nicholson, chairman : W. F. 
Rtjl^ideaux, D. IL Wade. W. F. Zankors, A. 
Standish, J. M. Fords, Geo. T. Gallagher, H. J. 
Richards, committeemen. 

Cupertino — W. 15. Calvert, chairman ; John 
1-vudy, Paul Goodhue, Chas. Lowe, Dr. A. M. 
Coleman, Antcm Pichetti, C. L. Rich, vice- 
chairman. Committeemen — G. ^V. Blair, C. D 
Bambauer, W. A. Buick, Grant Barton, 
A. McDonald, L A. Ball, F. A. Ball, Paul 
Coolidge, M. L. Dow, K. A. Friednch, C. R. 
Forge, E. H. Freeman, J. Frost, Paul Jones, 
\Y. Jellyman, H. H. Mosher, E. J. Parrish, W. 
Paslv, )as. Patterson, E. N. Pettit, F. M. Pfei- 
fer, Ch'as. Rostand, F. A. Taft, O. B. Woods, 
C. E. Warren. 

Campbell — J. C. Ainsley, chairman ; W. 
Eckles, J. E. Weisendanger, W. T. Hobson, 
John F. Duncan, Geo. L. Parso, Earl Knapp. 
vice-chairmen; J. L. Hagelin, Hiram Hutton, 
A, C. Keesling, W. H. Llo_yd, Geo. Payne, S. 
G. Rodeck, Harry H. Smith, C. H. Whitman, 
H. E. Brandenberg, B. (J. Curry. Dr. C. M. 
Cooper, William Coupland. E. A. Colby, 
Frank Dunucan, C. E. Hanger. 

Evergreen — J. P. Shaml)eau, chairman ; com- 
mitteemen — Albert A. Anderson. Peter Ben- 
nett, A. H. Burk, R. H. Beck, H. L. Coates, 
W. L. Edwards, John A. Fair, L Cover, Fred 
Hassler, Henry 1. Hart, M. J. Haley, John S. 
Hensell, J. O. Flansen, Henry Krehe, W. A. 
Kammerer, Clem A. Kettman, Frank H. 
Kampfen, Theo. Klein, A. L. Leal, Fred May, 
Fred Martin, N. Macher, L. Monferino, A. K. 
McClay, August Nelson, F. W. Osterman, 
Manuel Pereira, Wm. Provan, Francis Smith, 
Michael Tierney, Fred Weld. E. B. Williams' 

Gilroy — E. D. Crawford, chairman ; commit- 
teemen— John Abincino, A. S. Pjaldwin. Dan 
Burr, A. W. Cox, H. Carl, Pcrcv Dexter, C H 
Emlen, W. G. Fitzgerald, H.'Hecker. H. S. 
Hersman, Chas. Lester, Tracv Learned, A. A. 
Martin. R. M. Martin, Fay McOuilkin,' H. E. 
Roliinson, Wm. Sawyer, G. A. Wentz. 

Los Gatos— J. D. Farwell, chairman ; | A 
Case, J. W. Crider, L. E. Johns. H. L. ijoyd 
Ed Howes, J. C. Walker, C. F. }lainsher, Z. s' 
Riggo, C. H. Squire, Dr. H. E. Smith, J. B. 

Morgan Hill — C. F. Drcwrv, chairman; |ohn 
Acton. W^m. PL Adams. J.'C. Ahern, Robt. 
Britton, ]i. Bosqui, Chas. P,eck. D. H. Bechis, 
Luther Cunningham, F. V. Edwards, E. F. 



Eastman, R. H. L'atcholl, Irwin ]•.. I'a\ne, II. 
A. I'epen, C. 1'. Simpson. 

Burnett — L'cter Ra^oio, chairman; I'. II. 
Kirby. P. A. Walsh, K.' I,. Norton. 

Encinal — Frank Ste\cns, chairman; H. A. 
Peppin, Burt Ste\ ens. Peter Ramelli. 

Llag-as — T. A. Hester, chairman; \V. H. 
Adams, Harry Wright, C. I'. Simpson. 

Maehado — R. K. Patehell, chairman; Rob- 
ert Britton, D. \\. Strickenl)erg. 

San Martin — R. S. Robinson, chairman; 
Chas. Beck, H. Robinson, M. T. Gwiiin. 

Uvas — Giles Bradley, chairman; lien Bos- 
qui, Ed Eastman. 

jNlilpitas — E. P. Giacomazzi, chairman ; G. 
A. Abell, Lawrena Barker, A. L,. Crabb, Law- 
rence Hansen, Dr. R. j. Smith, A. M. Silva, Jr. 

Mountain \'ie\v — \V. L. Camp, chairman ; 
Dr. C. E. Adams. F. B. Abbott. W. E. Bubb. 
A. M. Crittenden. Geo. Chickonch, C. H. 
Clark, H. G. Childs, H. G. Copeland, E. Drake, 
T. 1. Evans, Edwin Earl, Hans Ehlers, M. 
Farrell, Chas. A. Gray, Fred P. Hauck. \V. E. 
Hyde. B. W. HoUman, Barney J0I3. A. Jurian. 
Frank Jackson, W. N. Jess. P. Klem! J. E. 
Johnson, Jas. Logue, Chas. N. Lake. V. Alar- 
cov, J. S. Mockb'ee. Chas. E. Marcum. P. D. 
Newman, F. S. C)liver, Geo. S. Parkinson, j\. 
S. Robinson, H, A. Rengstroff, P. Al. Smith, 
Geo. Swall, Gu}- Shoup, J. J. Taylor. L. H. 
Watson. O. A\'. AX'haley, R. (J. Winnegar, 
S. A. Winnegar, Chas. W. A\'right. W'm. P. 
Wright. R. H. Walker. 

Berryessa — Harry Curr}-. chairman ; Albert 
Foster, Floyd Lundy. W. E. Aloore, Joe Rod- 
rigues, J. A\'. Smith. 

Eagle — L. E. Graham, chairman; C. A. Bur- 
chers, James T. ]\lurph}-, John P. \'ennum. 

( )rchard — J. J. (J'P>rien, chairman; W. B. 
Clark, Frank A. Leis, Richard McCarth}-. 

Alt. Hamilton — Dr. W'm. W. Campbell, 
chairman; Dr. R. C. Aitken. Air. Beach, R. H. 
Tucker, J. Ploover. Dr. J. II. Aloore, E. H. 
Robinson, Lester Hubbard, Paul (icrber, F. 

Palo Alto — G. R. I'arkinson, chairman ; B. G. 
Allen, W'. H. Adams, J. R. Andrus, L. E. Bas- 
sett, Jas. Basye, A\'. J. Biehl. L. S. Bean. Ira G. 
Betts". J. H. Borden. 'AI. A. I'.uchan. L. L. Bur- 
lingame. J. D. By.xliee. Jr.. Geo. F. Brown, 
Geo. J. Carey, Ed Cashel, A. Al. Cathcart. C. 
E. Childs, A. B. Clark, B. W. Crandall, H. F. 
Congdon, C. P. Cooley, W, A. Cooper, D. C. 
Craig, William Transton, [. L. Dixon, |. Dud- 
field, L J. Dollmgo, Rev. David Evans, O. M. 
Easterday, Chas. Ellett, Alfred Englc, J. F. 
Farrell, R. S. Faxson, Airs. I'red Fo\\der. Airs. 
Alarion H. Fowler, James Frazer, Dr. D. Chas. 
Gardner, C. H. Gilbert, Rev. |. Al. Gleason, J. 
E. Greene. R. L. Green, N. W. Gleaser, F. W^ 
Heckett, V. V. Harrier, Theo. J. Hoover, T. 

Hopkins, Rev. Walter Hays, \\. :\. Hettinger, 
J. I{. Ilcsston, C. A. Huston, W. ( ). llorabin, 
A. Al. Hackett, |. |urv, Iv K. Kasson, W. H. 
Kelly, Aliss Alary \. Lockey. Kee Leung. ]'. AI, 
Eansdale, Egerlon Lakin. (. B. Larkin. (j. 
Laumeisler, George Lillie, R. N. Alalone, Aliss 
Aland Alanaton, C. D. Alarx, W. R. Alenden- 
hall, G. E. Alercer, F. |. Al. Aides, f. P. Alit- 
chell, W. E. Aliller, H."|. Aloule, A. L. Alurrv, 

A. K. .Macoon, J. E. AIcDowell, W. H. Nichols, 
Louis ( )lsen, E. T. Pennock. Prof. (j. F. 
Pierce, Capt. S. Al. Parker, G. C. Price, W. W. 
Price, J. F. Pryor, Robt. C. Ray, (). U. Rhodes, 
Roger AI. Roberts, F, Schneider, A. Seale, PL 
W. Simkins, J. R. Slonaker, N. B. Smith, J, O. 
Snyder. W. E. Southwood, Mrs. Maud A. Strat- 
ton, R. E. S\\ain E. C. Thoits. Ray Saylor. T. 
Goshida. J. C. Thiele. AI. H. Tichnor. Monroe 
Thomas. S. D. Townley, Louis Taylor. T. 
Uchizono. S. Al. Vander\'oort. D. S. Watson. 
R. J. Wells. Ray Lyman A\'ilbur. Geo. Wil- 
liams. IL 1. Ir\-ing, Herbert A\'iIson, Chas. 
AA'eeks, W. K. Woolerv, A. E. Worthy, R H 

Pala — Charles Turner, chairman ; ]. W. An- 
derson, Edward I. Field, J. P. Lacerda, An- 
drew Patton, J. F. Pyle. 

Saratoga — Dr. L G. Hogg, chairman ; Rev. 

B. Z. Bazata, L. C. Dick, S. P. Patterson, J. L. 

Sunnyvale — C. C. Spaulding, chairman ; F. 
X. Boden, J. M. Brown, F. E. Cornell, Frank 
Earry, F. B. Hughes, W. A. Larman, Rev. C 
G. Alarshall, Rev. H. P Roberts, W. R. R.jb- 
erts, C. W. Shepard, C. W. Spalding,' Leo, H. 
Vishoot, J. H. Hendy, F. C. Wilson, J. C. 
Sutherland, J. F. Holthouse, A. P. Freeman. 

A'alley View — J. L. Mosher, chairman; Nel- 
son Barton, Oscar Benson, Jerr)' Cannon, Fred 
P. Hauck, Plarry Johnson, Jack Alayne. 

Santa Clara — Dr. A. E. Osborne, chairman; 
P. A. Brangier, Alfred L. Brown, A\'. T. 
Brown, Jos. Boschken, Robert Fatjo, Chas. 
Grimmer, P. Hayes, Geo. Hamilton, Ralph 
Alartin, J. B. O'P'rien, I. A. Pomeroy, Geo, A. 
Penniman, Robert Porter, Henr\- R. Roth, 
Chas. D. South ,F. R. Shafter, A\'.' S. Sulli\an, 
Dr. L. Stockton, F, A. Wilcox, B. F. Weston, 
I. A, Wilcox. 

Franklin — S. W. Pfeifle, chairman; John 
Barry, F. H. Buck, J. Jepson, Fred G. Wool. 

Oak Grove — (J. Christofer, chairman ; C. W. 
Aby, Chas. Frost, Jr., A. C. Robertson, J. H. 

Santa Clara County sent to the front nearly 
3000 soldiers. Following are the names of our 
men ^\d^o made the supreme sacrifice: 

Elias Ananstasion. Joseph E. Andrade, Har- 
vey C. Barnes, Joseph Basseile, Robert J. Ben- 
nett, Barnard M. Bustard, Antonio Camastro, 
Joseph L. Cancilla, Louis \\ Castro, Hugh L. 


Carney, Harrisdn J. Cleaver, Charles C. Crews. Nichols, Frank H. Nichols, Frank J. Nunes, 
Arthnr C. Chiles, Charles C. Cook, William Mervin Neugrass, Charles H. Pappassi, An- 
Couch, AA'illiani F. Co\ill, Thomas J. Clnnie, tone Parades, Joe Prader, John E. Pashote, 
A\'illiam M. de la Rochelle. Frank "Devoney. Albert G. Perkins, Manuel" O. Perry, A. E. 
John J. Dorsey, Rolibecole Disappa, Ray F. Preston, John F. Pereira, Paul J. Pinnola, An- 
Dugdale, Norman Dunbar. Elmer IT. Flagg, gelo R. Pinto, John Pourroy, John Regan, Ern- 
Elmer L. Fresher, James G. Ferguson, Hiram est R, Rines, Leon Rolx'rts, Joseph L. Rose, 
B. Fisher, Ben Garcia. Tonev P. Gomes. Lome Alanuel R. Rose. J. S. Rumsey, Seeley T. 
A. (70t)de, Wilmer J. Gross, Fred A. Hall, Carl Shaw, Fredrick E. Sanders, Elvyn B. Sedam, 
J. Hagel, Frank ]. Hagen, Jr., Walter Hart- Gilbert Spencer, Harry N. vSchneider, Law- 
man, A\'alter A. Hilden, ]\Ier\ vn J. Hoadlev, rence \A'. Schrier, Ira M. Smith, Anton Sigurd, 
Maltria Huge1)ack, jarvis J. Johnson, Iose]ih Sidnev W. Simpson, Thomas Short, John G. 
F. Kelly, Arthur C. Kimlier. Ralph V. heg- Sturlo, Joseph V. Spingola, Verne I. Taylor, 
gctt, AA'alter Logan, Leo T. r^lcCanlev. Maurice John L. Timosci. I^'rank B. Tost, Nick J, Vac- 
F. ^lanha, Lester J. Mclvinley, David E. Mc- carello, IManuel J. Vargas, John J. Voss, Clark 
Comel, Bruno Montorosso, Frank J. Murrin, B. AA^aterhouse, Harold \A'oolf, .Mbert F. 
Sahatore Muro, Daniel J. Narvies. Allan H. Wooley, h'arl C. ^'oung. 


History of the Lick Observatory on the Summit of Mt. Hamilton — The 
Eccentricities of James Lick, the Philanthropist — What He Did for 
San Jose. 

The greatest \\(irk nf man in vSanta Clara Coast Range is seen as the last climb up is 
County and San Jose's greatest asset is the made. The road winds in and out through 
Lick 6bser\-atory on the summit of Mt. Ham- shad}- nooks, around liold promontories and 
ilton, which is provided with the liest and most up and up, often doubling upon itself, while the 
complete astronomical a])pliances in the ^\'orld. higher (tne climbs, the grander the majestic 
The distance from San Jose to the summit of panorama of mountains and \'alleys that 
the mountain is twenty-se\'en miles, Init in an s])reads out on e\-ery hand, and soon tile great 
air line it is much shr.rter. so that if one stands \'alle>- of Santa Clara, with San Jose 1)ut a 
in the streets of the cit^• anrl Icioks at the Coast sliady spot, pee])s oNcr the two intervening- 
Range mountains he wlW see, a little south of ridges. The crookedness of the road may be 
east, the great \\diite dome glittering in the imagined from the fact that tliere are ,i65 turns 
sunshine and looking benignly on the ^■alle^'. between the base at Smith Creek and the ob- 
The drive to the summit is entrancing. The serxatory on the summit. 

visitor motors out on Santa Clara Street and The Lick Olxservatory was the donation to 

across Coyote Creek enters Alum Rock the LIniversity of California by James Lick. 

Avenue, a continuation of Santa Clara Street, ^\■ho became immensely \\'ealthy through min- 

and the broad, fine highway to the baths, min- ing and real estate \-entures. The ]irominence 

eral springs and scenic ])eauties of the City \\hich he achieved by his princely gift to sci- 

Reservation. -\ little over three miles from encc caused people from all o\-er the county to 

San Jose the visitor turns to the right and be- recall incidents of his life, and these have been 

gins to ascend the first ridge of mountains, .gathered and wt)ven into a connected narrative. 

The road is winding, but broad and safe, and w hich is herewith ]iresented. 

the grade is eas)-. The beautiful valley, A\dth James Lick was b(jrn in Fredericksburg, Pa., 

San Jose in the center, spreads out before him. August 25, 1796. His ancestors were of Ger- 

He passes f)\-er tliis ridge and plunges into man extraction and spelled the famih- name 
Hall's Vallc}' ; crossing udiich, \\-ith its lo\-ely "Liik." His gran<lfatlier had come to .'Vmerica 
homes and ranches, he begins to ascend another earh- in the centur\- and had ser\ed in the 
ridge. This is soon crossed and the ^•^sitor army of Washington during the Revolutionary 
descends again into a little valley through AVar. Nothing is known of the life of Lame's 
which runs Smith Creek, a fa\-(jrite trout Lick until he arri\ed at the age of twenty- 
stream. Here he finds a large hotel and garage, seven and entered himself as an apprentice to 
and before him looms Mt. Hamilton, seven an (jrgan maker at Hanover, Pa. He worked 
miles up the hill. The beautiful scenery of the here for a short time and in 1819 took a posi- 



tion in the em|)l(iy of juseph Hiskey, a ])rom- 
inent piann inamilacturfr of Haltii'nore, Md. 
An incident of his experience there has l)een 

One day a penniless youth named Conrad 
Meyer applied at the factory for employment. 
He attracted the fanc}' of James Rick, who 
took the stranger in charge, provided him with 
food and proper clothing and secured for him 
a place in the estahlishment. The friendsliip 
thus formed lasted through life. In 1854 the 
])ianos of Conrad Meyer ti)ok first prize in the 
London International Exhibition, their maker 
possessing an immense factor}- in Philadeliihia 
and ranking as one of the most eminent piano 
makers in the United States. 

in 1820 James Lick left the employ of His- 
key and went to New York, expecting to start 
in Inisiness on his own account. This Acnture 
was restricted l)y his lack of capital, and, if 
attempted at all, was brief, for in the following 
year he left the United States for Buenos 
Ayres, South America, with the intention of 
devoting himself there to his trade. He found 
the Buenos A^reans of tliat periled a singularlv 
handsome and reiined race of almost purely 
Spanish extraction, and attaining by their mode 
of life in that fine climate a remarkable ph\-s- 
ical development. B_\- careful attention to Inisi- 
ness he prospered among them, accumulating a 
competence during the first ten years of his 
stay. "In 1832," writes his friend, Conrad 
Meyer, m the Philadelphia Bulletin, "I was in 
business on Fifth Street, when I was suddenly 
surprised one day at seeing James Lick walk 
in. He had just arrived from South America 
and had brought with him hides and nutria 
skins to the amount of $40,000, which he was 
then disposing of. Nutria skins are obtained 
from a species c>f otter found along the River 
La Plata. He said that he intended settling 
in Philadelphia, but in a few days left for New 
York, and from there sailed to Buenos Ayres. 
There he filled several piano orders, settled his 
afifairs and sailed for Valparaiso, Chile, \vhere 
for four years he pursued his vocation. His 
next ^•enture was in Callao, L'eru, where he 
li\ed for eleven years, occup}"ing himself in 
manufacturing pianos and making occasional 
investments in commercial enterprises. That 
he was successful is shown in the statement 
made by himself that in 1845 he was worth 
$59,000.' Resolving to try California, he sold 
his stock for $30,000. This mone}', wdiich was 
in Spanish doubloons, he secured in a large 
iron safe wdiich he l)rought with him to Cali- 
fornia. Among the odd articles which James 
Lick brought from Peru was the work-l)ench 
he had used in his trade. It was not an elal:>- 
orate affair and the object of its deportation to 
■ California, the land of timber, hardly appears, 
unless he had acquired an affection for this 

comjianion of his daily lalxjrs. He retained 
this bench tiirougli all his California experi- 

\\r. Ij'ck ;irri\ed in San iM-ancisco late in 
1847. ,\t that time there was httle to indi- 
cate tile future prosperity of tlie Pacific Coast. 
Cahfornia Street was its southern lioundary, 
^ylllIe Sansome Street was on the water front. 
Sand (hiiies stretched out to the h(jrizrm on 
the south and east, an occasional shanty break- 
ing the monotony of the landscape. Mr. Lick 
quietly invested nnmey in these sand hills, 
paying dollars for lots that ^vere not consid- 
ered 1>)- the inhabitants to be ^vorth cents. He 
came to Santa Clara Count}- at an early day 
and purchased the property north of San Jose, 
on the Guadalupe, wdiich Avas afterwards 
known as the Lick's Mills property. He also 
bought the tract of land just inside the present 
southern cit}- limits wdiich was afterwards 
named the Lick Homestead. All these lands 
were then vacant and unimproved. 

During seven years after his arri\al in Cali- 
fornia ^Ir. Lick did no business other than 
the inxestment of his money. The first im- 
proNcment cjf his property \\'as made on the 
Lick Mill Tract. An old flour mill had stood 
niKiii the propert}- \vhen he bought it in 1852, 
and this fact ma}- lia\e influenced him in his 
decision to build his own mill on the site of 
the old one. In 1853 he began to la}' plans 
and gather material for the construction. In 
1855 the work started and to those wdio saw 
the structure rise, it was the wonder of the 
time. The wood composing the interior finish 
was of the finest mahogany, finished and inlaid 
in the most elegant and expensive st^de. The 
machiner}- imported for the works ^\-as of a 
qualit}' ne\-er before sent out to the Pacific 
Coast. The entire cost of the mill was $200,- 
000. AAdien put in operation it turned out the 
finest brand of flour in the state. 

There is a romantic legend ])reser\-ed in the 
memory of the old acquaintances of fames 
Lick wdiich explains the origin of this mill. 
The tale runs that \vhen Lick was a boy he 
was apprenticed to a miller, wdio. besides be- 
ing ])ossessed of a competency and a flourish- 
ing business, had also an exceedingly ])rettv 
daughter. Strange as the assertion ma}- seem 
to those who were accpiainted onlv w-ith the 
unlovely old age of this strange character, 
James Lick was a coniel}- }-oung man, and 
upon him the miller's daughter cast approving 
eyes. Lick met her more than half wa}- and a 
warm attachment sjirang up between the ap- 
jirentice and the heiress. The old miller, how- 
ever, soon saw the drift of matters and inter- 
posed his parental authorit}- to break the 
course of true lo\"e. Young Lick declared he 
loved the girl and wished to marrv her. There- 
upon the miller became indignant and, point- 


\ng to his mill, exclaimed: "Out, j'ou heg-.g-ar ! space had not Lick sold the Post Street corner 

Dare you cast your eyes upon my daugfliter, to the Masons. At the time of its construction 

who will inherit my riches? Have you a mill the hotel was the finest on the Pacific Coast, 

like this? Have you a single penny in your Its interior finish was, in the main, designed 

purse?" To this tirade Lick replied that he by Lick himself, who took special pride in the 

had nothmo; as yet, but one day he would have selection of fine materials and in their combi- 

a mill beside which this one would be a pigsty, nation in artistic and eft'ective forms. The 

Lick at once departed and after a time drifted dining^ room floor was a marvel of beautiful 

to California, seeking the fortune he deter- woodwork, made (jut of many thousand pieces 

mined to possess, a determination that never and all polished like a table, 

afterwards for a moment left him. Nor did That part of the history of James Lick which 

he forget his last words to the miller. When ligg between the years 1861 and 1873 is full of 

he was a rich man he built this mill, and when interest to those who desire to form a correct 

he had finished there had been nothing left un- estimate of the man. The course of affairs 

done which could have added to the ])erfection h^d amply justified his early judgment of the 

of Its appointments. Its machinery was per- f^,ture values of California rearestate. His 

feet and its walls, floors anrl ceilings were of sand-hill lots, bought for a song^ in 1848, grew 

costly woods. Not being able to firing the 

to be golden islands of wealth in the rising 

miller to view the realization of his boyish streams of California trade. The inyestments 

declaration. Lick had the mill photographed jn Santa Clara County all yielded rich returns, 

within and without, and although his sweet- By the very bulldog tenacity with which he 

heart had long since been married, he sent her hung to his transactions, he became during the 

father the pictures and recalled to him the day ■60s one of the wealthiest men on the Pacific 

he boasted of his Pennsylvania mill. Coast. His reputation, too, was state-wide. 

Although the mahogany mill gratified Lick's made so not only by his wealth but also by the 

pride in its construction and in the brand of rumor of his eccentricities. 

his product, it was not a financial success. The ^ -^ ..g^^ probable that the advancing age of 

periodical floods of the Guadalupe River m- j.^^.,^^ lj^,]^ ^^^,^^^1 ^,p,„., ^jg nature in develop- 

undated the land about it, destroyed his orch- j^g „.,(,, ^^.^-^^.^ eccentricities the natural pecu- 

ards and roads and interfered with the opera- Harities of his disposition. Most of the pio- 

tion of the mill. neers who remember him during ithe first 

In the year 1873 he surprised everybody by decade of his California career, describe him 

the gift of the whole property to the Thomas as a close, careful, self-contained man, cold and 

Paine Memorial Association of IJoston. For somewhat crabbed of dispositum, going his 

some years he had been a close student and ,,^y^j lonely way in business and in life. Those 

great admirer of the writings of Paine, and he ^vho knew him between 1861 and 1873 inten- 

took this means of proving the faith that was m ^jfy t^j.^^, characteristics and declare him to 

him. On January 16, 1873, he made a formal ^ayg been miserly, irascible, selfish, solitary; 

transfer of the property to certain named trus- ,,„£ ^y]^,-, cherished little affection for his race 

tees of the association, imi.osing upon them ^„- i^-,„_ ^nd whose chief delight appeared to lie 

the trust h, sell the property and donate one- jn the indulgence of the whims of a thorny 

half of the proceeds to the building of a me- ^nd unfragrant old age. Others who knew 

morial hall m Boston, and so invest the other ^m, ^^y that beneath "the ice of his outward 

half that a lecture course could be maintained nature flowed the warm currents of a philan- 

out of the income. The association sent an thropic heart. 

ag"ent to California to look over the acquisi- 'pi,„ + ■ c t ■ ^ ■ ^ ■ 

:=■ ., .11 -.1 ■, AwA . J "e stones of Lick s eccentric career are 

tion, with po\ver to deal witli it. Without „ , ,. „ i • nr t xi ■ .■ r* 

', . ' , • 1 ,1 , , , ,1 numerous and amusing. Most of his time after 

consulting Air. l^ick, the agent sold the i)rop- .i,„ , ,„ i <-• t i ■ i ^ i . • i 

r t .,N,orw,^ 4 '? ■ 1 1- 1 t'le Completion ot his hotel was spent in and 

ertv for about il8, UUU, at which proceeding the ^i ,,. o' t \<. t; <- i r i i- 

, • 1- ,1 4i i 1 1 . r. • aljout San Jose. At first he lived upon his 

donor was scj disgusted that lie lost all interest ,„:ii ,, „ / ^ ■, : i i ^ 

, , 4 r ,1 4i • 1- ,1 r "ii" property, and uijon it he began early to 

m the ad\-ancement ot the tlieones ot the fa- ,^. ,,, , ' .■ ■ i ■ i i ..i r I- -i 

. ^, , set out trees ot various kinds, both tor trnit 

mous 1 .e . ^j^jI ,,rnament. He held some curious theories 

The next scheme of improvement to which about tree-])lanting and believed in the eft^cacy 

Lick turned his attention was the erection of ,,f a bone deposit about the roots of everV 

the Lick Hotel m San Francisco. He had young tree. Many are the yarns told bv old 

bought the property for an ounce of gold dust residents about his action. It was a frequent 

.soon after his arrival m California, and until sight to see him going along the highway in 

1861 it had lain idle and unimproved. The lot an old rattle-trap, rope-tied wagon, with a 

originally extended the entire length of the bearskin robe for a seat cushion, stopjiing 

block on Montgomery Street from Sutter to every now and then to gather in the l.tones of 

Post, and the hotel would ha\e covered this Some dead animal. There is a storv extant, 

lllSTdin' ()1' SANTA CLARA t'OL^NTN' 197 

and pruhahly well fdumlcd. \\liicli illuslratcs which he [Kissessed. For nian\- \eai-s preced- 

the odd means he employed Id seenre hired ini;- the lie(piest he had been a wide reader. Me 

hel]> at (ince trnstworthy and dl.edient. ( )ne studied ever)liiino- written In' and df Thdinas 

day while he was planting- his .irehard a man I'aine and made his own ^vdrks cdnform t(i 

applied td him for work, l.ick directed Inni I'aine's opinions. It is related that while he 

ti. take the trees he indicated to a certain part was eni;-a,i;-ed m the imprdvenient n\ the hick 

of the i;-roimds and there to ])lant them with 1 loniestead jiroperty he hecame involved in an 

the tdps ill the soil and the rdots in the air. ar.o-unient ^\■ith the late Adoljih 1 Mister, win. 

The man oheyed the directions to the letter served several terms as iiiavor of the citv, o\'er 

and reported in the evenino- for further orders. some reli,i,nous suhject, when Plister sugi^ested 

Lick went out, xiewed the work with aiijiarent that Lick put td practical proof the merits of 

satisfaction, and then ordered the man to plant I'aineism as ccmtrasted \\-ith other moral agen- 

the trees the ])ro]-)er wa}-, and thereafter to cies, hy the erection of a grand college on his 

continue m his employ. ])roper'ty for the educatid'n of y(-iung men in 

.Another story, similar to this, is handed the Paine doctrine. Lick was impressed ^\'ith 

down and is entireh' authentic. Lick at one the idea and it is not imprtihahle that it found 

time A\"as the owner of what is now- the Iviiox form in the gift of the mill ])rdperty to the 

block, on the northwest corner of h'irst and 1 'aine .Vssociation of l)ost(jn. 

Santa Clara streets. A hre having destroyed ( )n February 13, 1873, Lick executed two 

the btiildings, much deln-is df burnt and broken gift deeds, one to the California Academy of 

brick was scattered alxiut the lot. ( )ne da\- Science, the other to the Sdciety rif California 

while Lick was viewing the ruins a young l'i(-)neers. To the first named he granted a 

man applied to him for work and was in- lot of forty feet frontage on Market Street, 

structed to collect a certain quantity of bricks near L'ourth, San Francisco, and to the last 

and pile them neatly in a Corner. This he did, named a lot of like dimensions on Fourth 

and on reporting was told to take the same Street near .Market. 'Lhese gifts he clogged 

bricks back and pile them neatly in another with certain conditions which were deemed 

corner. AA'ithout protest the Vdung man exe- irksome b}- the trustees. The matter was at 

cuted this singular order, and was at once reg- issue ^\d^en Lick died, but after his death a 

ularly employed. compromise satisfactorv tij the donees was 

AMien Lick found that the floods interfered effected. 

^vith the impro^'ement of his mill projierty, he The trust deed 1>\' v\dn'ch Lick ga\-e all his 

transferred his operations to the tract of land remaining propertv- to charitaljle and educa- 

south of San Jose, for a long time known as tional objects was dated June 2, 1874. Among 

the Lick Homestead Addition. I'resentlv the the pro\isions of this instrimient was one giv- 

residents of San Jose witnessed a strange spec- ing to San Jose $23,000 for the purpose of es- 

tacle. Day after day long trains of carts anrl taldishing an orphan asyhnn, and another ap- 

wagons passed slowdy through the cit\-, carr^'- ])ropriating $700,000 for establishing an ob- 

ing tall trees and full-grown shrubberv from servatory on land belonging to L^ick, near Lake 

the cdd to the new location. \\'inter and sum- Tahoe. An investigation of the appropriate- 

mer alike the work went on, the old man su- ness of the site Avas at once set on foot. It 

perintending it all in his old rattle-trap w^agon was soon ascertained that the severity of the 

anrl bearskin robe. He imported from Aus- climate in winter about the chosen location 

tralia some rare trees and had brought with would seriously interfere with the effective op- 

them wh(de shiploads of their nati\e earth, erations of the telescopes and with the com- 

C)nce he conceived the idea of building con- fort of the visiting pul)lic. Lick then deter- 

ser\-atories superior tci any on the Coast, and mined to make a change of site and looked 

for that purpose he had imported from England fa\-orably toward Mt. St. Helena, in Napa 

the materials for two large conser\atories after Count}-. He visited St. Helena and ascended 

the model of those in Kew Gardens, London, part ^va^■ to its summit, but before he had pur- 

His death occurred before he could have these sued his investigations far enough to reach a 

constructed and they remained on the hands conclusion his mind was directed to Santa 

of his trustees until a body of San Francisco Clara Count}'. 

gentlemen contributed funds for their jnirchase Although out of the large amount of prop- 
and donation to the use of the public in Golden erty distributed bv Lick, San Lise received but 
Gate Park, wdiere in full construction they now ,$25,000, the people of the city'were very grate- 
stand, to the wonder and delight of all who ful and acknowledged their gratitude in a well- 
visit this beautiful resort. worded series of resolutions prepared by Judge 

It was in the year 187,^, when James Lick Eelden and adopted by the mayor and common 
was seventv-seven years cdd. that he ])egan to council. The resolutions were beautifully en- 
make those donations of the then vast estate graved and officialh' transmitted to Mr. Lick 



in San Francisco. Other recipients of the mil- 
honaire's benefactions had either responded 
coldly or had made no response at all. There- 
fore the action of San Jose greatly pleased 
Lick and caused him to think that he had not 
done as much as he should for the county that 
had long been his home. The resolutions 
reached him at a time when he was in d()ul)t 
as to the location of the observatory, and he 
consulted his confidential agent, Thomas E. 
Fraser, as to the availability of the mountain 
summits east and west of San Jose. Fraser 
referred Lick to Alt. Hamilton "and was in- 
structed to ascend the mountain's top and 
make thorough investigations. In ; August, 
1875, Fraser, accompanied l:>y Mayor B. D. 
ATurphy, went to the summit, found it free 
from fog, ef|uable of climate and generally 
suitable for the oljservatory's location. Mr. 
I^ick then addressed a communication to the 
board of supervisors offering to locate the ob- 
ser\atory on Mt. Hamilton if the county would 
construct a road to the summit. The facts con- 
cerning the building of the road will be found 
in the chapter on County (nivernment and 
(x>od Roads. 

In the meantime. Lick had found that his 
deed of trust did not express his intentions; 
tliat a strict construction of its terms would 
postpone the carrjang into effect of his bene- 
factions until after his death. He wanted the 
^vork U) he pushed for\\-ard during his life- 
time. After duly considering these matters, he 
addressed a communication to his trustees, set- 
ting forth his conclusions and intentions, re- 
\oking the deed and asking them to resign. 
The trustees consulted a lawyer and upon his 
advice declined to resign, for the alleged rea- 
son that they had already cnn\ erted about a 
million dollars of the real estate into monev 
and could not be relie\'ed from respijusiliility 
l)y the dictum of Mr. Lick. This lirought 
aliout a C()ntro\■crs^■ "with the trustees wdiich 
at first threatened disaster to the I)eneficiaries. 
)ohn B. Felton was Lick's att(jrne\', and in- 
stead of precipitating his client into a lawsuit 
he used the c(jlumns of the newspapers so vig- 
orously that the trustees became disgusted and 
made up an agreed case by which the courts 
relieved them of res])onsil)ility and annulled the 

On Seplem1)er 21, IH7S. a new and final deed 
was executed, \\-ith Richard S. Floyd, Iiernard 
D. Murphy, Foxan D. Atherton, John H. Lick 
and John Nightingale as trustees. The clause 
in the deed in reference to tlie observatory is 
as follows : 

"Tliird — To expend the sum of seven hun- 
dred thousand dollars ($700,000) for the pur- 
pose of purchasing land and constructing and 
jnitting upon such land as shall Ije designated 

by the party of the first part, a powerful tele- 
scope, superior to and more powerful than any 
telescope yet made, with all the machinery ap- 
pertaining thereto and appropriately connected 
therewith, or that is necessary and convenient 
to the most powerful telescope now in use, or 
suited to one more powerful than any yet con- 
structed ; and also a suitable observatory con- 
nected therewith. The parties of the second 
part hereto, and their successors shall, as soon 
as said telescope and o1xser\'atory are con- 
structed, convey the land wdiereupon the same 
may be situated, and the telescope and ob- 
servatory and all the machinery and apparatus 
c(mnected therewith to tjie corporation known 
as 'The Regents of the University of Cali- 
fornia"; and if, after the construction of said 
telescope and observatory, there shall remain 
of said seven hundred thousand dollars in gold 
coin any surplus, the said parties of the sec- 
ond part shall turn over such surplus to said 
corporation, to be invested l)y it in bonds of 
the United States, or of the city and county 
of San Francisco, or other good and safe in- 
terest-bearing lionds, and the income thereof 
shall be devoted to the maintenance of said 
telescope and the observator}- connected 
therewith, and shall he made useful in promot- 
ing science; and the said telescope and ob- 
ser\atory are to be known as 'The Lick Astro- 
nomical Department of the University of Cal- 
ifornia.' " 

In making the new deed Lick selected Mt. 
Hamilton as the site for the oljservatory, and 
the trustees, acting with the Regents of the 
v^tate University, secured an Act of Congress 
setting apart the public land at the summit for 
this purpose. This tract contains 500 acres 
and is so situated as to prevent settlement in 
tlie immediate vicinity of the observator)-, or 
the inauguratidu of any enterprise in that 
neighl")orhood that \\(iuld Ije inimical to the in- 
terests of the institution. 

John B. Felton charged $100,000 for his legal 
services in annulling the first deed, and ])re- 
sented the bill to the new trustees. They re- 
fused to allow the claim until Lick \\'ould sign 
a written authorization. Felton and Trustee 
.Mur|)hy called on Lick and asked him to sign. 
"Air. Felton," said the old philanthropist, 
"w hen we made a C(mtract on which that claim 
is leased, we supposed that to cancel my first 
trust deed would l)e an arduous matter, in- 
Mihing much expense, a long delay and years 
of the most elaborate and expensive litigation. 
The whole entanglement, however, was ad- 
justed in a few months without any difficulty, 
with little outlay and with only a formal liti- 
gation. 1 think, under the changed circum- 
stances, you ought to diminish the amount of 
vour fee." 



"Your proposition, Mr. Lick," replied Feltoii, 
"reminds me of a story 1 once heard about a 
countryman who had a had toothache and 
went to a rustic dentist to ha\e the offender 
extracted. 'IMie tlentist protlnced a rusty set 
of instruments, seated the patient in a ricketv 
chair and went at work. After some hours of 
hard labor for himself, and the most extreme 
agon}- to the ci_iuntryman, the to(.)th was ex- 
tracted and the dentist charged a dollar i^>v 
his work. A few months later the countryman 
had another attack of toothache and this tune 
thought best to procure a metropolitan dentist. 
He went to the city, found the best dentist in 
it and oiTered his swollen jaw for operation. 
The expert dentist passed his hand soothingly 
o\er the man's face, located the tooth with 
painless delicacy, produced a splendid set of 
instruments, and before the countryman knew 
it, had the tooth out. His charge \\as five dol- 
lars. 'Fi\'e dollars!' exclaimed the country- 
man. 'When Jones, down at the. village, pulled 
my last tooth it took three hours, during which 
time he broke his chair, broke my jaw, broke 
his tools and mopped the whole Hour with me 
several times, and he charged me onlv a dollar. 
You ought to diminish your bill.' " Lick saw 
the point, signed the anthorizatinn and Felton 
got his money. 

In 1876 Lick had trouble with his trustees. 
One of the duties Lick wished first performed 
was the erection of his family monument in 
Fredericksburg, Pa. During the arrangement 
for this work the causes for the retirement of 
the second board of trustees arose. (Jne of the 
members of the board was John H. Lick. Al- 
though James Lick had ne\'er been married, 
John H. was his son. He was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1818, about the time James Lick 
made a hurried departure to New York, thence 
to South America. Some years after Lick 
came to California he sent for his son, then 
grown to manhood, and kept him for se\'eral 
years at work in the mahogan}- mill. Plere 
John H. remained until August, 1871, when he 
returned to his Pennsyh'ania home. A\'hen 
James Lick made his first deed of trust he di- 
rected the pa}'ment to his S(jn of $3,000. With 
this pittance John H. was naturally dissatisfied, 
and therefore in the second deed he \vas gi\ en 
the sum of $150,000 and made one of the trus- 
tees. To him, as trustee, was delegated the 
power to contract for the Frederickslnirg mon- 
ument, but for some reason he failed or refused 
to sign the contract. When this fact was made 
known to James Lick he became \'ery much 
incensed against his son, and in the weakness 
of old age he included the \vhoIe board in his 
ill-humor and suddenly demanded the resigna- 
tion of the whole body. The trustees were 
acquiescent and a new board was appointed. 

l^'aptain F^h^yd, ha\ing been in Europe during 
this last trouljle, was not included in the old 
man's wrath, and therefore was made a mem- 
ber ot the new board. 

James Lick died October 1, 1876, before the 
new board had fully organized. He was eighty 
years of age. His body la^^ in state in I'icmeer 
Hall, v^an Francisco, and was followed by an 
immense concourse to I^one Mountain Ceme- 
ter}-, there to rest until a more fitting burial 
place might lie ready for its recepti(jn. Some 
months before his death, in a conversation with 
the late B. D. Murphy of San Jose, Lick ex- 
pressed the desire to lie l.)uried (jn Mt. Hamil- 
ton, either within or at one side of the pro- 
loosed observator}', after the manner of Sir 
Christopher W'ren, the architect of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, who was buried in the crypt in 1723. 

Immediately after the death of his father, 
John H. Lick returned from the East and se- 
cured letters of administration upon the estate. 
This was understood to be the beginning of 
an attempt to annul the trust deed. ;Vfter 
testing se\eral points in the courts, the trus- 
tees finally eft'ected a compromise by which 
the}' were to i)a}- John H. Lick $535,000 in full 
of all claims against the estate. The Society 
of Pioneers and the Academy of Science had 
been made residuary le.gatees b}- the deed and 
their trustees insisted that this payment to 
John H. Lick should be made pro rata from 
each of the bequests. After nearly a year of lit- 
igation the courts decided that the special be- 
(|uests could not be disturbed and that the com- 
|)romise money must come from the shares of 
the residuary legatees. 

As socm as possible after the completion of 
the road to the summit, \york on the buildings 
\\'as commenced. Early in 1887 the work had 
progressed sufficiently to permit the recpiest 
of James Lick in regard to a burial place to be 
complied with, and on the ninth uf lanuarv 
the body was brought to San Jose, whence, 
fnlhAved b}- a procession of officials and citi- 
zens, it was conve}'ed to the mcjuntain. A 
tomb had been prepared in the foundation of 
tlie pier wdiich was to support the great tele- 
scope, and in this, with imposing ceremonies, 
the coffin was deposited. The following docu- 
ment, signed by the trustees and representa- 
ti\'es of the State L'ni\-ersit}-, Acadeni}- of Sci- 
ence, and Pioneers, and the ^Mayor of San lose, 
was sealed up with the casket : 

"This is the body of James Lick, who was 
born in Fredericksburg, Penns}d\ania, August 
25, 1796, and wdio died in San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, October 1, 1876. 

"It has been identified by us, and in our 
])resence has been sealed up and deposited in 
this foundation pier of the great equatorial 
telescope, this ninth of January, 1887. 


"In the year 1875 he executed a deed of trust twelve-inch e(|uaturial telescopes; of detached 

of his entire estate, b}- wdiich he provided for l)uildinL';s to shelter the Crossle}' reflector, the 

the comfort and culture <it the citizens of Call- meridian cu'cle, and other instruments, and to 

fornia; for the advancement of handcraft and ]iro\ide safe dejiosit rooms and photographic 

redecraft among the youth of San Franciscu dark rooms; of instrument sho])s ; of dwelling 

and of the state ; for the development of scien- houses; and of other buildings, reservoirs, 

tilic research and the diftusion of knuwledge pumping stations, etc. 

among men, and frir founding in the State of 'pJTc iirincipal c(|uii)ment i)r(jvided by the 

California an astri)n(imical ol)ser\atiir}-, to sur- I^ick trustees consisted of: A 36dnch ecpia- 

pass all others existing in the ^\-orld at this torial refractor, objective bv Ah-an Clark t\; 

epoch. Sons, mounting liy AVarner & S^\'asey. This 

"This observatory lias been erected l)v the instrument has also a photographic correcting 

trustees of his estate and has been named The lens of thirty-three inches aperture, figured liy 

Lick Astronomical Dejiartment (if the Univer- .\lvan G. Clark, liy idacing the latter lens in 

sity of California in memory of the founder. front of the 36-inch objective, the telescf)pe be- 

The refracting telescope is the largest which comes a photogra])hic instrument. A 12-inch 

has ever lieen constructed, and the astronomers ecpiatorial refractor, objective anrl mounting by 

^vho have tested it declare that, its perform- Alvan Clark & Sons. A ej/^-inch meridian cir- 

ance surjjasses that of all other telescopes. cle instrument, objecti^■e by Ahan Clark iS: 

"The two disks of glass for the objective '"^-'"s, mounting by Repsold. Afany smaller 

were cast by M. Fell," of France, and were telescopes and other jneces of auxdiary appa- 

brought to a true figure by Al\'an Clark & ratus. 

Sons, of Massachusetts. Their diameter is ( )ther imfxirtant instruments were ])resented 
thirty-six inches and their focal length is fifty- to the Lick Observatory in later years, as fol- 
six feet, two inches. LTpon the completion of 1oa\-s : A 3654-inch reflecting telescope, ]"ire- 
this structure the Regents of the University of sented to the I^ick Observatory in 18'^'5 by Ed- 
California became the trustees of this Astro- ward Crosslev, Escp, of Halifax, England. The 
nomical Observatory.'' mirror ^\■as constructed hx vSir Howard (.irubb. 

The members of the third lioard of trustees and the mounting by Dr. A. A. Common. The 

were Richard S. Floyd, president ; ^^■'illiam cost of a building to receive this instrument 

Sherman, vice-president; E. B. Mastick, treas- and the expense of transporting the instrument 

urer ; Charles M. Plum, C.eorge Schoenwald. and iron dome frrxm England were met by snb- 

The contract for the great lens was made scriptions from prominent citizens of Califor- 
with Alvan Clark & Sons, of Cambridge, Mass. nia. A 6'2-inch comet-seeker, objective by 
In 1882 the flint glass was cast by M. Fed & John A. P>rashear, the gift of Miss Catharine 
Sons, of Paris, but it was not until 1885 that a Bruce. A 6-incli photographic telescope, with 
perfect crown glass could be obtained. The c-)bjecti\'e by Willard and mounting by John A. 
Clarks succeeded in obtaining a true figure in Brashear, all the gift of Regent Charles F. 
1886, and on Ihe 27th of 13ecend")er of that ^■ear Crocker. A 5-i